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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2009

Western University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 136

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Transnational Understandings Of Australian Aboriginal Sporting Migration: Sporting Walkabout, John Maynard Dec 2009

Transnational Understandings Of Australian Aboriginal Sporting Migration: Sporting Walkabout, John Maynard

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

This article will examine the impact of Aboriginal sporting participation and movement around the globe. The experiences, influences and inspiration that Aboriginal sporting men and women absorbed while travelling internationally have played a prominent role in changing the perceptions and understanding of Aboriginal people to the wider populace. The later stages of the nineteenth and early twentieth century were a period in which Aboriginal people were erroneously categorized as a dying race, belonging to the Stone Age and uneducable. However the influence of sport and travel ensured that Aboriginal cricketers, footballers, athletes, boxers and horsemen and -women played a part ...


Research Brief No. 2 - Models Of Earning And Caring: Trends, Determinants And Implications, Roderic Beaujot, Zenaida Ravanera, Jianye Liu Dec 2009

Research Brief No. 2 - Models Of Earning And Caring: Trends, Determinants And Implications, Roderic Beaujot, Zenaida Ravanera, Jianye Liu

Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster Research/Policy Brief

Families in Canada have undergone changes regarding the ways in which they earn a living and care for each other. Data taken from Statistics Canada time use surveys of 1986, 1992, 1998, and 2005 show changes in the average number of hours of paid and unpaid work completed by men and women.


The Identification Of Participation Barriers Associated With Employment Testing In The Ontario Constable Selection System, Glenn Hadley Dec 2009

The Identification Of Participation Barriers Associated With Employment Testing In The Ontario Constable Selection System, Glenn Hadley

MPA Major Research Papers

This paper examines the Ontario Constable Selection System (OCSS) to assess whether barriers within the process discourage candidates from competing for a career in policing. Interviews with 11 newly sworn police officers and 12 individuals who chose not to participate in the OCSS testing were conducted. The findings reveal that factors related to the perceived validity of the test, financial cost, and perceived fairness discourage potential applicants from competing.


Policy Process In Ontario: An Analysis Of The Process For The Implementation Of A By-Law To Restrict Or Limit The Number Of Cats In A Household In An Urban Municipality, Lois O’Neill Dec 2009

Policy Process In Ontario: An Analysis Of The Process For The Implementation Of A By-Law To Restrict Or Limit The Number Of Cats In A Household In An Urban Municipality, Lois O’Neill

MPA Major Research Papers

This paper examines the policy process for the implementation of a by-law to restrict or limit the number of cats in a household in Owen Sound. An analysis of the policy process and the identified problem was conducted, in addition to a consideration of the external factors that influence the municipal policymaking process and a survey of other small urban municipalities to determine if they had encountered a similar problem and considered implementing a similar by-law. The findings reveal that the policy process for the implementation of this type of by-law was alike in all municipalities with the outcome depending ...


Understanding Attitudes To Refugees And Immigrants In Australia, Winnifred Louis Nov 2009

Understanding Attitudes To Refugees And Immigrants In Australia, Winnifred Louis

Migration and Ethnic Relations Colloquium Series

No abstract provided.


Leaving University Without Graduating: Evidence From Canada’S Youth In Transition Survey, Wolfgang Lehmann, Eric Tenkorang Nov 2009

Leaving University Without Graduating: Evidence From Canada’S Youth In Transition Survey, Wolfgang Lehmann, Eric Tenkorang

Sociology Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Copyright Debate: Finding The Right Balance For Teaching, Research, And Cultural Expression, Samuel E. Trosow Nov 2009

The Copyright Debate: Finding The Right Balance For Teaching, Research, And Cultural Expression, Samuel E. Trosow

FIMS Presentations

No abstract provided.


Policy Brief No. 1 - Cognitive Function, Aging And Paid Work, Laurie M. Corna, David Haardt Nov 2009

Policy Brief No. 1 - Cognitive Function, Aging And Paid Work, Laurie M. Corna, David Haardt

Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster Research/Policy Brief

In the context of an aging population and aging workforce, we consider the relationship between cognitive function and paid work. Cognitive function is maintained for most adults as they age, and there is evidence of a positive relationship between stimulating and engaging work environments and both levels of cognitive function and their maintenance over time. At the same time, irregular and long work hours are associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. However, the relationship between paid work and cognitive function is complex; education and training as well as health status are also related to cognitive function and work. We discuss implications ...


Integrating Research Into Lis Field Experiences In Academic Libraries, Selinda Adelle Berg, Kristin Hoffmann, Diane Dawson Nov 2009

Integrating Research Into Lis Field Experiences In Academic Libraries, Selinda Adelle Berg, Kristin Hoffmann, Diane Dawson

Western Libraries Publications

Field experiences function as a link between LIS theory and practice. Students should be provided with an experience that is a true reflection of the professional environment. The increasing focus on research by academic librarians provides an opportunity and responsibility to integrate research into the field experiences of LIS students.


Why Origins Matter: Central Americans In Canada, Alan B. Simmons Oct 2009

Why Origins Matter: Central Americans In Canada, Alan B. Simmons

Migration and Ethnic Relations Colloquium Series

No abstract provided.


Doing Collaborative Community Based Research: On The Ground In Kingston, Audrey Kobayashi Oct 2009

Doing Collaborative Community Based Research: On The Ground In Kingston, Audrey Kobayashi

Migration and Ethnic Relations Colloquium Series

No abstract provided.


Open Access Publishing In The Biological/Medical Sciences, J. Madrenas Oct 2009

Open Access Publishing In The Biological/Medical Sciences, J. Madrenas

Robarts Immunology and Transplantation Presentations

No abstract provided.


Open Access And Its Social Benefits, Ajit Pyati Oct 2009

Open Access And Its Social Benefits, Ajit Pyati

FIMS Presentations

No abstract provided.


Open Access Week (Retention Of Author Rights), Mark Perry Oct 2009

Open Access Week (Retention Of Author Rights), Mark Perry

Law Presentations

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Between Physical Inactivity And Family Life Course Stage, Margo J. Hilbrecht, Suzy L. Wong, Judith D. Toms, Mary E. Thompson Oct 2009

The Relationship Between Physical Inactivity And Family Life Course Stage, Margo J. Hilbrecht, Suzy L. Wong, Judith D. Toms, Mary E. Thompson

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Physical inactivity is a well-documented risk factor for numerous chronic diseases and a major public health problem in Canada. Since social-ecological models suggest that behaviour is influenced by the person as well as the social and physical environment, it is important to be sensitive to other factors when examining physical activity participation. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between physical inactivity, marital status and family stage for men and women in Canada.

The study was based on data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.1, for adults aged 18-64 living with a spouse or ...


Projecting Family Support Needed To Assist Older Canadian Living In The Community, 2006-2031, Janice M. Keefe, Yann Décarie, Patrick Charbonneau, Jacques Légaré Oct 2009

Projecting Family Support Needed To Assist Older Canadian Living In The Community, 2006-2031, Janice M. Keefe, Yann Décarie, Patrick Charbonneau, Jacques Légaré

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Canadian policy makers are increasingly interested in planning for the inevitable increase in home care services that will be fuelled by population aging and community care policy. Our goal is to advance understanding of the patterns and predictors of disability and support among the population aged 65+ and use this information to project future health human resources. Using the 2002 General Social Survey, logistic regressions estimated the probability of an individual with specific characteristics of having a specific level of disability and those with a long term health problems using one of three types of support networks (formal, informal, or ...


Public Policy, Gender, Marriage, And Self-Rated Health, Sean Clouston, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée Oct 2009

Public Policy, Gender, Marriage, And Self-Rated Health, Sean Clouston, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Married people live longer than those who remain single both in Canada and the USA, with men showing the most gain from marriage. The benefit to marriage has been exlpicated in four different ways: marital benefits, with protective benefits going mostly to men; negative selection, with sicker individuals seeking healthcare from their spouses in a health-poor policy environment; clean-up for marriage, whereby mostly male risky behaviors are left behind prior to marriage; and positive selection, suggesting instead that the marital selection process is tied to health indicators evident in social circumstances. The importance of social policy to these realms is ...


The Evolution Of Health Outcomes From Childhood To Adolescence, Paul Contoyannis, Jinhu Li Oct 2009

The Evolution Of Health Outcomes From Childhood To Adolescence, Paul Contoyannis, Jinhu Li

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

NOTE: The peer-reviewed version of this paper is available online from the Journal of Health Economics at: http://0-dx.doi.org.library.simmons.edu/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2010.10.007
The authors' manuscript of it is available as the additional file listed below.

Using data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), this study examines how and why health outcomes exhibit persistence during the period from childhood to adolescence. We examine the distribution of health outcomes and health transitions using descriptive analysis and explore the determinants of these distributions by estimating the contributions of family SES, unobserved heterogeneity ...


Poster Introductions Iii--Antipsychotic Utilization In British Columbia From 1997 To 2006, Joseph H. Puyat, Wayne Jones, Elliot M. Goldner Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Iii--Antipsychotic Utilization In British Columbia From 1997 To 2006, Joseph H. Puyat, Wayne Jones, Elliot M. Goldner

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

This study examined the prevalent use of antipsychotic medication in British Columbia from 1997 to 2006 among individuals aged 20 and above. Utilization data were obtained from BC’s PharmaNet system – a provincially maintained database that contains prescription dispensation records and demographic information for individuals residing in BC. Using the American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Pharmacologic-Therapeutic Classification, claim records for Antipsychotics, Atypical Antipsychotics, Butyrophenones, Phenotiazines, Thioxanthenes, and Miscellaneous Antipsychotics were identified in the PharmaNet dataset. Individuals who filled at least 1 antipsychotic prescription in a given year were counted as prevalent users. Results were examined across gender and several age ...


Poster Introductions Iii--Aging With Long-Term Physical Impairment: The Significance Of Social Support, Rebecca Casey, Sharon Dale Stone Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Iii--Aging With Long-Term Physical Impairment: The Significance Of Social Support, Rebecca Casey, Sharon Dale Stone

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

As the population ages more people are reaching old age having lived with a long-term physical impairment. This vulnerable group of people has specific needs that are often different from those of someone who reaches old age without a pre-existing physical impairment. This paper focuses on the significance of social support in ameliorating the aging experience when living with long-term physical impairment. It is based on a qualitative study of the aging experiences of eight men and women living in Ontario, Canada who were between the ages of 50 and 68 and had lived with their physical impairment for more ...


Poster Introductions Iii--The Lifecourse Of Esophageal Cancer Patients Traced By Means Of The Lifegrid, Ann Novogradec Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Iii--The Lifecourse Of Esophageal Cancer Patients Traced By Means Of The Lifegrid, Ann Novogradec

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Background: The absence of prospective longitudinal studies for certain health outcomes creates the need to collect accurate information retrospectively. In an attempt to minimize recall bias and to better understand the deeper rooted issues involved in the risk factors for esophageal cancer, the adoption of the lifegrid accompanied by supplementary tools was implemented. The objective was to provide a more comprehensive and context-sensitive perspective to the study of the living and working environments of esophageal cancer patients across the lifecourse.

Methods: A sample of 46 esophageal cancer patients were recruited from participating London and Toronto hospitals. This study involved the ...


Poster Introductions Iii--Predicting Vulnerability: Pandemic H1n1/09 And Canada’S First Nations, Nicholas Spence, Jerry White Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Iii--Predicting Vulnerability: Pandemic H1n1/09 And Canada’S First Nations, Nicholas Spence, Jerry White

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

The World Health Organization has estimated that as many as 2 billion or between 15 and 45 percent of the population globally will be infected by pandemic H1N1/09. Certain subgroups have been categorized as high risk given the clinical evidence to date. One of these subgroups is Indigenous populations as they experience poor socioeconomic conditions. There is, however, great variability in socioeconomic conditions across First Nations communities in Canada. Rooted in the social determinants of health, we have developed a model to predict vulnerability and institute relevant measures to mitigate the effects of pandemic H1N1/09 in First Nations ...


Breastfeeding Practices Of Immigrant Mothers In Canada: The Role Of Immigration Status, Length Of Residence, And Ethnic Minority, Gebremariam Woldemicael Oct 2009

Breastfeeding Practices Of Immigrant Mothers In Canada: The Role Of Immigration Status, Length Of Residence, And Ethnic Minority, Gebremariam Woldemicael

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Previous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between breastfeeding practices and immigration status, length of residence, and ethnic minority. However, it remains unclear to what extent differences in these factors can be explained by cultural influences or other socio-demographic factors. Using the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) data, this study investigates whether immigration status, year of residence, and visible minority status are associated with initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the context of socio-demographic factors. The findings show that while the relationship between breastfeeding and immigration process is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that may have important ...


Poverty, Neighbourhood Characteristics And Trajectories Of Maternal Depression, Mai Thanh Tu, Mark Daniel, Louise Séguin, Yan Kestens Oct 2009

Poverty, Neighbourhood Characteristics And Trajectories Of Maternal Depression, Mai Thanh Tu, Mark Daniel, Louise Séguin, Yan Kestens

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Background: Income, education, being an immigrant and residential neighbourhood characteristics are linked to depressive symptoms. To our knowledge, no longitudinal study has examined the joint influence of demographic and neighbourhood characteristics on maternal depressive symptoms.

Objective: To examine the influence of demographic and neighbourhood characteristics on trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms from child age 1.5 to 7 years, in Québec, Canada. METHODS: 1611 mothers from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Child Development, seen regularly since child birth (1998). Maternal depressive symptoms (CES-D), income, and residential neighbourhood characteristics (neighbourhood poverty, unemployment and quality of nearest park) were measured for mothers ...


Poster Introductions Ii--Learning Violence Young, Lihui Zhang Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Ii--Learning Violence Young, Lihui Zhang

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Two geographically and culturally connected nations, the United States and Canada, have starkly contrasting violent crime rates. Comparable surveys show that American teenagers on average are three times as likely to engage in fights as their Canadian peers and that this cross-country violence gap exists even among children as young as 4-5 years old. Conventional arguments believed to account for this sharp contrast in violence rates prove to have limited explanatory power. The US violence premium remains a puzzle. Using rich information provided by large-scale individual level longitudinal survey data, this study performs a Canada-US comparative analysis with a special ...


Poster Introductions Ii--The Children’S Health And Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): Exploring The Impact Of A 4-Week Lifestyle Intervention On Obese Children And Their Families, Erin S. Pearson, Shauna M. Burke, Jennifer D. Irwin Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Ii--The Children’S Health And Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): Exploring The Impact Of A 4-Week Lifestyle Intervention On Obese Children And Their Families, Erin S. Pearson, Shauna M. Burke, Jennifer D. Irwin

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

C.H.A.M.P., a 4-week day camp for obese children aged 8-14, was held during August 2008. The program included daily physical activity, dietary, and behavioural modification for children, and similarly-themed educational sessions for family members on weekends. The purpose of the present study was to explore the experiences of children and family members who participated in C.H.A.M.P.. Methods: This qualitative study enlisted a trained facilitator to moderate five focus groups immediately following the intervention. Children (n = 12) were allocated to 1 of 2 groups; parents (n = 17) were allocated to 1 of 3 ...


Poster Introductions Ii--Children’S Health Prior To School Entry And Reading Skills In The First Year Of Primary School: Identifying Protective Factors, Karine Tétreault, Hélène Desrosiers, Jean-François Cardin Oct 2009

Poster Introductions Ii--Children’S Health Prior To School Entry And Reading Skills In The First Year Of Primary School: Identifying Protective Factors, Karine Tétreault, Hélène Desrosiers, Jean-François Cardin

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Background: Reading skills at school entry are one of the main determinants of future academic performance.1 Therefore, less than optimal health during the first years of life can affect the capacity for learning,2 which in turn can have an impact on health and social adjustment throughout life. The main goal of this analysis was to examine the impact of young children’s health trajectories on their reading skills in the first year of primary school (Grade 1), as assessed by their teachers.

Methods: The analysis was based on data collected annually during the first eight years of the ...


Understanding Requirements And Unmet Needs For Accommodations For Non-Senior Adults With Disabilities Through A Social-Cultural Lens, Aron Spector Oct 2009

Understanding Requirements And Unmet Needs For Accommodations For Non-Senior Adults With Disabilities Through A Social-Cultural Lens, Aron Spector

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

This paper will provide an overview of how requirements and unmet needs for disability-related aids, devices and human supports changed between 2001 and 2006 using results from Statistics Canada’s Participation and Activity Limitations Surveys. It will illustrate the usefulness of applying a social/cultural model of disability in developing our understanding as to why these changes have taken place. In particular it will show strong relationships between:

· Advances in the inclusion of people with disabilities and related changes in both requirements and unmet need. For example, the period saw tightening of the labour market and a commensurate shift of ...


The ‘Trendiness’ Of Sleep: An Empirical Investigation Into The Cyclical Nature Of Sleep Time, Pierre Brochu, Catherine Deri-Armstrong, Louis-Philippe Morin Oct 2009

The ‘Trendiness’ Of Sleep: An Empirical Investigation Into The Cyclical Nature Of Sleep Time, Pierre Brochu, Catherine Deri-Armstrong, Louis-Philippe Morin

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

Using Canadian time use data, we exploit exogenous variation in local unemployment rates to investigate the cyclical nature of sleep time and show that for both men and women, sleep time decreases when the economy is doing relatively better. Our results suggest that in a recession Canadians sleep an average of 2 hours and 34 minutes more per week, or 22 minutes more per day. Given the importance of even small changes in sleep time on measures of cognitive functioning such as reaction time and concentration, our findings may help explain the countercyclical nature of mortality. Further, as we find ...


Health Over The Life Course: Research And Policy Roundtable Discussion, Valérie Émond Oct 2009

Health Over The Life Course: Research And Policy Roundtable Discussion, Valérie Émond

Health over the Life Course Conference (2009)

At this roundtable discussion, researchers and policy makers talked broadly about the most important questions that had been answered by recent empirical research and which questions remained to be answered. They were asked to consider research and policy related to “Population aging and pressure points in a life course framework: disability and long term care.”

Valérie Émond is an scientific expert at the Quebec Public Health Institute. Over the past 10 years, she has worked at developing chronic disease surveillance for the province of Quebec using administrative data. After developing the model for diabetes surveillance, she is currently working on ...