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2009

Psychology Faculty Publications

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Articles 1 - 30 of 71

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The First Anniversary: Stress, Well-Being, And Optimism In Older Widows, Mary E. Minton, Melody Hertzog, Cecilia R. Barron, Jeffrey French, Roni Reiter-Palmon Dec 2009

The First Anniversary: Stress, Well-Being, And Optimism In Older Widows, Mary E. Minton, Melody Hertzog, Cecilia R. Barron, Jeffrey French, Roni Reiter-Palmon

Psychology Faculty Publications

The first anniversary for older widows (n = 47) has been explored during Months 11, 12, and 13. Concurrent correlations show that optimism inversely correlates with psychological (intrusion and avoidance) stress as measured with the Impact of Event Scale (r = —.52 to —.66, p < .005) and positively correlates with well-being (physical: r = .36 to .46, p < .025; psychosocial: r = .58 to .72, p < .005; spiritual: r = .50 to .69, p < .005). Lagged correlation patterns suggest that higher levels of optimism at a given time are associated with higher life satisfaction and spiritual well-being at later times. Psychological stress is higher at Month 12 when compared to Month 13, t(43) = 2.54, p = .01, but not when compared to Month 11, t(43) = 1.49, p > .10. There are no significant differences in physiologic stress (salivary cortisol) or well-being during the first anniversary of spousal bereavement.


Systems Of Care And The Prevention Of Mental Health Problems For Children And Their Families: Integrating Counseling Psychology And Public Health Perspectives, Melissa L. Whitson, Stanley N. Bernard, Joy S. Kaufman Nov 2009

Systems Of Care And The Prevention Of Mental Health Problems For Children And Their Families: Integrating Counseling Psychology And Public Health Perspectives, Melissa L. Whitson, Stanley N. Bernard, Joy S. Kaufman

Psychology Faculty Publications

The purpose of this paper is to present systems of care as an example of how counseling psychology and public health overlap with regards to prevention and intervention approaches for children's mental health. A framework for prevention is presented as is the state of children's mental health promotion, with a particular focus on ecological and systemic approaches to children's mental health and how these approaches cut across multiple perspectives. Systems of care are highlighted as an example of the congruence of prevention and ecological or systemic approaches to address the mental health promotion of children and their ...


Stability, Change, And Heritability Of Borderline Personality Disorder Traits From Adolescence To Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin Study, Marina Bornovalova, Brian M Hicks, William G Iacono, Matt Mcgue Nov 2009

Stability, Change, And Heritability Of Borderline Personality Disorder Traits From Adolescence To Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin Study, Marina Bornovalova, Brian M Hicks, William G Iacono, Matt Mcgue

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although personality disorders are best understood in the context of lifetime development, there is a paucity of work examining their longitudinal trajectory. An understanding of the expected course and the genetic and environmental contributions to these disorders is necessary for a detailed understanding of risk processes that lead to their manifestation. The current study examined the longitudinal course and heritability of borderline personality disorder (BPD) over a period of 10 years starting in adolescence (age 14) and ending in adulthood (age 24). In doing so, we built on existing research by using a large community sample of adolescent female twins ...


Social Science In A Water Observing System, John B. Braden, Daniel G. Brown, Jeff Dozier, Patricia Gober, Sara M. Hughes, David R. Maidment, Sandra L. Schneider, P. Wesley Schultz, James S. Shortle, Stephen K. Swallow, Carol M. Werner Nov 2009

Social Science In A Water Observing System, John B. Braden, Daniel G. Brown, Jeff Dozier, Patricia Gober, Sara M. Hughes, David R. Maidment, Sandra L. Schneider, P. Wesley Schultz, James S. Shortle, Stephen K. Swallow, Carol M. Werner

Psychology Faculty Publications

We set forth an argument for the integration of social science research with natural science and engineering research in major research infrastructure investments addressing water science. A program of integrated observation of water resources offers great opportunities to address several environmental “grand challenges” identified by the National Research Council, including climate variability, institutions and resource use, and land use dynamics, and their importance for hydrologic forecasting. We argue that such a program has the potential to advance both water science and the contributing disciplines. However, to realize this potential, it is essential to recognize that social science requires critical infrastructure ...


Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci For Feed Consumption And Feeding Behaviors In A White Duroc × Chinese Erhualian Resource Population, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Ren, Dongren Ren, J. W. Ma, Y. M. Guo, L. S. Huang Nov 2009

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci For Feed Consumption And Feeding Behaviors In A White Duroc × Chinese Erhualian Resource Population, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Ren, Dongren Ren, J. W. Ma, Y. M. Guo, L. S. Huang

Psychology Faculty Publications

To identify QTL for feed consumption and feeding behavior traits in pigs, ADFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), number of visits to the feeder per day (NVD), and average feeding rate (AFR) were recorded in 577 F2 animals from a White Duroc × Chinese Erhualian resource population during the fattening period of 120 to 240 d. A whole genome scan was performed with 183 microsatellites covering the pig genome across the entire resource population. A total of 8 QTL were identified on 5 pig chromosomes, including 3 genome-wide significant QTL for FCR on SSC2, 7, and 9, 1 significant QTL for ...


Reactivity And Distortions In The Self: Narcissism, Types Of Aggression, And The Functioning Of The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis During Early Adolescence, William M. Bukowski, Alex Schwartzman, Jonathan Bruce Santo, Catherine Bagwell, Ryan Adams Nov 2009

Reactivity And Distortions In The Self: Narcissism, Types Of Aggression, And The Functioning Of The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis During Early Adolescence, William M. Bukowski, Alex Schwartzman, Jonathan Bruce Santo, Catherine Bagwell, Ryan Adams

Psychology Faculty Publications

A multisample, multistudy project aimed at understanding how individual differences in narcissism during early adolescence are related to distortions in the aggression, and the reactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis to negative and positive experiences. The findings indicate that individual differences in narcissism are a remarkably stable aspect of personality during early adolescence. It is predictably related to an inflated view of the self that is not warranted by objective indices of social functioning. Further evidence shows that it promotes the continuity of aggressive behavior and is more strongly related to reactive aggression than to proactive aggression and more ...


Conscientiousness Is Not Always A Good Predictor Of Performance: The Case Of Creativity, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Jody J. Illies, Lisa M. Kobe-Cross Oct 2009

Conscientiousness Is Not Always A Good Predictor Of Performance: The Case Of Creativity, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Jody J. Illies, Lisa M. Kobe-Cross

Psychology Faculty Publications

Meta-analyses investigating the relationship between Conscientiousness and performance suggest a positive relationship for a variety of criteria. However, recently it has been argued that Conscientiousness is not always a good predictor of performance, particularly for creative performance. Additionally, it has been suggested that Conscientiousness includes two distinct components, achievement and dependability, which may have different relationships with criterion measures. Two studies were conducted to determine whether the components of Conscientiousness predict creativity better than the full factor. Students in each study completed a measure of the Five Factor Model and a measure of creative performance. In the first study, creative ...


Stimulus Type, Level Of Categorization, And Spatial-Frequencies Utilization: Implications For Perceptual Categorization Hierarchies, Assaf Harel, Shlomo Bentin Aug 2009

Stimulus Type, Level Of Categorization, And Spatial-Frequencies Utilization: Implications For Perceptual Categorization Hierarchies, Assaf Harel, Shlomo Bentin

Psychology Faculty Publications

The type of visual information needed for categorizing faces and nonface objects was investigated by manipulating spatial frequency scales available in the image during a category verification task addressing basic and subordinate levels. Spatial filtering had opposite effects on faces and airplanes that were modulated by categorization level. The absence of low frequencies impaired the categorization of faces similarly at both levels, whereas the absence of high frequencies was inconsequential throughout. In contrast, basic-level categorization of airplanes was equally impaired by the absence of either low or high frequencies, whereas at the subordinate level, the absence of high frequencies had ...


Testing Gender Effects On The Mechanisms Explaining The Association Between Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms And Substance Use Frequency, Marina Bornovalova, Paige Ouimette, Aaron V Crawford, Roy Levy Aug 2009

Testing Gender Effects On The Mechanisms Explaining The Association Between Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms And Substance Use Frequency, Marina Bornovalova, Paige Ouimette, Aaron V Crawford, Roy Levy

Psychology Faculty Publications

The present study examines gender differences in the mechanisms that explain the association between PTSD symptoms and substance use frequency in a sample of 182 urban substance users. Specifically, the current study examined gender differences in the role of two potential explanatory variables, namely, difficulties controlling impulsive behavior when distressed (IMP), and a lack of emotional awareness and clarity (AW/CLAR). Multiple-group path modeling (across males and females) was used to examine gender differences in the path coefficients from PTSD symptoms to IMP and AW/CLAR, and from these latter variables to drug use frequency. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms ...


Microsatellite-Based Genetic Diversity And Evolutionary Relationships Of Six Dog Breeds, J.-H. Ye, Dongren Ren, A.-F. Xie, X.-P. Wu, L. Xu, P.-F. Fu, H.-A. Zhao, Q.-Y. Yang Aug 2009

Microsatellite-Based Genetic Diversity And Evolutionary Relationships Of Six Dog Breeds, J.-H. Ye, Dongren Ren, A.-F. Xie, X.-P. Wu, L. Xu, P.-F. Fu, H.-A. Zhao, Q.-Y. Yang

Psychology Faculty Publications

The Tibetan Mastiff is one of the most archaic, ferocious and the largest dogs in the world. The Kunming dog is the chief working-dog breed in China. In this study, ten microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships in six dog breeds, including Tibetan Mastiff, Kunming dog, Belgian Malinois, Labrador Retriever, English Springer Spaniel, and German Shepherd. The highest genetic diversity was exhibited by the Tibetan Mastiff, indicating useful protection and little inbreeding in the modern Tibetan Mastiff. Higher genetic diversity was observed in European breeds, supporting the hypotheses that breeders outcross their pure breed ...


Far From Home: A Qualitative Analysis Of Altered Social And Familial Interactions By Students Attending College Significant Distances From Home, Michael W. Firmin, Courtney B. Johnson, Stephanie Yoder Basham Jul 2009

Far From Home: A Qualitative Analysis Of Altered Social And Familial Interactions By Students Attending College Significant Distances From Home, Michael W. Firmin, Courtney B. Johnson, Stephanie Yoder Basham

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study explored the necessary modifications for students’ relationships with their home contexts (social and familial) as they acclimated to college life. We specifically targeted students living over 1,000 miles from their present school setting. Thirty undergraduate students at a private Midwest university participated in this qualitative phenomenological research study through semistructured interviews. While numerous dynamics surfaced, repeated themes included feelings of homesickness, desiring to go home, weakening of peer relationships established at home, and gradual strengthening of familial relationships.


Euthanasia-Related Strain And Coping Strategies In Animal Shelter Employees, Benjamin E. Baran, Joseph A. Allen, Steven G. Rogelberg, Christiane Spitzmüller, Natalie A. Digiacomo, Jennifer B. Webb, Nathan T. Carter, Olga L. Clark, Lisa A. Teeter, Alan G. Walker Jul 2009

Euthanasia-Related Strain And Coping Strategies In Animal Shelter Employees, Benjamin E. Baran, Joseph A. Allen, Steven G. Rogelberg, Christiane Spitzmüller, Natalie A. Digiacomo, Jennifer B. Webb, Nathan T. Carter, Olga L. Clark, Lisa A. Teeter, Alan G. Walker

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective—To identify and evaluate coping strategies advocated by experienced animal shelter workers who directly engaged in euthanizing animals.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—Animal shelters across the United States in which euthanasia was conducted (5 to 100 employees/shelter).

Procedures—With the assistance of experts associated with the Humane Society of the United States, the authors identified 88 animal shelters throughout the United States in which animal euthanasia was actively conducted and for which contact information regarding the shelter director was available. Staff at 62 animal shelters agreed to participate in the survey. Survey packets were mailed to the ...


Long-Term Effects Of Parents' Education On Children's Educational And Occupational Success Mediation By Family Interactions, Child Aggression, And Teenage Aspirations, Eric F. Dubow, Paul Boxer, L. Rowell Husemann Jul 2009

Long-Term Effects Of Parents' Education On Children's Educational And Occupational Success Mediation By Family Interactions, Child Aggression, And Teenage Aspirations, Eric F. Dubow, Paul Boxer, L. Rowell Husemann

Psychology Faculty Publications

We examine the prediction of individuals' educational and occupational success at age 48 from contextual and personal variables assessed during their middle childhood and late adolescence. We focus particularly on the predictive role of the parents' educational level during middle childhood, controlling for other indices of socioeconomic status and children's IQ, and the mediating roles of negative family interactions, childhood behavior, and late adolescent aspirations. Data come from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, which began in 1960 when all 856 third graders in a semirural county in New York State were interviewed along with their parents; participants were reinterviewed ...


Treatment Of Monozygotic Twins With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy And Exposure With Ritual Prevention, Michael P. Twohig, Maureen L. Whittal, Katherine A. Peterson Jun 2009

Treatment Of Monozygotic Twins With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy And Exposure With Ritual Prevention, Michael P. Twohig, Maureen L. Whittal, Katherine A. Peterson

Psychology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Assessment and treatment of cohabiting monozygotic (MZ) twins with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a possible challenge for clinical psychologists. AIMS: This study aims to present a detailed history of two sets of cohabiting MZ twins with OCD, and describe the adaption of cognitive behavior therapy in their treatments. METHOD: Two sets of cohabiting MZ twins completed a structured intake and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as well as measures of depression, anxiety, a measure of obsessive beliefs, and thought action fusion. One set received cognitive behavior therapy and exposure with ritual prevention (ERP) simultaneously and the other ...


Ethics-A Bridge For Communities And Scientists: A Curriculum For Community Outreach And Education, Ann Freeman Cook, Helena Hoas May 2009

Ethics-A Bridge For Communities And Scientists: A Curriculum For Community Outreach And Education, Ann Freeman Cook, Helena Hoas

Psychology Faculty Publications

The Ethics - A Bridge for Communities and Scientists (E-ABCs) project was conducted in the community of Libby, Montana where it examined the ethical, legal, and social implications of asbestos contamination. The project was designed to explore how an awareness of ethics can support and enrich community dialogue and inform decision-making.

During the six year funding cycle for this project, a number of efforts were undertaken in order to provide resources for Libby residents who have diverse and changing needs and interests. The lessons learned from these efforts are reflected throughout the website and are summarized in the manual entitled, Ethics ...


Review Of Creative Leadership: Skills That Drive Change, Greg C. Ashley, Roni Reiter-Palmon May 2009

Review Of Creative Leadership: Skills That Drive Change, Greg C. Ashley, Roni Reiter-Palmon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Reviews the book, "Creative leadership: Skills that drive change" by Gerard J. Puccio, Mary C. Murdock, and Marie Mance (2007). The introduction and opening chapter provide the overarching theme of the book, which is to connect the constructs of creativity and leadership and to make a case why the two go hand-in-hand. Both constructs involve dealing with change. The main focus of the book is the creative problem solving (CPS) approach to generating optimal problem solutions. Much of the book is spent illustrating the benefits of applying divergent and convergent thinking skills to each of the six process steps in ...


Creativity And Domain Specificity: The Effect Of Task Type On Multiple Indexes Of Creative Problem-Solving, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Marcy Young Illies, Toleo, Infousa, Oriental Trading Co. May 2009

Creativity And Domain Specificity: The Effect Of Task Type On Multiple Indexes Of Creative Problem-Solving, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Marcy Young Illies, Toleo, Infousa, Oriental Trading Co.

Psychology Faculty Publications

The study addresses the issue of domain specificity within creativity by understanding the characteristics of creative tasks and how participants react to the task. One hundred and eighty seven participants were given one of three realistic everyday problems to solve. The problems differed in terms of complexity, involvement, and problem-based efficacy. Problem solutions were evaluated on several measures of creativity. Results indicate that creativity was influenced by the type of problem solved and the measure of creativity used to evaluate the solution. Further, these results were obtained after controlling for the effect of ability. Results imply that not all real-world ...


What Makes Women Tired? A Community Sample, Donna E. Stewart, Susan Abbey, Marta Meana, Katherine M. Boydell Apr 2009

What Makes Women Tired? A Community Sample, Donna E. Stewart, Susan Abbey, Marta Meana, Katherine M. Boydell

Psychology Faculty Publications

We aimed to determine the major health concerns or problems of women and their personal attributions for the causes of their primary health concerns. We used a survey of women from the Toronto area attending a women's health symposium. Completed questionnaires were returned by 153 (85%) of 180 women attendees. Persistent fatigue was the primary and most commonly cited health concern. Fatigue was ranked first by 42 (27.5%) women and among the top 10 concerns by 123 (80.4%) women. Women attributed their fatigue to a combination of home and outside work (63.4%), poor sleep (38.2 ...


Applications Of Multiple Regression In Psychological Research, Razia Azen, David Budescu Apr 2009

Applications Of Multiple Regression In Psychological Research, Razia Azen, David Budescu

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Does Unconscious Thought Outperform Conscious Thought On Complex Decisions? A Further Examination, Scott Andrew Withrow, Todd J. Thorsteinson Apr 2009

Does Unconscious Thought Outperform Conscious Thought On Complex Decisions? A Further Examination, Scott Andrew Withrow, Todd J. Thorsteinson

Psychology Faculty Publications

Two experiments examined the benefits of unconscious thought on complex decisions (Dijksterhuis, 2004). Experiment 1 attempted to replicate and extend past research by examining the effect of providing reasons prior to rating the options. Results indicated no significant differences between the conditions. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate the findings of Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, and van Baaren (2006) and determine if a memory aid could overcome the limitations of conscious thought on complex tasks. Results revealed that a memory aid improved decisions compared to the conscious thought condition. Participants in the unconscious thought condition did not perform significantly better than did ...


Problem Identification And Construction: What Do We Know, What Is The Future?, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Erika J. Robinson Feb 2009

Problem Identification And Construction: What Do We Know, What Is The Future?, Roni Reiter-Palmon, Erika J. Robinson

Psychology Faculty Publications

Many cognitive process theories of creativity include an initial process of problem identification, definition, and construction. Previous research suggests that problem identification and construction is related to creativity, and that creative individuals and experts tend to engage in problem identification and construction. Finally, previous research suggests that inducing active engagement in problem identification and construction, through instructions or training, facilitates creativity. In this paper we further offer our views regarding important future direction for researchers in this area. Specifically, issues regarding methodology, the relationship between personality and values and how problems are constructed, and problem identification and construction in teams ...


Transfer Of Extinction Retrieval Cues Attenuates The Renewal Effect In Rats, James F. Briggs, David C. Riccio Jan 2009

Transfer Of Extinction Retrieval Cues Attenuates The Renewal Effect In Rats, James F. Briggs, David C. Riccio

Psychology Faculty Publications

An experiment using rats investigated whether retrieval cues for an extinction memory could also be brought under the control of cues not physically present during extinction learning. Following the extinction of a fear motivated task in a context different from original learning, rats were exposed to the training context either immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after extinction. When tested back in the original context, rats that were exposed to the training context immediately following extinction treated the context as if it had received extinction in that setting, i.e., no renewal. This attenuation of renewal was reduced or eliminated ...


Persistence In The Face Of Academic Challenge For Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Children, Eleanor D. Brown Jan 2009

Persistence In The Face Of Academic Challenge For Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Children, Eleanor D. Brown

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Associations Between Multiple Dimensions Of Schizotypy And Sociodemographic Variables In A Non-Psychiatric Sample Of Young Adults, Sandra M. Goulding, Erin Tone, Michael T. Compton Jan 2009

Associations Between Multiple Dimensions Of Schizotypy And Sociodemographic Variables In A Non-Psychiatric Sample Of Young Adults, Sandra M. Goulding, Erin Tone, Michael T. Compton

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Schizotypy And Nicotine, Alcohol, And Cannabis Use In A Non-Psychiatric Sample, Michael L. Esterberg, Sandra M. Goulding, Erin B. Mcclure-Tone, Michael T. Compton Jan 2009

Schizotypy And Nicotine, Alcohol, And Cannabis Use In A Non-Psychiatric Sample, Michael L. Esterberg, Sandra M. Goulding, Erin B. Mcclure-Tone, Michael T. Compton

Psychology Faculty Publications

Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct that is characterized by perceptual abnormalities, social withdrawal, mild suspiciousness, and odd thinking patterns. This study examined the relationship between four dimensions of self-reported schizotypy and substance use involving nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, in undergraduate students. Results showed that higher levels of disorganized schizotypy, or odd thinking and behavior, were associated with greater indices of use of all three substances. Furthermore, higher cognitive-perceptual schizotypy was selectively associated with cannabis use. Results confirm findings of recent research that has discovered associations among schizotypy and substance use, highlighting links between behavioral traits and use of nicotine ...


An Examination Of The Factorial Structure Of The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire–Brief (Spq-B) Among Undergraduate Students, Michael T. Compton, Sandra M. Goulding, Roger Bakeman, Erin B. Mcclure-Tone Jan 2009

An Examination Of The Factorial Structure Of The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire–Brief (Spq-B) Among Undergraduate Students, Michael T. Compton, Sandra M. Goulding, Roger Bakeman, Erin B. Mcclure-Tone

Psychology Faculty Publications

Cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized subscales of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire–Brief (SPQ-B), reflecting the three commonly used subscales of the full-version SPQ, have been used in a number of studies. However, the factorial validity of SPQB subscales remains to be clarified. Utilizing data from 825 undergraduate students, confirmatory factor analyses involving the 22 items of the SPQ-B were conducted. A significant χ2 difference test favored the 3-factor over the 1-factor model and fit indices for the 3-factor model were generally satisfactory. However, several of the items may index more than one of the hypothesized factors, so the item-factor separation is ...


Behavioral And Neural Representation Of Emotional Facial Expressions Across The Lifespan, Leah Somerville, Fani Negar, Erin Tone Jan 2009

Behavioral And Neural Representation Of Emotional Facial Expressions Across The Lifespan, Leah Somerville, Fani Negar, Erin Tone

Psychology Faculty Publications

Humans’ experience of emotion and comprehension of affective cues varies substantially across the lifespan. Work in cognitive and affective neuroscience has begun to characterize behavioral and neural responses to emotional cues that systematically change with age. This review examines work to date characterizing the maturation of facial expression comprehension, and dynamic changes in amygdala recruitment from early childhood through late adulthood while viewing facial expressions of emotion. Recent neuroimaging work has tested amygdala and prefrontal engagement in experimental paradigms mimicking real aspects of social interactions, which we highlight briefly, along with considerations for future research.


Specificity Of Facial Expression Labeling Deficits In Childhood Psychopathology, Amanda E. Guyer, Erin B. Mcclure, Abby D. Adler, Melissa A. Brotman, Brendan A. Rich, Alane S. Kimes, Daniel S. Pine, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft Jan 2009

Specificity Of Facial Expression Labeling Deficits In Childhood Psychopathology, Amanda E. Guyer, Erin B. Mcclure, Abby D. Adler, Melissa A. Brotman, Brendan A. Rich, Alane S. Kimes, Daniel S. Pine, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: We examined whether face-emotion labeling deficits are illness-specific or an epiphenomenon of generalized impairment in pediatric psychiatric disorders involving mood and behavioral dysregulation. Method: Two hundred fifty-two youths (7-18 years old) completed child and adult facial expression recognition subtests from the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy (DANVA) instrument. Forty-two participants had bipolar disorder (BD), 39 had severe mood dysregulation (SMD; i.e., chronic irritability, hyperarousal without manic episodes), 44 had anxiety and/or major depressive disorders (ANX/MDD), 35 had attention-deficit/hyperactivity and/or conduct disorder (ADHD/CD), and 92 were controls. Dependent measures were number of errors labeling ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Shotblocker® For Children’S Immunization Distress, Jean E. Cobb, Lindsey L. Cohen Jan 2009

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Shotblocker® For Children’S Immunization Distress, Jean E. Cobb, Lindsey L. Cohen

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objectives: Vaccinations protect children against deadly diseases and approximately 30 immunizations are recommended for children by 6 years of age. However, immunization injections cause negative short- and long-term consequences for children. The Gate Control Theory of Pain suggests that physical interventions (e.g., rubbing the site) may be helpful, but they are not well validated for children’s acute pain. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of the ShotBlocker®, a physical intervention designed to decrease children’s injection pain.

Methods: Participants included 89 4- to 12-year-old children receiving immunizations at a pediatric practice. Participants were randomized to ShotBlocker®, placebo control ...


Animal Behavior: The Right Tool For The Job, Sarah F. Brosnan Jan 2009

Animal Behavior: The Right Tool For The Job, Sarah F. Brosnan

Psychology Faculty Publications

A recent discovery that wild capuchins choose a functionally appropriate tool from a set of apparently similar tools casts new light on our understanding of how animals understand complex tasks.