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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2009

University of Massachusetts Boston

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Articles 1 - 30 of 117

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Halting The Race To The Bottom: Urgent Interventions For The Improvement Of The Education Of English Language Learners In Massachusetts And Selected Districts, English Language Learners Sub-Committee, Massachusetts Board Of Elementary And Secondary Education Dec 2009

Halting The Race To The Bottom: Urgent Interventions For The Improvement Of The Education Of English Language Learners In Massachusetts And Selected Districts, English Language Learners Sub-Committee, Massachusetts Board Of Elementary And Secondary Education

Gastón Institute Publications

Massachusetts students of limited English proficiency do better academically than students of limited English proficiency in other states. But relative to other students in the state, students of limited English proficiency in Massachusetts face a disadvantage greater than that faced by their peers in most states. This suggests that while the overall higher levels of education in the state benefit LEPs in Massachusetts relative to LEPs who attend schools in states where the quality of education is lower, current policy and practice leads to significantly greater inequality in this state. As the state takes steps to improve performance for all ...


Between A Rock And A Soft Place: Ecological And Feminist Economics In Policy Debates, Julie A. Nelson Nov 2009

Between A Rock And A Soft Place: Ecological And Feminist Economics In Policy Debates, Julie A. Nelson

Economics Faculty Publication Series

The field of ecological economics includes both economic analysis on the one hand, and discussions of normative values and visions for society, on the other. Using feminist insights into cultural beliefs about the relative “hardness” and “softness” of these two sides, this essay discusses how ecological economists can use this unique “between” space in order to better inform policy. The current crisis of global climate change, it is argued, requires that economists move beyond modeling and measurement, while ecological thinkers need to re-examine beliefs about markets and profit.


Data Note: Job Seekers With Disabilities At One-Stop Career Centers: An Examination Of Registration For Wagner-Peyser Funded Employment Services From 2002 To 2007, David Hoff, Frank A. Smith Nov 2009

Data Note: Job Seekers With Disabilities At One-Stop Career Centers: An Examination Of Registration For Wagner-Peyser Funded Employment Services From 2002 To 2007, David Hoff, Frank A. Smith

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

The Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 established a nationwide system of public employment services, known as the Employment Service. Wagner-Peyser funds are a primary source of funding for the services of One-Stop Career Centers that provide employment services available to all people, including people with disabilities. This data note examines trends on a national and state-by-state basis in the number and percentage of job seekers who self-identified as having disabilities who register for Wagner-Peyser Employment Services.


Rationality And Humanity: A View From Feminist Economics, Julie A. Nelson Oct 2009

Rationality And Humanity: A View From Feminist Economics, Julie A. Nelson

Economics Faculty Publication Series

DOES RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY (RCT) HAVE SOMETHING IMPORTANT to contribute to the humanities? Usually the arguments for answering “yes” to this question go something like the following: The application of RCT has proved to be a powerful tool in economics and the social sciences, leading to clear and rigorous insights unattainable from less precise methods. Therefore, by also harnessing this power, the disciplines in the humanities could advance toward becoming more elegant, rational, and forceful in their explorations of human behavior. As an economist, I’d like to address this argument on its home ground. Has the use of RCT ...


Carbon Capture And Storage: Combining Economic Analysis With Expert Elicitations To Inform Climate Policy, Erin D. Baker, Haewon Chon, Jeffrey M. Keisler Oct 2009

Carbon Capture And Storage: Combining Economic Analysis With Expert Elicitations To Inform Climate Policy, Erin D. Baker, Haewon Chon, Jeffrey M. Keisler

Management Science and Information Systems Faculty Publication Series

The relationship between R&D investments and technical change is inherently uncertain. In this paper we combine economics and decision analysis to incorporate the uncertainty of technical change into climate change policy analysis. We present the results of an expert elicitation on the prospects for technical change in carbon capture and storage. We find a significant amount of disagreement between experts, even over the most mature technology; and this disagreement is most pronounced in regards to cost estimates. We then use the results of the expert elicitations as inputs to the MiniCAM integrated assessment model, to derive probabilistic information about the impacts of R&D investments on the costs of emissions abatement. We conclude that we need to gather more information about the technical and societal potential for Carbon Storage; cost differences among the different capture technologies play a relatively smaller role.


Migration Theory In The Domestic Context: North-South Labor Movement In Brazil, Terry-Ann Jones Sep 2009

Migration Theory In The Domestic Context: North-South Labor Movement In Brazil, Terry-Ann Jones

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Sugar cane has remained central to the Brazilian economy, and increasingly so as rising petroleum prices spark an increase in the demand for ethanol. As a world leader in sugar cane based ethanol production, Brazil has a need for low-skilled, low-wage workers in this industry. As petroleum prices rise, and with them the demand for biofuels, the incentives to produce more sugar cane in Brazil have fueled the demand for labor on plantations and in sugar mills. In Brazil's sugar-producing regions of the central and southeastern states, the labor demands in the fields are primarily filled by migrants. However ...


The International Peace And Conflict Dimensions Of Jamaican And Haitian Diasporas, Stewart Prest, Andrew Harrington, Per Unheim, David Carment Sep 2009

The International Peace And Conflict Dimensions Of Jamaican And Haitian Diasporas, Stewart Prest, Andrew Harrington, Per Unheim, David Carment

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This article assesses the impact of diaspora communities (defined as transnational populations that play an active role in both home and adoptive societies simultaneously) on instability and insecurity in their home countries, and contributes some preliminary thoughts on the potential for diaspora communities to contribute to peace building there. Haitian and Jamaican diasporas are presented as case studies. The article explores the nature of 'conflict' in both countries using two analytical lenses, one drawing on traditional theories of peace and conflict found in the relevant literature, and another from the views of diaspora members themselves. Taken together, the two perspectives ...


Transnational Identity Maintenance Via The Internet: A Content Analysis Of The Websites Constructed By Second Generation Caribbean-Origin Students In Post–Secondary Institutions, Dwaine Plaza Sep 2009

Transnational Identity Maintenance Via The Internet: A Content Analysis Of The Websites Constructed By Second Generation Caribbean-Origin Students In Post–Secondary Institutions, Dwaine Plaza

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Using a methodology of content analysis of Internet Websites constructed by second generation Caribbeans in the United States, Canada and Great Britain (n=50), this article reveals how websites act as a symbolic bridge that connects familiar Creole cultural values and practices with the second generations' feelings of object loss and cultural mourning. The analysis also reveals that many second generation Caribbean-origin university and college students are living both "here" and "there" on a transnational "hyphen." For many, their ethnicity and cultural identity is fluid, situational and volitional. Their identity is often based on a dynamic process in which boundaries ...


Residential Patterns And Political Empowerment Among Jamaicans And Haitians In The U.S. Metropolis: The Role Of Ethnicity In New York And South Florida, Cédric Audebert Sep 2009

Residential Patterns And Political Empowerment Among Jamaicans And Haitians In The U.S. Metropolis: The Role Of Ethnicity In New York And South Florida, Cédric Audebert

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This article explores the connection between residential concentration of two prominent national groups of Caribbean descent--Jamaicans and Haitians--and their contribution to the making of a West Indian political power in the United States. Considering the significance of place (destination and origin) as major point in Caribbean social experience abroad, it focuses on a double comparative perspective in which Jamaican and Haitian immigrant experiences display similarities as well as differences, in two different metropolitan contexts. The analysis focuses on New York and the South Florida metropolitan area of Miami-Ft. Lauderdale where the majority of Black Caribbean immigrants in the United States ...


Deporting Diaspora’S Future? Forced Transnationalism And Generational Conflicts In The Haitian Community Of Montreal, Heike Drotbohm Sep 2009

Deporting Diaspora’S Future? Forced Transnationalism And Generational Conflicts In The Haitian Community Of Montreal, Heike Drotbohm

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

In recent years, and particularly since 9/11/2001, more and more delinquent Haitian youth have been deported from Canada back to Haiti. In this article the author analyzes the generation-specific reactions and statements within the migrant community. Elder migrants perceive of the deportation as a threat to their home country and as an assault upon their personal migration projects. For the younger generation, in contrast, the issue is rather one of negotiating one's role within the migrant community and of coming to terms with their own life prospects in Canada. Both kinds of reactions become comprehensible if set ...


Editor's Note: Migrating Identities And Perspectives, Mohammad H. Tamdgidi Sep 2009

Editor's Note: Migrating Identities And Perspectives, Mohammad H. Tamdgidi

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This is an editor's note to the Fall 2009 issue of Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, on the theme "Migrating Identities and Perspectives: Latin America and the Caribbean in Local and Global Contexts." The editor argues--reflecting on his own lack of a sense of identity as a migrant despite being one--that migrating back and forth from the personal to the global, from the international to the domestic and local, from one academic culture and disciplinary tradition to others, from the examination of one social dimension to others, etc., all require an openness to theories and praxes ...


Introduction: Identity Formation And Migration Focusing On Latin America And The Caribbean, Terry-Ann Jones, Eric Mielants Sep 2009

Introduction: Identity Formation And Migration Focusing On Latin America And The Caribbean, Terry-Ann Jones, Eric Mielants

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This is an introduction by coeditors to the articles published in this issue of Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge. The journal issue focuses on the complexity of identity formations experienced by migrants in the world-system, with a regional focus on Latin America and the Caribbean which have been at the heart of many recent scholarly debates in migration studies and the subsequent emergence of transnationalism. The current issue can be therefore understood as an attempt to establish an intellectual dialogue between different academic disciplines, as well as theoretical perspectives.


'Roots Run Deep Here': The Construction Of Black New Orleans In Post-Katrina Tourism Narratives, Lynnell L. Thomas Sep 2009

'Roots Run Deep Here': The Construction Of Black New Orleans In Post-Katrina Tourism Narratives, Lynnell L. Thomas

American Studies Faculty Publication Series

This article explores the emergent post-Katrina tourism narrative and its ambivalent racialization of the city. Tourism officials are compelled to acknowledge a New Orleans outside the traditional tourist boundaries – primarily black, often poor, and still largely neglected by the city and national governments. On the other hand, tourism promoters do not relinquish (and do not allow tourists to relinquish) the myths of racial exoticism and white supremacist desire for a construction of blacks as artistically talented but socially inferior.


Housing And The Financial Crisis: Causes, Consequences, Cures, Michael E. Stone Sep 2009

Housing And The Financial Crisis: Causes, Consequences, Cures, Michael E. Stone

Community Studies Faculty Publication Series

Thls paper explains the central role of housing in the financial crisis. It demonstrates the interaction among five categories of problems in precipitating the crisis: wide and widening inequality; persistent and pervasive racism in the provision of housing; treating housing as a speculative commodity; overdependence of housing on debt; public policies that have exacerbated the other factors. It concludes with proposals for a set of fundamental structural change in the systems of housing ownership and finance


Counting On Care Work: Human Infrastructure In Massachusetts, Randy Albelda, Mignon Duffy, Nancy Folbre Sep 2009

Counting On Care Work: Human Infrastructure In Massachusetts, Randy Albelda, Mignon Duffy, Nancy Folbre

Center for Social Policy Publications

In Massachusetts, as in every other place in the world, all children need to be cared for and educated, everybody has physical and mental health needs that require attention, and some individuals need assistance with the daily tasks of life because of illness, age, or disability. The labor of meeting these needs – which we call care work – is a complex activity that has profound implications for personal, social and economic well-being. Care work is not just a cornerstone of our economy – it is a rock-bottom foundation. Care work provides the basis for our human infrastructure, and we need it to ...


Data Note: Patterns Of State, County, And Local Id/Dd Funding Allocation, Jean E. Winsor Sep 2009

Data Note: Patterns Of State, County, And Local Id/Dd Funding Allocation, Jean E. Winsor

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

State, County, and Local ID/DD dollars are one of the largest sources of funds for day and employment services; additionally as a funding source that is directly controlled within each state it is one of the most flexible sources of dollars for day and employment services. The allocation of these funds varied based upon year and service category: integrated employment, community based non-work, facility based work, and facility based non-work.


Florida Boating Access Facilities Inventory And Economic Study, Including A Pilot Study For Lee County: A Report To The Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission, Urban Harbors Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston, Bordner Research, Inc., Recreational Marine Research Center Of Michigan State University, Center For Urban And Environmental Solutions Of Florida Atlantic University, Environmental Economics, Inc., Planning And Zoning Center Of Michigan State University, Resource Economics Research, Llc Aug 2009

Florida Boating Access Facilities Inventory And Economic Study, Including A Pilot Study For Lee County: A Report To The Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission, Urban Harbors Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston, Bordner Research, Inc., Recreational Marine Research Center Of Michigan State University, Center For Urban And Environmental Solutions Of Florida Atlantic University, Environmental Economics, Inc., Planning And Zoning Center Of Michigan State University, Resource Economics Research, Llc

Urban Harbors Institute Publications

This report describes the work program and results of the "Statewide Boating Access Facilities Inventory and Economic Study Including a Pilot Study for Lee County, Florida" commissioned by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) in 2005. The study was funded in part by a grant to the FWC from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and by Lee County. The scope and objectives of the study are summarized in the introduction, and the subsequent sections report on the various components of the study.

For many years, Florida has been among the fastest growing states in the nation ...


Stages Of Judgment Citizen Court Experiment Report, Courtney Breese Aug 2009

Stages Of Judgment Citizen Court Experiment Report, Courtney Breese

Massachusetts Office of Public Collaboration Publications

Over the past several years, the Massachusetts Office of Dispute Resolution and Public Collaboration (MODR) has worked with the Kettering Foundation to establish a Public Policy Institute (PPI) for public deliberation at the University of Massachusetts Boston. In June 2008, the Kettering Foundation invited MODR to join other research partners across the country in a research experiment influenced by Daniel Yankelovich‟s Seven Stages of Public Understanding. The purpose of this experiment is to test how effectively a citizen court process model communicates public opinion on contentious public policy issues to public officials and the media.

MODR agreed to join ...


Assessing Stakeholder Opinions Of Medical Review Of Impaired Drivers And Fitness To Drive: Recommendations For Massachusetts, Nina M. Silverstein, Kelli Barton Aug 2009

Assessing Stakeholder Opinions Of Medical Review Of Impaired Drivers And Fitness To Drive: Recommendations For Massachusetts, Nina M. Silverstein, Kelli Barton

Gerontology Institute Publications

Driving is the main mode of travel for Americans age 65 and older, and although older adults are generally found to be safe drivers, aging often brings about functional limitations and an increase in medications that can impede safe driving and fitness to drive (Rosenbloom, 2003; Kissinger, 2008; Adler & Silverstein, 2008). Effective licensing policies and Medical Advisory Board practices are critical components in identifying medically at-risk drivers and may even have a role in the transition to alternative transportation options; yet, states vary greatly in their approach to licensing and renewal practices and in the utilization, composition, and function of Medical Advisory Boards (MAB). For many of the policies and practices, there is limited or no clear evidence about their effectiveness. Thus, seeking the opinions of the stakeholders most closely involved ...


"That Charm Of Remoteness": A Study Of Landscape Stability In Little Compton, Rhode Island, Katharine M. Johnson Aug 2009

"That Charm Of Remoteness": A Study Of Landscape Stability In Little Compton, Rhode Island, Katharine M. Johnson

Graduate Masters Theses

Little Compton, Rhode Island has long been considered a stable, isolated and rural location relative to surrounding towns and cities. A geophysical and archaeological examination in the front yards of the Wilbor house and Brownell farm was undertaken in order to gain a better understanding about how residents of the town maintained stable, rural lifeways during the period of industrialization and urbanization that characterized the rest of the state in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The results from these examinations revealed that there was a distinct lack of features and landscaping changes in the archaeological record in the ...


Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson, Neva Goodwin Jul 2009

Teaching Ecological And Feminist Economics In The Principles Course, Julie A. Nelson, Neva Goodwin

Economics Faculty Publication Series

It can be difficult to incorporate ecological and feminist concerns into introductory courses, when one is also obliged to teach neoclassical analysis. In this essay we briefly describe how one might extend existing “multi-paradigmatic” approaches to feminist and ecological concerns, and then present an new alternative approach that may be more suitable for some students. This “broader questions and bigger toolbox” approach can be applied in both microeconomics and macroeconomics introductory classrooms.


The Pension Factor: Assessing The Role Of Defined Benefit Plans In Reducing Elder Hardships, Frank Porell, Beth Almeida Jul 2009

The Pension Factor: Assessing The Role Of Defined Benefit Plans In Reducing Elder Hardships, Frank Porell, Beth Almeida

Gerontology Institute Publications

Traditional defined benefit (DB) pension plans have long been an important source of income for elder households seeking to maintain a middle-class standard of living after a lifetime of work. Under traditional DB plans, retirees receive a guaranteed, regular stream of income after retirement that continues until death.

The monthly pension benefit is typically based on years of service to the employer, age, and salary history. Retirees also have the option to elect a joint-and-survivor benefit, to ensure that pension payments continue to a surviving spouse. DB plan participation rates among private sector American workers have sharply decreased from about ...


Data Note: Work Incentives And Ssi Recipients With Intellectual Disabilities, Frank A. Smith, John Butterworth Jul 2009

Data Note: Work Incentives And Ssi Recipients With Intellectual Disabilities, Frank A. Smith, John Butterworth

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

Congress has enacted a number of work incentive programs for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients with disabilities after concluding additional incentives were necessary to help individuals become self-supporting. Moreover, Congress has noted that individuals who could work outside of sheltered workshops might have been discouraged from doing so by the fear of losing their benefits before they had established for themselves the capability for continued self-support. In this Data Note, we explore the degree to which SSI recipients with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) work and participate in these incentive programs.


Unaffordable “Affordable” Housing: Challenging The U.S. Department Of Housing And Urban Development Area Median Income, Michael E. Stone Jul 2009

Unaffordable “Affordable” Housing: Challenging The U.S. Department Of Housing And Urban Development Area Median Income, Michael E. Stone

Center for Social Policy Publications

There is no such thing as “affordable” housing. Affordability is not a characteristic of housing: It is a relationship between housing and people. For some people, all housing is affordable, no matter how expensive. For others, no housing is affordable, no matter how cheap.


Green Pond Harbor Management Plan (Draft), Urban Harbors Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jul 2009

Green Pond Harbor Management Plan (Draft), Urban Harbors Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Urban Harbors Institute Publications

Green Pond is one of a number of coastal ponds in Falmouth. It covers over 135 acres and is an important natural and recreational resource for the people of Falmouth and visitors. Most of the area around the pond is private residential property interspersed with a few commercial businesses and open space. As with other areas of Massachusetts, the tidelands around the pond fall within the jurisdiction of Chapter 91 (the Massachusetts Public Waterfront Act). Through Chapter 91, the Commonwealth seeks to preserve and protect the rights of the public, and to guarantee that private uses of tidelands and waterways ...


Massachusetts Adult Basic Education And Esol Distance Learning Programs: How To Assess Student Readiness For Distance Learning?, Berna Kahraman, Amelia Mallona, Donna H. Friedman, Sarah Kuck Jalbert Jun 2009

Massachusetts Adult Basic Education And Esol Distance Learning Programs: How To Assess Student Readiness For Distance Learning?, Berna Kahraman, Amelia Mallona, Donna H. Friedman, Sarah Kuck Jalbert

Center for Social Policy Publications

This report presents the findings from the pilot screening process prepared by the Center for Social Policy (CSP) and implemented during December 2008-March 2009 by the adult basic education (ABE) online learning programs in MA which are funded by the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE). The purposes of the pilot process were:

  • To determine the effectiveness of screening tools in assessing participant characteristics, such as the skills, demographics, and life circumstances that are associated with success in online learning;
  • To identify supports and interventions which students need in order to persist and succeed in online learning.

At the ...


Interdisciplinary Studies And Scholarship: Issues, Challenges, And Implications For “Third World” Development And Social Change, Samuel Zalanga Jun 2009

Interdisciplinary Studies And Scholarship: Issues, Challenges, And Implications For “Third World” Development And Social Change, Samuel Zalanga

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

The world has always been confronted with complex problems that defy simple solutions via monistic disciplinary approach. This challenge has become highly pronounced from the last quarter of the twentieth century to date under the regime of neoliberal globalization. This article briefly addresses the theme of interdisciplinary studies as an important solution to complex problems that defy monistic disciplinary solutions. It defines interdisciplinary studies and differentiates it from multidisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. It highlights the different approaches to interdisciplinary studies and the social characteristics of people who are best able to engage in interdisciplinary scholarship. The article concludes by applying the ...


The Structure Of Higher Learning In Fin-De-Siècle America: Bureaucracy, Statistical Accounting, And Sociocultural Change, Donald A. Nielsen Jun 2009

The Structure Of Higher Learning In Fin-De-Siècle America: Bureaucracy, Statistical Accounting, And Sociocultural Change, Donald A. Nielsen

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This article draws on the ideas of Thorstein Veblen to diagnose current trends in the higher learning in America. It focuses on the increasing rationalization, bureaucratization and emphasis on statistical accounting as well as the dominance of administrative elites within the middle levels of higher education. It traces the impact of these methods throughout a range of academic areas, including hiring and evaluation of faculty, the place of students, the content and conduct of intellectual programs, and the operation more generally of the academic organization.


Activist Learning Vs. Service Learning In A Women's Studies Classroom, Anne Bubriski, Ingrid Semaan Jun 2009

Activist Learning Vs. Service Learning In A Women's Studies Classroom, Anne Bubriski, Ingrid Semaan

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Various scholars assert that teaching and discussing feminist literature written by and about women constitutes activism. While we agree that integrating Women's Studies into college and university curricula is a radical act and an important step toward broader social change, we argue that Women's Studies programs must see promoting feminist scholarship as a beginning point, and not an end point. We argue that faculty members must teach students to merge feminist theory with social action in order to transform systemic gender, class, and race inequalities. At a time when there are few strong and vibrant social movements and ...


Surviving "Acceptable" Victimization, Penelope Roode Jun 2009

Surviving "Acceptable" Victimization, Penelope Roode

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

In this paper the author demonstrates the occurrence of child abuse using her own history, and explain child abuse using the work of several psychologists and other experts. She also shows methods of recovery she has used and includes methods recommended by experts.