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2009

University of Pennsylvania

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Articles 1 - 30 of 205

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy Dec 2009

Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

From the psychotherapy outcome literature, many have inferred that either theory-specific techniques or interventions common to all therapies are what produce symptom change. However, such conclusions are premature because (a) too few direct tests have been conducted of how variation in the levels of either specific or common factor interventions relate to outcome, (b) those prior investigations of specific and common factors and outcome have often been limited to examining linear relations between intervention use and outcome when curvilinear functions might better model their association, and (c) most studies of psychotherapy and outcome have failed to consider how interventions specific ...


Executive Incentives And Corporate Decisions: The Risk Management Channel, Jeremy O. Skog Dec 2009

Executive Incentives And Corporate Decisions: The Risk Management Channel, Jeremy O. Skog

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This paper provides evidence that insurance executives respond to their compensation incentives by adjusting observable risk-management policy variables – the reinsurance purchase decision, type of business conducted, and firm leverage. Executive incentives are modeled by the executive sensitivity of wealth to stock price (Delta) and stock volatility (Vega). Firms respond to increased executive incentives to bear risk by purchasing less reinsurance, but also conducting less business in long-tailed lines – a change which rewards the executive through increased market volatility. The cost of altering executive incentives to effect firm policy is much less than a similar change in firm structural variables.


Unpacking The Impact Of Restorative Justice In The Rise Experiments: Facilitators, Offenders, And Conference Non-Delivery, Daniel J. Woods Dec 2009

Unpacking The Impact Of Restorative Justice In The Rise Experiments: Facilitators, Offenders, And Conference Non-Delivery, Daniel J. Woods

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Restorative Justice (RJ) programs are often evaluated in terms of their outcomes, with little attention to the process. Typically we analyze average effects across individuals who experience RJ differently. The present dissertation unpacks these different effects in three separate inquiries utilizing data from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) conducted in Canberra, Australia from 1995 - 2000.

First, we descriptively assess the extent RJ conference facilitators engender perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy in offenders. We examine the number of conferences delivered (experience), sequential conferences (practice-makes-perfect) and the timing between conferences (skill maintenance). Certain conference facilitators are better than others from the ...


Dialect Boundaries And Phonological Change In Upstate New York, Aaron J. Dinkin Dec 2009

Dialect Boundaries And Phonological Change In Upstate New York, Aaron J. Dinkin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The eastern half of New York State is a dialectologically diverse region around which several dialect regions converge—the Inland North, New York City, Western New England, and Canada. These regions differ with respect to major parameters of North American English phonological variation; and therefore the interface between them is of interest because the location and structure of their boundaries can illuminate constraints on phonological changes and their geographic diffusion. In this dissertation, interviews with 119 speakers in New York State are conducted and phonetically analyzed in order to determine the dialect geography of this region in detail.

The sampled ...


Language Shift And The Speech Community: Sociolinguistic Change In A Garifuna Community In Belize, Maya Ravindranath Dec 2009

Language Shift And The Speech Community: Sociolinguistic Change In A Garifuna Community In Belize, Maya Ravindranath

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Language shift is the process by which a speech community in a contact situation (i.e. consisting of bilingual speakers) gradually stops using one of its two languages in favor of the other. The causal factors of language shift are generally considered to be social, and researchers have focused on speakers’ attitudes (both explicit and unstated) toward a language and domains of language use in the community, as well as other macro social factors. Additional research has focused on the effects of language shift, generally on the (changing) structure of the language itself. The goal of this thesis is to ...


Suspect Until Proven Guilty, A Problematization Of State Dossier Systems Via Two Case Studies: The United States And China, Kenneth N. Farrall Dec 2009

Suspect Until Proven Guilty, A Problematization Of State Dossier Systems Via Two Case Studies: The United States And China, Kenneth N. Farrall

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation problematizes the "state dossier system" (SDS): the production and accumulation of personal information on citizen subjects exceeding the reasonable bounds of risk management. SDS - comprising interconnecting subsystems of records and identification - damage individual autonomy and self-determination, impacting not only human rights, but also the viability of the social system. The research, a hybrid of case-study and cross-national comparison, was guided in part by a theoretical model of four primary SDS driving forces: technology, political economy, law and public sentiment. Data sources included government documents, academic texts, investigative journalism, NGO reports and industry white papers. The primary analytical instrument ...


The Permeability Of Dialect Boundaries: A Case Study Of The Region Surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania, Keelan Evanini Dec 2009

The Permeability Of Dialect Boundaries: A Case Study Of The Region Surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania, Keelan Evanini

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation presents a dialectological study of the city of Erie, Pennsylvania, and the neighboring towns in the boundary area between the North and Midland dialect regions. The field work conducted for this dissertation consists of interviews, word lists, minimal pair tests, and grammatical acceptability judgments. In total, data from 106 speakers was analyzed to determine the course of linguistic change in the city of Erie and the current location of the dialect boundaries in the neighboring regions. In order to process the acoustic data from this large corpus, the methodology of transcription and subsequent forced alignment was applied. In ...


Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow Dec 2009

Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study seeks to determine the effects of the local uninsurance rate on the quality of care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries. While a great deal of research exists on the negative consequences of uninsurance for the uninsured, few studies have attempted to address the spillover effects of this population to the health care system in a local market. Theory suggests that a high local uninsurance rate in a market has the potential to cause a decrease in the shared quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. It also suggests however that a higher uninsurance rate may result in increases in ...


Us Mortality In An International Context: Age Variations, Jessica Y. Ho, Samuel H. Preston Dec 2009

Us Mortality In An International Context: Age Variations, Jessica Y. Ho, Samuel H. Preston

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Antisymmetry And The Conservation Of C-Command: Scrambling And Phrase Structure In Synchronic And Diachronic Perspective, Joel C. Wallenberg Dec 2009

Antisymmetry And The Conservation Of C-Command: Scrambling And Phrase Structure In Synchronic And Diachronic Perspective, Joel C. Wallenberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Holmberg’s Generalization (Holmberg 1986) was originally stated to describe the “object shift” phenomena found in the modern Scandinavian languages. This dissertation argues that object shift is merely a subcase of scrambling, a type of adjunction, and that Holmberg’s Generalization is a subcase of a universal constraint, the “Generalized Holmberg Constraint” (GHC), which prohibits leftward scrambling across c-commanding functional heads. The existence of such a constraint turns out to have ramifications far beyond the analysis of scrambling itself, and the predictions it makes ultimately form an extended argument in favor of a universal antisymmetric approach to phrase structure (Kayne ...


Online Political Participation In The 2008 U.S. Presidential Election: Mobilizing Or Reinforcing?, Kenneth M. Winneg Dec 2009

Online Political Participation In The 2008 U.S. Presidential Election: Mobilizing Or Reinforcing?, Kenneth M. Winneg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Participation is at the core of democratic society. However, studies have shown that participation is biased toward those who are better educated, more affluent, and in greater possession of civic skills. Scholars have pointed to the Internet as a possible remedy for the disparity in participation for its potential to lower barriers and increase access to those who lack the time, money, and/or necessary civic skills. Research has been mixed about whether the Internet mobilizes new or marginalized participants to the electoral process, simply reinforces those who are active in that process already, or does both. In the 2008 ...


Double Sample To Minimize Bias Due To Non-Response In A Mail Survey, Herbert L. Smith Dec 2009

Double Sample To Minimize Bias Due To Non-Response In A Mail Survey, Herbert L. Smith

PSC Working Paper Series

A large study of nurses conducted in the U.S. states of California (CA) and Pennsylvania (PA) is based on two large samples: n^CA≈100,000 and n^PA≈65,000. The study was conducted by mail and had response rates of: p^CA=.27 and p^PA=.39 ;; the number of respondents is thus, respectively, : n_1^CA≈28,000 and n_1^PA≈25,000. Although there are many respondents, we must concern ourselves with the possibility of substantial bias due to non-response. In order to estimate and correct for this bias, a second random sample (n_01=1,300 ...


Media Transitions In The Rear-View Mirror: Some Reflections, Monroe Price Dec 2009

Media Transitions In The Rear-View Mirror: Some Reflections, Monroe Price

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This essay explores the development of media systems in Central and Eastern Europe in the post-Soviet period, including the influence of social and political factors, outside media assistance, and the drive toward privatization and public service broadcasting, in an effort to understand what the experience teaches about democracy promotion, about the efficacy of various forms of media intervention, and about the utility of various forms of incentives and pressures in setting agendas and effecting political change. Despite differing historical, social, and political traditions and different forms of and reactions to media assistance efforts, factors, both exogenous (“Americanization” and “strategic communication ...


Modeling The Birth And Death Of Cartels With An Application To Evaluating Competition Policy, Joseph E. Harrington Jr, Myong-Hun Chang Dec 2009

Modeling The Birth And Death Of Cartels With An Application To Evaluating Competition Policy, Joseph E. Harrington Jr, Myong-Hun Chang

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

One of the primary challenges to measuring the impact of antitrust or competition policy on collusion is that the cartel population is unobservable; we observe only the population of discovered cartels. To address this challenge, a model of cartel creation and dissolution is developed to endogenously derive the populations of cartels and discovered cartels. With this theory, one can infer the impact of competition policy on the population of cartels by measuring its impact on the population of discovered cartels. In particular, changes in the duration of discovered cartels can be informative in assessing whether a new policy is reducing ...


Modelling The Birth And Death Of Cartels With An Application To Evaluating Competition Policy, Joseph E. Harrington Jr Dec 2009

Modelling The Birth And Death Of Cartels With An Application To Evaluating Competition Policy, Joseph E. Harrington Jr

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

One of the primary challenges to measuring the impact of antitrust or competition policy on collusion is that the cartel population is unobservable; we observe only the population of discovered cartels. To address this challenge, a model of cartel creation and dissolution is developed to endogenously derive the populations of cartels and discovered cartels. With this theory, one can infer the impact of competition policy on the population of cartels by measuring its impact on the population of discovered cartels. In particular, changes in the duration of discovered cartels can be informative in assessing whether a new policy is reducing ...


Peer-Induced Fairness In Games, Teck-Hua Ho, Xuanming Su Dec 2009

Peer-Induced Fairness In Games, Teck-Hua Ho, Xuanming Su

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

People exhibit peer-induced fairness concerns when they look to their peers as a reference to evaluate their endowments. We analyze two independent ultimatum games played sequentially by a leader and two followers. With peer-induced fairness, the second follower is averse to receiving less than the first follower. Using laboratory experimental data, we estimate that peer-induced fairness between followers is two times stronger than distributional fairness between leader and follower. Allowing for heterogeneity, we find that 50 percent of subjects are fairness-minded. We discuss how peer-induced fairness might limit price discrimination, account for low variability in CEO compensation, and explain pattern ...


Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther Dec 2009

Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Previous research has shown an ‘interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect’: intergroup interactions generally lead to less cooperative outcomes than interindividual interactions. We replicate the discontinuity effect in the deterministic prisoner’s dilemma, but find that groups are more cooperative than individuals in a stochastic version of the game. Three major factors that underlie the usual discontinuity effect are reduced in the stochastic environment: greed, fear, and persuasion power. Two group mechanisms are proposed to explain the reversed discontinuity effect: the motivation to avoid guilt and blame when making decisions that affect others’ welfare, and the social pressure to conform to certain norms ...


From Food And Fuel To Farms And Flocks: The Integration Of Plant And Animal Remains In The Study Of The Agropastoral Economy At Gordion, Turkey, Naomi F. Miller, Melinda A. Zeder, Susan R. Arter Dec 2009

From Food And Fuel To Farms And Flocks: The Integration Of Plant And Animal Remains In The Study Of The Agropastoral Economy At Gordion, Turkey, Naomi F. Miller, Melinda A. Zeder, Susan R. Arter

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Papers

The site of Gordion, Turkey, provides a case study of the integrated use of archaeobiological data. Associations between botanical and faunal remains suggest a continuum of land‐use practices. At one end, high ratios of the seeds of wild plants versus cultivated cereal grains (calculated as count/weight) and high proportions of the bones of sheep, goat, and deer are signatures of a subsistence economy focused on pastoral production. At the other, low wild/cereal ratios along with high proportions of the bones of cattle, pig, and hare indicate an economy more focused on agriculture. Based on the millennium‐long ...


Can Interim Assessments Be Used For Instructional Change, Margaret E. Goertz, Leslie Nabors Olah, Matthew Riggan Dec 2009

Can Interim Assessments Be Used For Instructional Change, Margaret E. Goertz, Leslie Nabors Olah, Matthew Riggan

CPRE Policy Briefs

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the use of interim assessments and the policy supports that promote their use to change instruction, focusing on elementary school mathematics. The study looked at how 45 elementary school teachers in a purposive sample of 9 schools in 2 districts used interim assessments in mathematics in 2006-07. The study focused on teachers' use of data in a cycle of instructional improvement; that is, how teachers gather or access evidence about student learning; analyze and interpret that evidence; use evidence to plan instruction; and carry out improved instruction.

Authors conclude that interim ...


Report On The Progress Of The In-Step Pilot Program, 2008-2009, Thomas B. Corcoran Dec 2009

Report On The Progress Of The In-Step Pilot Program, 2008-2009, Thomas B. Corcoran

CPRE Research Reports

This is the second report on the progress of the Inquiry Based Science and Technology Education Program (IN-STEP), an innovative science education initiative being implemented in the lower secondary schools of Phang-nga province. Sponsored by MSD Thailand, a pharmaceutical company, and supported by funding from its parent company, Merck & Co., Inc., IN-STEP is being implemented by a public-private partnership led by the Kenan Institute Asia (K.I.Asia), which, besides MSD Thailand and Merck & Co., includes the Thai Ministry of Education (MOE), the Merck Institute for Science Education (MISE), the Educational Services Area Office (ESAO) in Phang-nga province, the Institute ...


Post-Conversion Experiences Of African-American Male Sunni Muslims: Community Integration And Masculinity In Twenty-First Century Philadelphia, Brian L. Coleman Dec 2009

Post-Conversion Experiences Of African-American Male Sunni Muslims: Community Integration And Masculinity In Twenty-First Century Philadelphia, Brian L. Coleman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

African American males form the largest category of converts to Sunni Islam in the US. This study aimed at understanding the ways in which the conversion process impacted social connections, both preexisting connections and creation and fostering of new ones post-conversion. This study sought to capture this understanding from the perspective of the converts themselves, in their own voices. Specifically, this study explored the ways in which conversion to Sunni Islam among African American men living in Philadelphia impacted their relationships with family members, friends, neighborhood members, those in the broader African American community, and in places of employment.

This ...


2009 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann Dec 2009

2009 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Group Genetic Ancestry Of Populations From Philadelphia And Dakar In The Context Of Sex-Biased Admixture In The Americas, Klara Stefflova, Matthew C. Dulik, Athma A. Pai, Amy H. Walker, Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson, Serigne M. Gueye, Theodore G. Schurr, Timothy R. Rebbeck Nov 2009

Evaluation Of Group Genetic Ancestry Of Populations From Philadelphia And Dakar In The Context Of Sex-Biased Admixture In The Americas, Klara Stefflova, Matthew C. Dulik, Athma A. Pai, Amy H. Walker, Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson, Serigne M. Gueye, Theodore G. Schurr, Timothy R. Rebbeck

Department of Anthropology Papers

Background

Population history can be reflected in group genetic ancestry, where genomic variation captured by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) can separate female- and male-specific admixture processes. Genetic ancestry may influence genetic association studies due to differences in individual admixture within recently admixed populations like African Americans.

Principal Findings

We evaluated the genetic ancestry of Senegalese as well as European Americans and African Americans from Philadelphia. Senegalese mtDNA consisted of ~12% U haplotypes (U6 and U5b1b haplotypes, common in North Africa) while the NRY haplotypes belonged solely to haplogroup E. In Philadelphia, we ...


Energy Use In Penn's Student Housing And Techniques To Achieve Energy Reduction, Brandon Gollotti Nov 2009

Energy Use In Penn's Student Housing And Techniques To Achieve Energy Reduction, Brandon Gollotti

Urban Studies Senior Seminar Papers

Institutions of higher education have a profound role in the battle against climate change. From making large purchases to educating thousands of people in a localized setting, universities and colleges can truly make a difference. While instituting large-scale changes are difficult and can take years, small initiatives are necessary to achieve to the overarching goal of creating a sustainable university. The purpose of this thesis is to look at electricity consumption in student housing and specific techniques to achieve energy reduction at this level of the university. The paper seeks to advise the University of Pennsylvania’s Facilities and Real ...


Hierarchical Regression Modeling For Language Research, Kyle Gorman Nov 2009

Hierarchical Regression Modeling For Language Research, Kyle Gorman

IRCS Technical Reports Series

I demonstrate the application of hierarchical regression modeling, a state-of-the-art technique for statistical inference, to language research. First, a stable sociolinguistic variable in Philadelphia (Labov, 2001) is reconsidered, with attention paid to the treatment of collinearities among socioeconomic predictors. I then demonstrate the use of hierarchical models to account for the random sampling of subjects and items in an experimental setting, using data from a study of word-learning in the face of tonal variation (Quam and Swingley, forthcoming). The results from these case studies demonstrate that modeling sampling from the population has empirical consequences.


Media In The Peace-Building Process: Ethiopia And Iraq, Monroe Price, Ibrahim Al Marashi, Nicole A. Stremlau Nov 2009

Media In The Peace-Building Process: Ethiopia And Iraq, Monroe Price, Ibrahim Al Marashi, Nicole A. Stremlau

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Within the broad context of the major issues facing the international development community, Public Sentinel: News Media & Governance Reform focuses on the performance of the news media as an institution in addressing the challenges of governance. The book seeks to consider three related issues: What ideal roles should media systems play to strengthen democratic governance and thus bolster human development? Under what conditions do media systems actually succeed or fail to fulfill these objectives? What policy interventions work most effectively to close the substantial gap which exists between the democratic promise and performance of the news media as an institution?


Schizophrenic Relations, Barbie Zelizer Nov 2009

Schizophrenic Relations, Barbie Zelizer

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Last November, a conference hosted by the Institute of Applied Media Studies in Winterthur, Switzerland, examined the relationships among journalism, scholarship and the public interest. Barbie Zelizer, director of the Annenberg Scholars Program in Culture and Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, lead the discussion sharing insight and incisive research on what she deems, "the schizophrenic treatment of journalism." Zelizer was kind enough to provide EJO with the research paper she presented, entitled, "What Can Journalism Scholarship Tell Us About Journalism?"


Dynamic Pricing Without Knowing The Demand Function: Risk Bounds And Near-Optimal Algorithms, Omar Besbes, Assaf Zeevi Nov 2009

Dynamic Pricing Without Knowing The Demand Function: Risk Bounds And Near-Optimal Algorithms, Omar Besbes, Assaf Zeevi

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We consider a single-product revenue management problem where, given an initial inventory, the objective is to dynamically adjust prices over a finite sales horizon to maximize expected revenues. Realized demand is observed over time, but the underlying functional relationship between price and mean demand rate that governs these observations (otherwise known as the demand function or demand curve) is not known. We consider two instances of this problem: (i) a setting where the demand function is assumed to belong to a known parametric family with unknown parameter values; and (ii) a setting where the demand function is assumed to belong ...


The Convergence Between For-Profit And Nonprofit Hospitals In The United States, Guy David Nov 2009

The Convergence Between For-Profit And Nonprofit Hospitals In The United States, Guy David

Health Care Management Papers

This paper proposes a novel model of the hospital industry in the United States in which firms in effect choose their ownership type and the regulatory and tax regimes under which they must function. Accordingly, I develop a model in which firms have identical objectives but differ in their ability to benefit from a given ownership form. Changes in the economic environment alter firms’ incentives to maintain a given ownership type. This in turn induces firms to modify their capacity and encourages some firms to switch ownership type. One implication of this model is that changes in the economic environment ...


Extending The Generalized Multinomial Logit Model: Error Scale And Decision-Maker Characteristics, Eleanor M. Feit Nov 2009

Extending The Generalized Multinomial Logit Model: Error Scale And Decision-Maker Characteristics, Eleanor M. Feit

Marketing Papers

This essay contributes to the development of models that allow for heterogeneity across respondents in the error scale of the multinomial logit model. The potential to explain respondent heterogeneity by differences in error scale has been recognized for some time (Louviere 2001), but models that allow for continuous error scale heterogeneity have only recently been developed (Sonnier, Ainslie and Otter 2007, Keane et al. 2009). The most general of these models is the “Generalized Multinomial Logit Model” (G-MNL), which allows for heterogeneity both in error scale and all attribute preferences, including the price attribute (Keane et al. 2009). We further ...