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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Testing The Plausibility Of A Series Of Causal Minor Cyberloafing Models, Kevin Askew Apr 2009

Testing The Plausibility Of A Series Of Causal Minor Cyberloafing Models, Kevin Askew

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cyberloafing is the nonsanctioned recreational use of the computers/internet during work hours. Although research is increasing, the processes related to cyberloafing are not well understood. In the current studies, I developed, tested, and evaluated a series of causal minor-cyberloafing models. In Study 1, I empirically compared four minor-cyberloafing taxonomies and selected two of these models as my working taxonomies for minor cyberloafing. In Study 2, I tested and evaluated eight causal minor-cyberloafing models using structural equation modeling techniques and various model-data fit indices. Results of Study 2 indicated that the models were not plausible, bringing into question the value ...


The Integration Of Traditional Leaders The Democratization Process, Rabah Ali Omer Jan 2009

The Integration Of Traditional Leaders The Democratization Process, Rabah Ali Omer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Governance is a common problem in African countries wherein it manifests itself in various phenomena, such as authoritarian rules, conflict, civil wars, poverty, and unemployment. The research studied to tackle this problem addressed issues on the central governmental level in terms of constitutional and institutional arrangements. Sudan is one of the most complicated cases of governance in Africa considering its long history of civil wars and dictatorships.

Using Sudan as a case, this study addressed the issue of governance in traditional communities and rural areas. The study focused on the emphasis on popular participation and civic engagement as measures ...


The Cumulative Influences Of Socioeconomic Status On Health Outcomes In Late Adulthood: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis, Kyung Hwa Kwag Jan 2009

The Cumulative Influences Of Socioeconomic Status On Health Outcomes In Late Adulthood: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis, Kyung Hwa Kwag

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to examine a) the cumulative influences of demographic variables as well as socioeconomic status on trajectories of physical limitations, chronic diseases, and depressive symptoms, and b) cross-domain associations of these health problems in late adulthood. This study used the data (N = 4,374, age > 65 years) from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), collected biennially during the period from 1998 to 2006. The results of this study indicated that SES was confounded with demographic factors, especially ethnicity/race, because most of the influences of demographic factors and ethnicity/race on health problem trajectories diminished ...


Behavioral Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) With Respect To Insectivory At Fongoli, Senegal, Stephanie L. Bogart Jan 2009

Behavioral Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) With Respect To Insectivory At Fongoli, Senegal, Stephanie L. Bogart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I examine the behavioral ecology of savanna chimpanzees in Senegal. I test hypotheses related to the effects of the environment on the diet of the chimpanzees at Fongoli, concentrating on their insectivory specifically. Fongoli is the hottest and driest site in which chimpanzees have been habituated for observational data collection. Grassland habitats (68%) dominate, characterizing the site as an open savanna mosaic, which is interspersed with woodland and small patches of closed forests. The environment at Fongoli presents a setting similar to that of Plio-Pleistocene hominans (Bobe & Behrensmeyer 2004, Bromage & Schrenk 1995, Cerling 1992, Reed 1997) and ...


Referential Aspects In The Vocal Repertoire Of Bonobos (Pan Paniscus), Kathleen Marie Klag Jan 2009

Referential Aspects In The Vocal Repertoire Of Bonobos (Pan Paniscus), Kathleen Marie Klag

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of animal communication continue to be investigated. However, the potential for referential communication in nonhuman great apes' vocal repertoire has only been studied in chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) food vocalizations. The current study aimed to examine whether bonobos' (Pan paniscus) food vocalizations contained referential aspects. Vocalizations were collected from one bonobo while feeding on one of six different food types. These vocalizations could be significantly distinguished based of food type when using a four-variable model containing low frequency, delta time, average power, and energy. They also could be reclassified into the correct food type based on these variables on ...


Is Corruption Endogenous To Foreign Direct Investment In Resource-Rich Developing Economies?, Saw Htay Wah Jan 2009

Is Corruption Endogenous To Foreign Direct Investment In Resource-Rich Developing Economies?, Saw Htay Wah

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper offers econometric evidence that corruption and foreign direct investment (FDI) can co-evolve if conditional on the level of development, the type of regimes, and the level of natural resource endowment. In conventional FDI empirical studies, the perceived corruption level in host countries is treated as being exogenous. Corruption, however, is also found to be endogenous to FDI depending upon economic circumstances and political conditions prevailing in host countries. The impact of FDI on corruption in host economies is found to vary across economies if disaggregated samples are used. Asian economies show a different pattern as compared to other ...


Changing Perceptions Of Seeking Help: A Test Of The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Video, Scott Alexander Kaplan Jan 2009

Changing Perceptions Of Seeking Help: A Test Of The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Video, Scott Alexander Kaplan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention video designed to promote positive associations with help seeking for mental health concerns. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a repeated exposure video intervention, a single exposure video intervention, or a control video condition. Participants completed measures pre-intervention, post-interventions, and at a six-week follow-up. The intervention repeated exposure group improved significantly more than the control group on help-seeking peer norms but not on the other outcome variables. The effect for peer norms was found at each time point, indicating both immediate and longer-term effects ...


Improving Nutrient Content Through Genetic Modification: Evidence From Experimental Auctions On Consumer Acceptance And Willingness To Pay For Intragenic Foods, Gregory Colson Jan 2009

Improving Nutrient Content Through Genetic Modification: Evidence From Experimental Auctions On Consumer Acceptance And Willingness To Pay For Intragenic Foods, Gregory Colson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After more than a decade of experience in the global marketplace, genetically modified (GM) foods continue to be controversial. Early GM traits were obtained by transferring genes across species, largely from soil bacteria, and this transgenic nature is one dimension of consumer resistance. Recently, breakthroughs have occurred using intragenic bioengineering where genes are moved long distances within specie and without antibiotic markers. These new intragenic bioengineering methods offer the potential for new commercial crop varieties with traits of direct value to consumers (e.g., enhanced nutrition) without reliance on outside foreign genetic material.

To assess the potential market for new ...


Interspecific And Integroup Interactions Of Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata) In Primary Versus Secondary Forest At El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, Melissa Joy Senf Jan 2009

Interspecific And Integroup Interactions Of Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata) In Primary Versus Secondary Forest At El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, Melissa Joy Senf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Four groups of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) were observed at El Zota Biological Field Station in northeastern Costa Rica to assess whether resource scarcity caused by anthropogenic disturbance and hypothesized increased competition for limited resources would result in more frequent and more aggressive interactions between neighboring howling monkey groups and between howling monkeys and other, sympatric primate species, namely white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a comparison between the primary forest, as a control, and anthropogenically-altered secondary forest, I examined whether a behavioral difference existed between groups with hypothesized varying degrees of resource competition ...


Audience Frames Elicited By Televised Political Advertising, Elizabeth Emma Geske Jan 2009

Audience Frames Elicited By Televised Political Advertising, Elizabeth Emma Geske

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used audience analysis to examine the audience frames elicited by political advertising. Eighteen participants between the ages of 25-60 were interviewed and asked questions about their individual responses to political advertising. Overall, this study found that five common frames were elicited: political cynicism frame, issue frame, third person frame, gender frame and ad frame. This study also examined audience frames elicited uniquely by positive and negative ads as well as the role that political advertising plays in the meaning-making process for voters. Overall, the study concluded that voters do not get much, if any use out of political ...


The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green Jan 2009

The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lesbian couples often present for therapy for the same reasons as heterosexual couples; however, lesbian couples also have to negotiate societal homonegativity that devalues and marginalizes their relationships. The aim of this study was to explore a common experience of therapy from the perspective of lesbian couples and their therapists. A feminist qualitative method was used to attend to diversity within and among triads, maintain an awareness of the multiple influences on the client-therapist relationship, view the participants in their larger societal context, and consider the power dynamics that are inherent in relationships. Interviews were conducted with seven lesbian clients ...


Essays On Repated Moral Hazard, Youzhi Yang Jan 2009

Essays On Repated Moral Hazard, Youzhi Yang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In Chapter 1, I study an infinitely repeated moral hazard problem in which the principal privately observes and publicly reports the agent's output, as in Fuchs (2007). The role of the agent's private strategies, which depend on the history of his private efforts, is examined in providing incentives for the principal to be truthful. I show that in order for his effort history to work as an incentive device, the agent has to use a mixed strategy, since otherwise his efforts are predictable by the principal and thus, in effect, public information. However, hiding the agent's efforts ...


Count Regression Models For Recreation Demand: An Application To Clear Lake, Brian David Pattiz Jan 2009

Count Regression Models For Recreation Demand: An Application To Clear Lake, Brian David Pattiz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An important objective for policy-makers is how to allocate resources for the enjoyment of its citizens. Outdoor recreation is a very popular hobby for a lot of people. The sites they travel to for recreational purposes are public sites such as the Clear Lake, located in central Iowa. The users of the lake often care about the quality of the water. It is the goal of the researcher to determine how much they are willing to pay in order to preserve or improve the water quality. The researcher must decide on not only the theoretical methodology, but the appropriate statistical ...


Predictors Of Youth After-School Involvement: The Role Of Congruence Between Perceived Early Community And Family Supportive Control, Duhita Mahatmya Jan 2009

Predictors Of Youth After-School Involvement: The Role Of Congruence Between Perceived Early Community And Family Supportive Control, Duhita Mahatmya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the present study was twofold: 1) to understand how perceived community and family supportive control during early adolescence were associated with late adolescent after-school involvement while controlling for self-selection factors for a sample of low-income, urban, minority adolescents; and 2) to examine how congruency between the perceived community and family contexts influenced after-school involvement overtime. Three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N = 528; Ages 16-20 at Wave 3). First, a series of lagged Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine if exposure to early ...


To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers Jan 2009

To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the United States population ages and their healthcare needs grow it is necessary to examine health-related issues experienced by this population. Food insecurity is one such issue impacting not only older adults but the general population as well. Working to better understand determinants of food insecurity and what factors may protect against it may help in the fight against it.

Cross-sectional data from a survey studying food pantry clients living in four Iowa counties were used to (1) explore what household characteristics may increase the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity and (2) identify what resources may protect against it ...


A Comparison Of Social Interactions Between Preschool Students From Spanish Speaking Homes And Preschool Students From English Speaking Homes, Molly Ann Luchtel Jan 2009

A Comparison Of Social Interactions Between Preschool Students From Spanish Speaking Homes And Preschool Students From English Speaking Homes, Molly Ann Luchtel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the differences between preschool students from Spanish speaking homes and preschool students from English speaking homes in the areas of classroom conduct, social skills, and teacher-child relationship quality, as rated by their teachers. Data were taken from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE), a longitudinal study beginning in 1996. Participants in the current study included 1,034 parents, 1,034 children, and 743 teachers. Significant results revealed that students from Spanish speaking homes were rated more positively in the areas of classroom conduct and teacher-child relationship quality than students from English speaking homes. Analyses ...


Questions About Accountability And Illegality Of Virtual Rape, Melissa Mary Fenech Sander Jan 2009

Questions About Accountability And Illegality Of Virtual Rape, Melissa Mary Fenech Sander

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Virtual rape is not a new phenomenon in virtual communities, as Julian Dibbell’s 1993 article pointed out, but it is beginning to gain attention in some scholarly circles. Of the articles specifically covering virtual rape, most focus on whether or not virtual rape is “real” while some attempt to isolate its social construction. Only one scholar to date has argued the legality of the offense, but limited the discussion only to consensual virtual rape. With this in mind, this thesis is focused on defining non–consensual virtual rape, comparing and contrasting it to other types of online deviance such ...


Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Referential Model For The Evolution Of Habitual Bipedalism In Hominids, Christine Alexandra Tourkakis Jan 2009

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Referential Model For The Evolution Of Habitual Bipedalism In Hominids, Christine Alexandra Tourkakis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Observations of the bipedal behavior of wild savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) can provide insight into the evolution of habitual bipedalism in early hominids. This study provides data on the bipedal behavior of eight adult male chimpanzees at the Fongoli field site in southeastern Senegal. Data were collected during transition months at the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season. Focal instantaneous data on positional and locomotor behavior indicate that bipedalism in Fongoli chimpanzees is a rare, infrequent behavior, accounting for only 2.3% of all positional and locomotor behaviors. Focal all-occurrences data provides a more ...


The Implied Volatility Bias And Option Smile: Is There A Simple Explanation?, Kanlaya Jintanakul Barr Jan 2009

The Implied Volatility Bias And Option Smile: Is There A Simple Explanation?, Kanlaya Jintanakul Barr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past 30 years, numerous option valuation models have been proposed hoping to explain the volatility smile and the volatility bias shown in the data. However, the Black and Scholes model remains the cornerstone of the option valuation model and its implied volatilities remain essential for calibrating parameters of the other option-valuation models. This research is the first in the literature to use a partial equilibrium model to explain the implied volatility bias using demand for and supply of the options market. The proposed theoretical model allows us to explain the existence of an upward bias and its determinants ...


A Three Essays Dissertation On Agricultural And Environmental Microeconomics, Luc Pierre Veyssiere Jan 2009

A Three Essays Dissertation On Agricultural And Environmental Microeconomics, Luc Pierre Veyssiere

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Microeconomics is a branch of economics which studies how individual agent behaves unlike macroeconomics which studies the behavior of several agents. By focusing on the behavior of individual sole microeconomics can provide insights and solutions to market failures. This feature has made this branch of economics increasingly important. Even the modern macroeconomics is built upon microeconomics foundation.

This three essays thesis applies microeconomics to answer key issues on agriculture and the management of natural resources. The first essay examines the question of asymmetric information introduced by the emergence of the genetically modified technology in the food system. The second essay ...


An Investigation Of Preschool-Aged Children's Perceptions Of Their Peers With A Disability, Krista Noelle Van Hooser Jan 2009

An Investigation Of Preschool-Aged Children's Perceptions Of Their Peers With A Disability, Krista Noelle Van Hooser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study combines various aspects of previous research on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward children with a disability. It extends previous research in the attempts to evaluate attitudes and behavioral intentions toward intellectual and physical disability separately in addition to examining "general" disability. Study design also allowed for comparisons of children in both inclusive and non-inclusive settings, which many previous research studies did not provide.

Study findings suggest that preschool children are more positive toward and more willing to interact with typically developing peers than with peers with a disability. Moreover, most preschool children do not have an understanding or ...


Crisis Communication During Beef Recalls Due To E. Coli O157:H7 Contamination, Jennifer Marie Scharpe Jan 2009

Crisis Communication During Beef Recalls Due To E. Coli O157:H7 Contamination, Jennifer Marie Scharpe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to evaluate the quantity and quality of crisis communication efforts during one specific type of public health emergency, beef recalls due to E. coli O157:H7 contamination. A content analysis of 452 US newspaper reports within 30 days of a beef recall was conducted to determine the sources cited and the messages communicated to the public. The analysis involved a total of 36 recalls issued from 2003 to 2008. The study found the sources cited by reporters include two of the major stakeholders involved in the crisis - government agencies and meat companies who processed or sold the ...


Optimized Landscape Plans For Bio-Oil Production, David Hc Correll Jan 2009

Optimized Landscape Plans For Bio-Oil Production, David Hc Correll

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A network flow linear programming model is designed to optimize feedstock landscapes for bio-oil production in Iowa.


Low-Income Homeownership: Benefits, Barriers And Predictors For Families In Rural Areas, Andrea Lynn Bentzinger Jan 2009

Low-Income Homeownership: Benefits, Barriers And Predictors For Families In Rural Areas, Andrea Lynn Bentzinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined homeownership among rural, low-income families. Previous literature was examined to understand the financial, psychological and social benefits of and barriers to homeownership among this population. Although most low-income families appear to prefer to own their homes, limitations can prevent them from buying their `dream home' and risks can diminish the positive effects of homeownership. Recent public policy has attempted to extend opportunities for homeownership to households heretofore under served. Attaining and sustaining homeownership among low-income families has become an important area of research. In addition to a review of previous literature, this research examined the role ...


Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr Jan 2009

Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social reality can be created through self-fulfilling prophecies and perceptual biases. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a false belief that leads to its own fulfillment. A perceptual bias occurs when an individual believes that her or his inaccurate expectation about another has been confirmed to a greater extent than it has in reality. Although research findings bearing on these processes are robust, these effects are typically small. Nonetheless, this does not mean that self-fulfilling prophecy and perceptual bias effects are always small. There are conditions under which such effects have the potential to be powerful. The current experiment tested this possibility ...


Conceptualizing Design Affordances From A Cognitive Perspective, Jeremiah D. Still Jan 2009

Conceptualizing Design Affordances From A Cognitive Perspective, Jeremiah D. Still

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The term affordance carries multiple meanings for designers. Traditionally, affordances were discussed within a Gibsonian framework as arising from direct perception of physical constraints. However, some authors extended the meaning to include learned cultural constraints, leading to a theoretical debate about whether designers should draw a distinction between perceptual affordances and learned cultural conventions. In this dissertation it is suggested that a broader meaning of affordance is more appropriate for designers and that a unified account of affordances can be achieved using a cognitive conceptualization of perceived affordances. Within this cognitive framework, perceived affordances arise from automatic processes in the ...


The Influence Of Child, Family, And Community Characteristics On Change In Children's Body Mass Index: Mediating Role Of Community-Based Physical Activity Trajectories, Florensia Flora Surjadi Jan 2009

The Influence Of Child, Family, And Community Characteristics On Change In Children's Body Mass Index: Mediating Role Of Community-Based Physical Activity Trajectories, Florensia Flora Surjadi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Researchers investigating the prevalence of childhood obesity have documented an upward trend. However, little research has focused on the processes that might explain changes in children's Body Mass Index (BMI), a commonly used measure to determine overweight and obese status. The purpose of this dissertation is to elucidate the pathways in which child, family, and community characteristics might influence children's BMI. Specifically, using an ecological framework, this study investigates how children's participation in community-based physical activity mediates the influences of child, family, and community characteristics on change in BMI. Data from kindergarten through the fifth-grade from a ...


Precursors To Adolescents' Dating Violence Perpetration And Healthy Romantic Relationships, Melissa P. Schnurr Jan 2009

Precursors To Adolescents' Dating Violence Perpetration And Healthy Romantic Relationships, Melissa P. Schnurr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Paper 1: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify how adolescent, family, school, and neighborhood risk factors were related to perpetration of dating violence among adolescents; and 2) to assess how perceived neighborhood collective efficacy may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between each of the risk factors and adolescents' perpetration of dating violence. Three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N = 765; Ages 16-20 at Wave 3). Lagged Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression techniques were utilized to examine the link between perpetration of dating violence and the risk factors ...


Three Bayesian Econometric Studies On Forecast Evaluation, Jingtao Wu Jan 2009

Three Bayesian Econometric Studies On Forecast Evaluation, Jingtao Wu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A complete theory for evaluating forecasts has not been worked out to this date. Many studies on forecast evaluation implicitly relied on assumptions that are not supported by data, e.g., the assumption of homoskedastic and uncorrelated errors, forecaster homogeneity, etc. In this dissertation, I apply Bayesian methods to analyze various aspects of forecast evaluation. The overall objective is to better evaluate forecasts in terms of bias, efficiency, and information content by accounting for the structure of forecasts and directly addressing various critical econometric issues that are ignored by previous studies. Three related studies have been undertaken to address three ...


The Emotional Divide: Alpha Wave Asymmetry Of The Frontal Lobes During Mild, Moderate And High Fear Commercials., Corinne Virginia Nacin Jan 2009

The Emotional Divide: Alpha Wave Asymmetry Of The Frontal Lobes During Mild, Moderate And High Fear Commercials., Corinne Virginia Nacin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Advertising is embedded into everyday American life. Many television commercials aim to connect with the audience on an emotional level. Amongst these emotions, fear is often used to gain consumer attention. Theorists believe that moderate fear is the most effective level of fear to gain consumer attention, and cause behavioral changes. The emotion of fear also has effects on human physiology. Two different theories describe that the emotion of fear is linked to frontal lobe asymmetry, claiming that the emotion of fear will activate the right side of the frontal lobes. This study examined the modulated levels of fear (low ...