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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Epigenetics Of Sex Differences In The Brain, Geert De Vries, M. M. Mccarthy, A. P. Auger, T. L. Bale, G. A. Dunn, N. G. Forger, E. K. Murray, B. M. Nugent, J. M. Schwarz, M. E. Wilson Oct 2009

The Epigenetics Of Sex Differences In The Brain, Geert De Vries, M. M. Mccarthy, A. P. Auger, T. L. Bale, G. A. Dunn, N. G. Forger, E. K. Murray, B. M. Nugent, J. M. Schwarz, M. E. Wilson

Geert De Vries

Epigenetic changes in the nervous system are emerging as a critical component of enduring effects induced by early life experience, hormonal exposure, trauma and injury, or learning and memory. Sex differences in the brain are largely determined by steroid hormone exposure during a perinatal sensitive period that alters subsequent hormonal and nonhormonal responses throughout the lifespan. Steroid receptors are members of a nuclear receptor transcription factor superfamily and recruit multiple proteins that possess enzymatic activity relevant to epigenetic changes such as acetylation and methylation. Thus steroid hormones are uniquely poised to exert epigenetic effects on the developing nervous system to ...


Epigenetic Control Of Sexual Differentiation Of The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Geert De Vries, E. K. Murray, A. Hien, N. G. Forger Sep 2009

Epigenetic Control Of Sexual Differentiation Of The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Geert De Vries, E. K. Murray, A. Hien, N. G. Forger

Geert De Vries

The principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp) is larger in volume and contains more cells in male than female mice. These sex differences depend on testosterone and arise from a higher rate of cell death during early postnatal life in females. There is a delay of several days between the testosterone surge at birth and sexually dimorphic cell death in the BNSTp, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved. We tested the hypothesis that chromatin remodeling plays a role in sexual differentiation of the BNSTp by manipulating the balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation using ...


Metacognition: Developing Self-Knowledge Through Guided Reflection, Kathryn Wiezbicki-Stevens Sep 2009

Metacognition: Developing Self-Knowledge Through Guided Reflection, Kathryn Wiezbicki-Stevens

Open Access Dissertations

Metacognitive self-knowledge has been identified as a crucial component of effective learning. It entails students recognizing their learning strengths and weaknesses, styles and preferences, and motivational beliefs. The present study explored a method for the development of metacognitive self-knowledge and in doing so, was also a means for discovering what academic experiences students perceive as influential in their development as learners. Twenty-seven college students, all senior psychology majors, produced written narratives in response to a guided reflection activity. A qualitative research approach employing analytic induction was used. Themes of academic experiences as described by participants provided support for neuroscientific findings ...


Cross-Age Peer Tutoring In Dialogic Reading: Effects On The Language Development Of Young Children, Itsuko Jamie Udaka Sep 2009

Cross-Age Peer Tutoring In Dialogic Reading: Effects On The Language Development Of Young Children, Itsuko Jamie Udaka

Open Access Dissertations

There are certain ways of reading to young children that are more effective than others in increasing language, vocabulary, and building early literacy skills. Dialogic reading is a method to enhance shared book reading by providing a context for dialogue and interaction between the adult and the child. Dialogic reading has been shown to have positive effects on young childrens’ early literacy and language skills. Thus far, parents and teachers have used these techniques in the home and school in one-on-one or small group settings. However, results have been variable due to inconsistent implementation. The purpose of this study was ...


The Emergence Of Dp In The Partitive Structure, Helen Stickney Sep 2009

The Emergence Of Dp In The Partitive Structure, Helen Stickney

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation is a first look at English-speaking children’s acquisition of the syntax of the partitive. It presents four experiments that contrast three types of structures and examines how they interact with adjectival modification: the partitive, the pseudopartitive and complex nouns with prepositional adjuncts. The experimentation investigates whether children recognize that the Determiner Phrase (DP) in the partitive is a barrier to adjectival modification. The partitive is contrasted with the pseudopartitive –a minimal pair structure that lacks an internal DP. The data shows that children under the age of six do not distinguish between the partitive and the pseudopartitive ...


The Role Of Motivation To Change In The Treatment Of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Christopher M. Spofford Sep 2009

The Role Of Motivation To Change In The Treatment Of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Christopher M. Spofford

Open Access Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the role of motivation in the treatment of individuals hospitalized for severe OCD, specifically, the extent to which an individual’s motivation for treatment and motivational orientation (intrinsic or extrinsic motivation) predict OCD treatment response. The sample consisted of 142 individuals diagnosed with severe treatment-refractory OCD participating in an intensive treatment program. Patients completed a measure assessing overall motivation and motivational orientation at admission (TSRQ), and measures assessing depressive severity (BDI) and OCD symptom severity (Y-BOCS) at admission and discharge. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed in which admission levels of ...


Coping In Court-Involved Adolescents And The Relationship With Stressors, Delinquency, And Psychopathology, Yariv Hofstein May 2009

Coping In Court-Involved Adolescents And The Relationship With Stressors, Delinquency, And Psychopathology, Yariv Hofstein

Open Access Dissertations

The current study explored coping and the relationship between coping, stressors, seriousness of delinquency, and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in a sample of 93 (69 male, 24 female, M age=14.3 SD=1.4) court-involved adolescents. Participation took place in the Juvenile Court Clinics of Hampden, Hampshire, and Franklin Counties in Massachusetts. Participants completed the Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) with added items to measure aggressive coping, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Parent Report, Second Edition (BASC-2, PRS), and the Self-Report Delinquency Scale (SRD; Elliot, Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). The documented history of delinquencies and stressors was collected from court ...


Visuospatial Reasoning In Toddlers: A Correlational Study Of Door Task Performance, Iris Louella Price May 2009

Visuospatial Reasoning In Toddlers: A Correlational Study Of Door Task Performance, Iris Louella Price

Open Access Dissertations

Previous research using violation-of-expectation paradigms suggests that very young infants have a good understanding of unobserved physical events. Yet toddlers appear to lack this knowledge when confronted with the door task, a visuospatial reasoning task which parallels ones used in the habituation/looking time studies. Many studies have been conducted in an effort to determine why toddlers perform poorly on the door task yet the answer remains unclear. The current study used a correlational approach to investigate door task performance from both psychological (executive function), and neuroscience (prefrontal cortex) perspectives. Children between the ages of 2 ½ - 3 years were ...


Adult Theories And Techniques Of Psychotherapy, 2009, Michael Constantino Apr 2009

Adult Theories And Techniques Of Psychotherapy, 2009, Michael Constantino

Graduate Training

The goal of this seminar is to provide clinical psychology graduate students with a thorough foundation regarding the nature, history, evolution, and current status of the adult psychotherapy field from theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives.


Complex Family Relationships In International Adoption: Search, Reunion, And Contact, Amanda L. Baden Ph.D Feb 2009

Complex Family Relationships In International Adoption: Search, Reunion, And Contact, Amanda L. Baden Ph.D

Rudd Adoption Research Program Annual Conferences

No abstract provided.


Domestic Infant Adoption:Family Communication About Adoption And Adopted Child Curiosity, Gretchen Miller Wrobel Ph.D Feb 2009

Domestic Infant Adoption:Family Communication About Adoption And Adopted Child Curiosity, Gretchen Miller Wrobel Ph.D

Rudd Adoption Research Program Annual Conferences

No abstract provided.


Adoptions From The Child Welfare System, Ruth G. Mcroy Ph.D Feb 2009

Adoptions From The Child Welfare System, Ruth G. Mcroy Ph.D

Rudd Adoption Research Program Annual Conferences

No abstract provided.


Family Matters: Supporting Adoptive Families With An Attachment-Based Intervention, Femmie Juffer Ph.D Feb 2009

Family Matters: Supporting Adoptive Families With An Attachment-Based Intervention, Femmie Juffer Ph.D

Rudd Adoption Research Program Annual Conferences

No abstract provided.


Conference Program, Rudd Adoption Research Program Feb 2009

Conference Program, Rudd Adoption Research Program

Rudd Adoption Research Program Annual Conferences

No abstract provided.


Do Actions Speak Louder Than Knowledge? Action Manipulation, Parent-Child Discourse And Children’S Mental State Understanding In Pretense, Dawn K Melzer Feb 2009

Do Actions Speak Louder Than Knowledge? Action Manipulation, Parent-Child Discourse And Children’S Mental State Understanding In Pretense, Dawn K Melzer

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

In the current study children 3-5 years of age (N = 75) participated in a mental state task to investigate the effect of action saliency on young children's appreciation of mental states during pretend play activities. They also engaged in a parent-child interaction period, including storybook reading and pretend play activities, in order to examine the relation between mental state term utterances and performance on the mental state task. Two actors appeared side-by-side on a television screen, either in motion or as static images; one actor had knowledge of the animal he was pretending to be; the other actor did ...


Understanding Occlusion Inhibition: A Study Of The Visual Processing Of Superimposed Figures, Destinee L Chambers Feb 2009

Understanding Occlusion Inhibition: A Study Of The Visual Processing Of Superimposed Figures, Destinee L Chambers

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

This study investigates a phenomenon that I have termed occlusion inhibition. This research and a small number of earlier studies suggest that, in some experimental conditions, when an attended (target) object is partially occluded by a distractor object, there is less attention allocated to the occluded region of the target object than to the visible parts of that object. In the literature, there are mixed results concerning this attentional effect. Some studies find it and others do not. This study investigates the differences between those conflicting studies with the goal of identifying the factor or factors that govern when occlusion ...


Rudd Chair Annual Report, 2008-2009, Harold D. Grotevant Jan 2009

Rudd Chair Annual Report, 2008-2009, Harold D. Grotevant

Rudd Adoption Research Program Annual Reports

The first Annual Report of the activities of the Rudd Chair for 2008 - 2009


Adult Consent Form, Psychological Services Center Jan 2009

Adult Consent Form, Psychological Services Center

Exemplary Forms

Details the scope of the Psychological Services Center, the treatment available and expected outcomes, details of maintaining appointments and payment, and the monitoring and privacy procedures during treatment. This form requires the patient to sign to grant consent to the practices detailed.


Assessment Consent Form, Psychological Services Center Jan 2009

Assessment Consent Form, Psychological Services Center

Exemplary Forms

Details the scope of the Psychological Services Center, the psychological assessments available and expected outcomes, describes fee structure, and the monitoring and privacy procedures during assessment testing. This form requires the patient to sign to grant consent to the practices detailed.


Psychological Services Center Notice Of Privacy Practices, Psychological Services Center Jan 2009

Psychological Services Center Notice Of Privacy Practices, Psychological Services Center

Exemplary Forms

This notice describes how psychological and medical information about you may be used and disclosed and how you can get access to this information. Please review it carefully, and sign the acknowledgement of receipt.


Adoptee Information Seeking: Changes Between Adolescence And Emerging Adulthood And The Impact Of Adoption Communicative Openness, Brooke Alison Skinner-Drawz Jan 2009

Adoptee Information Seeking: Changes Between Adolescence And Emerging Adulthood And The Impact Of Adoption Communicative Openness, Brooke Alison Skinner-Drawz

Rudd Adoption Research Program Dissertations from UMass Amherst

This dissertation examined changes in information seeking intentions and behaviors between adolescence and emerging adulthood for a group of adoptees who did not have direct contact with birth relatives in adolescence. Associations between information seeking in emerging adulthood and life cycle events typical of emerging adulthood, gender, and Adoption Communicative Openness were also examined. Data from 119 adoptees and their adoptive mothers were used from Waves 2 (1996-2000) and 3 (2005-2008) of the Minnesota-Texas Adoption Research Project (Grotevant & McRoy, 1998). Degree of information seeking between adolescence (Wave 2) and emerging adulthood (Wave 3) increased for the majority of adoptees (62 ...


Assessment Flyer, Psychological Services Center Jan 2009

Assessment Flyer, Psychological Services Center

PSC Flyers

No abstract provided.


I ♥ U: Attachment Style And Gender As Predictors Of Deception In Online And Offline Dating, Mattitiyahu S. Zimbler Jan 2009

I ♥ U: Attachment Style And Gender As Predictors Of Deception In Online And Offline Dating, Mattitiyahu S. Zimbler

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Online dating is becoming an increasingly used method for meeting significant others. This study had two central goals. The first goal was to explore the factors that contribute to deception used to attract a romantic partner online. The second aim was to discover the reasons that people with different attachment styles might lie as well as their justifications and interpretations for those lies. Male and female single college undergraduates (N = 208), who had previously completed an attachment style measure via an online screening, were asked to complete an online dating profile and an email to a potential dating partner. Participants ...


Challenging Behaviors Flyer, Psychological Services Center Jan 2009

Challenging Behaviors Flyer, Psychological Services Center

PSC Flyers

Parents! Do you struggle with your child’s difficult behaviors? Whether because of ADHD or other reasons, disruptive behavior can get in the way of family harmony, success in school, and even friendships. Learn the skills you need as a parent to help change these challenging behaviors in the company of other parents who understand!


Child Psychotherapy Flyer, Psychological Services Center Jan 2009

Child Psychotherapy Flyer, Psychological Services Center

PSC Flyers

Speak confidentially to professionals at the UMass Psychological Services Center who specialize in psychotherapy, family therapy, parenting help, school problems and more.


The Interactions Between Early Child Characteristics, Parenting, And Family Stress In Predicting Later Odd, Lindsay A. Metcalfe Jan 2009

The Interactions Between Early Child Characteristics, Parenting, And Family Stress In Predicting Later Odd, Lindsay A. Metcalfe

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The present study examined the interactions between early child behavior, early parenting, and early family stress (parent psychopathology, socioeconomic status, and stressful life events) in predicting later Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms. Participants were 223 three-year-old children and their parents who participated in a four-year longitudinal study. It was predicted that there would be a stronger relationship between children’s early behavior characteristics and later ODD in the presence of less parental overreactivity/negative affect, more paternal warmth, and less family stress and a stronger relationship between early family stress and later ODD in the presence of less parental overreactivity ...


The Association Between Bully Victimization And Risky Behaviors Among Youth, Shane Nives Isaiah Fernando Jan 2009

The Association Between Bully Victimization And Risky Behaviors Among Youth, Shane Nives Isaiah Fernando

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

In 2005, the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey reported 21.9% of males and 26.1% of females were bullied in schools. Little research has been conducted into showing an association between childhood bully victimization and risky behaviors. In addition, knowledge is limited about the connection between victimization and risky behaviors among different ethnic groups. We propose to assess the association between victimization and risky behaviors, using the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey among 3,116 students in grades 9 through 12 in 2007. Data was obtained by self-administered questionnaire, and victimization was considered as a single dichotomous variable. Victimization ...


Where Do We Draw Our Lines?: Approach/Avoidance Motivation, Political Orientation, And Cognitive Rigidity, Mindi S. Rock Jan 2009

Where Do We Draw Our Lines?: Approach/Avoidance Motivation, Political Orientation, And Cognitive Rigidity, Mindi S. Rock

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The current research explored how one’s motivational focus and political orientation may interact to produce cognitive rigidity. Past literature provides evidence for associations between approach-based orientation and cognitive flexibility and between avoidance-based motives and cognitive rigidity (e.g., Cacioppo, Priester, & Berntson, 1993; Friedman & Förster, 2005; Förster, Friedman, Özelsel & Denzler, 2006, Isen & Daubman, 1984; Mikulincer, Kedem & Paz, 1990). Further, research on political orientation suggests a strong association between conservatism and cognitive rigidity (Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, & Sulloway, 2003). Can approach/avoidance motivation help explain this link between political orientation and rigidity? To answer this question, we manipulated approach/avoidance orientation using primes that focused individuals on what they should do versus what they should not do; there was also a no-prime control group. The cognitive rigidity task involved categorizing prototypic and non-prototypic items. For each item, participants provided goodness of fit ratings and discrete category judgment of whether the item was a member of the category (i.e., “yes” or “no”). Cognitive rigidity was operationalized as greater exclusion of ...


When He Doesn't Mean You: Gender-Exclusive Language As A Form Of Subtle Ostracism, Jane G. Stout Jan 2009

When He Doesn't Mean You: Gender-Exclusive Language As A Form Of Subtle Ostracism, Jane G. Stout

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Two experiments examined the theorized link between the use of gender-exclusive language and ostracism. In two experiments, women and men read a job overview that contained either masculine gender-exclusive language (he), gender-inclusive language (he or she), or gender-neutral language (one). They then rated their feelings of exclusion (i.e., ostracism), described their personal investment in the described job (Experiments 1 and 2) and evaluated the work environment (Experiment 2). In both experiments, women reported feeling most ostracized when they were exposed to gender-exclusive language compared to gender-inclusive language. Furthermore, women in Experiment 1 reported least personal investment in the job ...


The Other-Race Effect And Its Influences On The Development Of Emotion Processing, Alexandra Monesson Jan 2009

The Other-Race Effect And Its Influences On The Development Of Emotion Processing, Alexandra Monesson

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The theory of perceptual narrowing posits that the ability to make perceptual discriminations is very broad early in development and subsequently becomes more specific with perceptual experience (Scott, Pascalis, & Nelson, 2007). This leads to the formation of biases (Pascalis et al., 2002; 2005; Kelly et al., 2007), including the other-race effect (ORE). Behavioral and electrophysiological measures are used to show that by 9-months-of-age, infants exhibit a decline in ability to distinguish between two faces from another race compared to two faces from within their own race. Significant differences in the P400 component revealed a dampening of response to other-race compared to same-race faces for 9-month-olds only. More negative N290 amplitudes in response to ...