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2009

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

“Make It Happen With Momentum”, Stavros Michailidis Dec 2009

“Make It Happen With Momentum”, Stavros Michailidis

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

The “Make it Happen with Momentum” workshop is a 90 minute interactive experience developed for the 11th Annual European Conference on Creativity and Innovation. It was first presented on October 29, 2009 in Brussels, Belgium by Stavros Michailidis and Donald M. Drost, Phd. The workshop was well received and selected amongst the best workshops of the conference.

The purpose of the workshop is to introduce participants to the Momentum Framework, developed by Stavros Michailidis to diagnose and nurture the successful implementation of creative works. Work to date includes a formula for momentum, a diagnostic tool for assessing momentum and basic ...


Family Choices For The Career Woman In The Twenty-First Century, Gianna M. Koné Dec 2009

Family Choices For The Career Woman In The Twenty-First Century, Gianna M. Koné

Theses and Graduate Projects

This study poses the question, "ls it possible for the twenty-first century woman to successfully integrate career and family, and if so, how?" Feminine identity, role, and fulfillment are changing and continue to transform in modern society. Today the twenty-first century woman struggles to integrate career, family, and home successfully while understanding the passion or driving force in her life. This research explores gender roles in order to understand, update, and find order in a chaotic world. Feminist thought and chaos theory are examined to see whether or not it is possible to integrate family and career in the new ...


Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy Dec 2009

Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

From the psychotherapy outcome literature, many have inferred that either theory-specific techniques or interventions common to all therapies are what produce symptom change. However, such conclusions are premature because (a) too few direct tests have been conducted of how variation in the levels of either specific or common factor interventions relate to outcome, (b) those prior investigations of specific and common factors and outcome have often been limited to examining linear relations between intervention use and outcome when curvilinear functions might better model their association, and (c) most studies of psychotherapy and outcome have failed to consider how interventions specific ...


Executive Incentives And Corporate Decisions: The Risk Management Channel, Jeremy O. Skog Dec 2009

Executive Incentives And Corporate Decisions: The Risk Management Channel, Jeremy O. Skog

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This paper provides evidence that insurance executives respond to their compensation incentives by adjusting observable risk-management policy variables – the reinsurance purchase decision, type of business conducted, and firm leverage. Executive incentives are modeled by the executive sensitivity of wealth to stock price (Delta) and stock volatility (Vega). Firms respond to increased executive incentives to bear risk by purchasing less reinsurance, but also conducting less business in long-tailed lines – a change which rewards the executive through increased market volatility. The cost of altering executive incentives to effect firm policy is much less than a similar change in firm structural variables.


Unpacking The Impact Of Restorative Justice In The Rise Experiments: Facilitators, Offenders, And Conference Non-Delivery, Daniel J. Woods Dec 2009

Unpacking The Impact Of Restorative Justice In The Rise Experiments: Facilitators, Offenders, And Conference Non-Delivery, Daniel J. Woods

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Restorative Justice (RJ) programs are often evaluated in terms of their outcomes, with little attention to the process. Typically we analyze average effects across individuals who experience RJ differently. The present dissertation unpacks these different effects in three separate inquiries utilizing data from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) conducted in Canberra, Australia from 1995 - 2000.

First, we descriptively assess the extent RJ conference facilitators engender perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy in offenders. We examine the number of conferences delivered (experience), sequential conferences (practice-makes-perfect) and the timing between conferences (skill maintenance). Certain conference facilitators are better than others from the ...


Dialect Boundaries And Phonological Change In Upstate New York, Aaron J. Dinkin Dec 2009

Dialect Boundaries And Phonological Change In Upstate New York, Aaron J. Dinkin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The eastern half of New York State is a dialectologically diverse region around which several dialect regions converge—the Inland North, New York City, Western New England, and Canada. These regions differ with respect to major parameters of North American English phonological variation; and therefore the interface between them is of interest because the location and structure of their boundaries can illuminate constraints on phonological changes and their geographic diffusion. In this dissertation, interviews with 119 speakers in New York State are conducted and phonetically analyzed in order to determine the dialect geography of this region in detail.

The sampled ...


The Permeability Of Dialect Boundaries: A Case Study Of The Region Surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania, Keelan Evanini Dec 2009

The Permeability Of Dialect Boundaries: A Case Study Of The Region Surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania, Keelan Evanini

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation presents a dialectological study of the city of Erie, Pennsylvania, and the neighboring towns in the boundary area between the North and Midland dialect regions. The field work conducted for this dissertation consists of interviews, word lists, minimal pair tests, and grammatical acceptability judgments. In total, data from 106 speakers was analyzed to determine the course of linguistic change in the city of Erie and the current location of the dialect boundaries in the neighboring regions. In order to process the acoustic data from this large corpus, the methodology of transcription and subsequent forced alignment was applied. In ...


Suspect Until Proven Guilty, A Problematization Of State Dossier Systems Via Two Case Studies: The United States And China, Kenneth N. Farrall Dec 2009

Suspect Until Proven Guilty, A Problematization Of State Dossier Systems Via Two Case Studies: The United States And China, Kenneth N. Farrall

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation problematizes the "state dossier system" (SDS): the production and accumulation of personal information on citizen subjects exceeding the reasonable bounds of risk management. SDS - comprising interconnecting subsystems of records and identification - damage individual autonomy and self-determination, impacting not only human rights, but also the viability of the social system. The research, a hybrid of case-study and cross-national comparison, was guided in part by a theoretical model of four primary SDS driving forces: technology, political economy, law and public sentiment. Data sources included government documents, academic texts, investigative journalism, NGO reports and industry white papers. The primary analytical instrument ...


Language Shift And The Speech Community: Sociolinguistic Change In A Garifuna Community In Belize, Maya Ravindranath Dec 2009

Language Shift And The Speech Community: Sociolinguistic Change In A Garifuna Community In Belize, Maya Ravindranath

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Language shift is the process by which a speech community in a contact situation (i.e. consisting of bilingual speakers) gradually stops using one of its two languages in favor of the other. The causal factors of language shift are generally considered to be social, and researchers have focused on speakers’ attitudes (both explicit and unstated) toward a language and domains of language use in the community, as well as other macro social factors. Additional research has focused on the effects of language shift, generally on the (changing) structure of the language itself. The goal of this thesis is to ...


Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow Dec 2009

Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study seeks to determine the effects of the local uninsurance rate on the quality of care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries. While a great deal of research exists on the negative consequences of uninsurance for the uninsured, few studies have attempted to address the spillover effects of this population to the health care system in a local market. Theory suggests that a high local uninsurance rate in a market has the potential to cause a decrease in the shared quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. It also suggests however that a higher uninsurance rate may result in increases in ...


Mitigating And Preparing For Disasters: A Survey Of Memphis Organizations, Abdul-Akeem Ademola Sadiq Dec 2009

Mitigating And Preparing For Disasters: A Survey Of Memphis Organizations, Abdul-Akeem Ademola Sadiq

Public Management and Policy Dissertations

Disaster researchers have established the determinants of preparedness and mitigation at the household level of analysis. However, at the organizational level, there is limited research and no theory to guide research on the determinants of preparedness and mitigation. The main goal of this study is to answer the question "what are the determinants of mitigation and preparedness at the organizational level?" The data come from a survey of 227 organizations in Memphis, Tennessee. This study uses Tobit regression technique to identify the determinants. This study finds that organizational size and concern over disaster impact are strong positive determinants of mitigation ...


Uses And Nonuses Of Patented Inventions, Taehyun Jung Dec 2009

Uses And Nonuses Of Patented Inventions, Taehyun Jung

Public Management and Policy Dissertations

Innovation comprises the processes of invention and commercialization. While the importance of innovation, especially commercialization, has been widely recognized, existing studies have largely overlooked the commercialization process. By examining the determinants of uses and nonuses of patented inventions from firms at the levels of technology, organization, and project/invention, this study attempts to help fill a critical gap in the literature. In doing so, it enriches theoretical understandings of innovation and, in particular, builds on the evolutionary explanation of technology development, the Teecian framework on profiting from innovation, Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), the Knowledge-Based View (KBV), and open innovation and ...


A Comparative Content Analysis Of Televised Political Advertising In The United States And Canada In 2004 And 2008., Jessica A. Mahone Dec 2009

A Comparative Content Analysis Of Televised Political Advertising In The United States And Canada In 2004 And 2008., Jessica A. Mahone

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Analyzing 195 televised political ads from the United States and Canada in 2004 and 2008, this research studies the use of issue and image ads and the attack, acclaim, and contrast function of ads in presidential and federal elections. Results indicate that there is no statistical difference in the use of issue or image ads and no statistical difference in the function of ads in both nations in 2004 and 2008. Issue ads are found to be more commonly used in Canada than in the United States, but there is no statistical difference in the use of acclaim ads between ...


Evaluating The School Performance Of Elementary And Middle School Children Of Incarcerated Parents., Melissa F. Neal Dec 2009

Evaluating The School Performance Of Elementary And Middle School Children Of Incarcerated Parents., Melissa F. Neal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children of incarcerated parents are at significantly increased risk of negative long-term outcomes. With about 1% of the adult population incarcerated, the United States has millions of children at risk for these negative outcomes. Research on this population is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether children of incarcerated parents are at an increased risk for poor school performance as a specific result of parental incarceration above that associated with their social and economic status. Because parental incarceration may result in a variety of outcomes that can negatively impact school performance including school mobility, prolonged exposure to stress, and insufficient ...


Initial Development Of The Sex Offender Attitude Scale., Brandon Coy Bogle Dec 2009

Initial Development Of The Sex Offender Attitude Scale., Brandon Coy Bogle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As long as the public maintains staunch and unwarranted negative attitudes toward sex offenders, little hope remains for released sex offenders to successfully reintegrate into society. Therefore, it is in the interest of society that we understand the nature of views of sex offenders so that attempts can be made to promote maximal reintegration and preventing recidivism. To date no valid psychometric instrument exists that measures attitudes toward sex offenders. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop such an instrument that will accurately measure stigma associated with sex offenders. Unrotated Prinicipal Components Factor Analysis revealed a single interpretable ...


Effects Of Anxiety Reducing Interventions On Performance Anxiety In Graduate Nurses., Georgita Tolbert Washington Dec 2009

Effects Of Anxiety Reducing Interventions On Performance Anxiety In Graduate Nurses., Georgita Tolbert Washington

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Every new nursing graduate is challenged to successfully transition from student to professional nurse. The stress involved in that transition can manifest itself as performance anxiety, a type of anxiety occurring when someone is the focus of attention and is fearful of interactions or of being humiliated or embarrassed. It occurs only in specific situations. The new graduate's performance is the focus of attention and evaluation. Further, the need to interact with other professionals, patients, and families can create anxiety about performance. No studies have examined performance anxiety in graduate nurses.

Use of cognitive behavioral therapy, progressive muscle relaxation ...


Teachers' And Students' Perceptions About The Roles Of School Resource Officers In Maintaining School Safety., Sarah Rippetoe Dec 2009

Teachers' And Students' Perceptions About The Roles Of School Resource Officers In Maintaining School Safety., Sarah Rippetoe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

According to the National Association of School Resource Officers (2009), every state in the nation employs school resource officers. The trend, which began in 1991, was initially funded by federal monies. Since that time, school resource officers have remained in schools, gaining popularity as a proactive strategy in fighting against school violence. The purpose of the study was to examine students' and teachers' perceptions regarding school resource officers' performance related to the 3 dimensions of their responsibilities: maintaining a safe environment, enforcing the law, and teaching. Data were gathered from 104 teachers and 272 students from a middle school and ...


Year-Round School Calendars Versus Traditional School Calendars: Parents' And Teachers' Opinions., Jennifer Y. Rule Dec 2009

Year-Round School Calendars Versus Traditional School Calendars: Parents' And Teachers' Opinions., Jennifer Y. Rule

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference of opinions of teachers and parents of students who attend year-round calendar schools from those of teachers and parents of students who attend traditional calendar schools. A random sampling was taken from teachers and parents from schools in both Blount and Sevier Counties. The surveys were given to teachers who worked in a traditional school setting, teachers who worked in the year-round school setting, parents who had children attending a traditional school, and parents who had children attending a year-round school. A 3-point scale was used on ...


Psychosocial Concerns And Childhood Overweight In Pediatric Primary Care Clinics Serving Rural Appalachia., Suzanne Allen Dec 2009

Psychosocial Concerns And Childhood Overweight In Pediatric Primary Care Clinics Serving Rural Appalachia., Suzanne Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To examine the prevalence of psychosocial concerns presenting in 3 pediatric primary care clinics serving rural Appalachia. The association between pediatric weight status and psychosocial concerns was examined. Methods: Caregivers of children presenting in one of 3 pediatric primary care facilities completed a demographic questionnaire and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results: Approximately 21.4% of children were identified as having a clinically significant behavioral health concern. Among children with available weight status data, ~53% of the children were identified as overweight. Children identified having significant behavioral concerns were more likely to have a lower weight status than those with ...


Positive Psychological And Religious Characteristics As Moderators Of Negative Life Events And Depressive Symptoms: A Multiethnic Comparison., Preston Lee Visser Dec 2009

Positive Psychological And Religious Characteristics As Moderators Of Negative Life Events And Depressive Symptoms: A Multiethnic Comparison., Preston Lee Visser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hope, optimism, and several markers of religiosity and spirituality were examined as potential moderators of the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms in a secondary data analysis of an ethnically diverse sample. Participants (267 female, 119 male) were college students enrolled at an urban Northeastern university. It was hypothesized that negative life events would be associated with increased depressive symptoms and that higher levels of hope, optimism, and religious and spiritual variables would attenuate this relationship. Ethnically-stratified moderation analyses were conducted to assess for differences in moderation between Blacks, Hispanics, Whites, and Asians. Hypotheses were generally supported, with ...


The Role Of Self-Efficacy, Family Support, Family Affection, And Family Conflict On Adolescent Academic Performance., Christine L. Pearson Dec 2009

The Role Of Self-Efficacy, Family Support, Family Affection, And Family Conflict On Adolescent Academic Performance., Christine L. Pearson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Department of Education funded this study as a part of a larger longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the role of family environment factors and academic performance among adolescents. The participants included 685 middle school adolescents from rural and semirural public schools. Family environment factors were gathered using the Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981) and included family conflict, family support, and showing affection. Standardized test scores across 4 domains and final course grades across 4 domains were collapsed and used as measures of academic performance. The moderating relationship between support, conflict, and academic performance was examined. The ...


Perceptions Of Interprofessional Communication: Causes And Effects On Patient Care, Occupational Stress, And Job Satisfaction., Stacey Quillen Deshkulkarni Dec 2009

Perceptions Of Interprofessional Communication: Causes And Effects On Patient Care, Occupational Stress, And Job Satisfaction., Stacey Quillen Deshkulkarni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Poor interprofessional communication has been linked to decreased quality of patient care and increased numbers of medical errors. Increased occupational stress due to lack of effective interprofessional communication can lead to poor job satisfaction and burnout. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to interprofessional communication as perceived by radiologic technologists. In particular, how did demographic data influence these perceptions? The research was conducted during June of 2009. The population for this survey consisted of registered radiologic technologists employed at hospitals in Northeast Tennessee. A survey questionnaire covering the subject of interprofessional communication was distributed to a cluster ...


Psychometrics Of The Missouri Student Survey: Examining Validity, Reliability And Consent, Susan Marie Depue Dec 2009

Psychometrics Of The Missouri Student Survey: Examining Validity, Reliability And Consent, Susan Marie Depue

Dissertations

Risk and protective factors for adolescent drug and alcohol abuse have gained prominence in the prevention field as a framework for prevention. Communities that Care® is the original survey that collected data on risk and protective factors in the adolescent community. The Missouri Student Survey is based upon the Communities that Care® survey and is administered to students across the state of Missouri every two years. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Missouri Student Survey in a sample of 126,923 students from across the state of Missouri. In addition, this study also considers the question of ...


Transparency And City Government Communications, Jennalande Oswald Dec 2009

Transparency And City Government Communications, Jennalande Oswald

Theses and Dissertations

This study expresses the need for a communications model created specifically for government communications that is centered on the concept of transparency. However, it also recognizes the previous research done pertaining to government communications and public relations. Importantly, the study recognizes the lack of trust in American government at city, state and federal levels and the need to improve trust, which is very closely related to transparency. The study focuses primarily on a model created in 2007 called the three-dimensional model for government communications. The model has four parts: the base of the model is the need to value transparency ...


Family Separation And Changes In Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescent Latino Youth: Examining The Mediating Role Of Family Relationships, Lawrence Duane House Dec 2009

Family Separation And Changes In Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescent Latino Youth: Examining The Mediating Role Of Family Relationships, Lawrence Duane House

Psychology Dissertations

This longitudinal study examines whether family processes (family cohesion and family conflict) mediate the relationship between family separation experiences and the development of peer relationships (quality and conflict). The study includes a sample of 199 early adolescent Latinos from immigrant families. Family conflict mediated the relationship between separation experiences from fathers and peer conflict at year 1 but not year 2 such that more separation from father was associated with higher family conflict and higher peer conflict at year 1. Family cohesion did not mediate associations between mother or father separation and peer relationship outcomes. Family cohesion predicted more positive ...


Lucy Diggs Slowe, Howard University Dean Of Women, 1922-1937: Educator, Administrator, Activist, Lisa R. Rasheed Dec 2009

Lucy Diggs Slowe, Howard University Dean Of Women, 1922-1937: Educator, Administrator, Activist, Lisa R. Rasheed

Educational Policy Studies Dissertations

ABSTRACT LUCY DIGGS SLOWE, HOWARD UNIVERSITY DEAN OF WOMEN, 1922-1937: EDUCATOR, ADMINISTRATOR, ACTIVIST by Lisa R. Rasheed Within the last twenty years, some educational researchers initiated an emphasis to study the accomplishments and contributions of African-American women in higher education. Although they were marginally recognized, some African-American women forged into uncharted territories by providing examples of administrative leadership in post-secondary settings. Their triumphs and failures have gone unnoticed, leaving a vacant space in the chronicles of history in higher education. Little is know about one African-American woman, as an administrator at a co-educational institution in terms of her vision about ...


Division Of Household Labor: Changes Over The Course Of The Marital Relationship, Christopher W. Matteson Dec 2009

Division Of Household Labor: Changes Over The Course Of The Marital Relationship, Christopher W. Matteson

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has established the influence of the division of household labor between spouses on marital satisfaction, as well as the mental health of each spouse. Less is known about how the division of labor changes during the course of marriage. The family development perspective suggests that division of labor will change in response to different stages and circumstances, while the homeostasis perspective suggests that the division of labor will remain stable throughout the life course. This study used data from a 35 year longitudinal study of married women to examine changes of household division of labor over the life ...


The Reduction Of Anti-Gay Bias Through Interpersonal Contact: The Moderating Roles Of Hiv Stigma And Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice., Lisa Ann Elliott Dec 2009

The Reduction Of Anti-Gay Bias Through Interpersonal Contact: The Moderating Roles Of Hiv Stigma And Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice., Lisa Ann Elliott

Psychology Theses

The intergroup contact effect is well-documented in the research literature (for a meta-analysis see Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Although researchers have identified a few moderators of the contact effect, the constraints under which the contact effect is optimally effective are not well understood. The current research explored two individual difference measures related to anti-gay attitudes, AIDS stigma and motivation to respond without prejudice (internal and external motivation), as potential moderators of the contact effect on heterosexual men’s attitudes towards gay men. Results indicated that increased external motivation and AIDS stigma hinder the benefits of contact for anti-gay attitudes. Implications of ...


Antisymmetry And The Conservation Of C-Command: Scrambling And Phrase Structure In Synchronic And Diachronic Perspective, Joel C. Wallenberg Dec 2009

Antisymmetry And The Conservation Of C-Command: Scrambling And Phrase Structure In Synchronic And Diachronic Perspective, Joel C. Wallenberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Holmberg’s Generalization (Holmberg 1986) was originally stated to describe the “object shift” phenomena found in the modern Scandinavian languages. This dissertation argues that object shift is merely a subcase of scrambling, a type of adjunction, and that Holmberg’s Generalization is a subcase of a universal constraint, the “Generalized Holmberg Constraint” (GHC), which prohibits leftward scrambling across c-commanding functional heads. The existence of such a constraint turns out to have ramifications far beyond the analysis of scrambling itself, and the predictions it makes ultimately form an extended argument in favor of a universal antisymmetric approach to phrase structure (Kayne ...


Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Dec 2009

Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Most research investigating vocal expressions of emotion has focused on one or more of three questions: whether there exist unique acoustic profiles of individual encoded emotions, whether the nature of emotion expression is universal across cultures, and how accurately decoders can identify expressed emotions. This dissertation begins to answer a fourth question, whether there exist unique patterns in the types of acoustic properties persons focus on to identify vocalized emotions. Three hypotheses were tested: first, whether acoustic patterns are interpreted idiographically or nomothetically as reflected in a comparison of individual vs. group lens model identification ratios; second, whether there exists ...