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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Graduate Education In Research Ethics For Scientists And Engineers: Final Report, Jorge Ferrer-Negron, William Frey, Efrain O'Neill-Carrillo, Didier Valdes, Carlos Rios-Valazquez Dec 2009

Graduate Education In Research Ethics For Scientists And Engineers: Final Report, Jorge Ferrer-Negron, William Frey, Efrain O'Neill-Carrillo, Didier Valdes, Carlos Rios-Valazquez

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


The Dependent Variable: Defining Open Source "Success" And "Abandonment" Using Sourceforge.Net Data, Charles Schweik Dec 2009

The Dependent Variable: Defining Open Source "Success" And "Abandonment" Using Sourceforge.Net Data, Charles Schweik

National Center for Digital Government

[first paragraph] From the very beginning of this research project, we understood that we needed to define what success meant in open source so that we could use that definition to create a dependent variable for our empirical studies. Does success mean a project has developed high quality software, or does it mean that the software is widely used? How might extremely valuable software that is used by only a few people, such as software for charting parts of the human genome, fit into this definition? In this chapter, we establish a robust success and abandonment measure that satisfies these ...


Successful And Abandoned Sourceforge.Net Projects In The Initiation Stage, Charles Schweik Dec 2009

Successful And Abandoned Sourceforge.Net Projects In The Initiation Stage, Charles Schweik

National Center for Digital Government

[first paragraph] Chapter 6 provided an open source project success and abandonment dependent variable. Chapter 7 described data available in the Sourceforge.net repository and linked these data to various independent variable concepts and hypotheses presented in the theoretical part of this book. Chapter 7 also described the Classification Tree and Random Forest statistical approaches we use in this and the following chapter. This chapter presents the results of the Classification Tree analysis for successful and abandoned projects in the Initiation Stage, which in Chapter 3 (Figure 3.2), we defined as the period before and up to the time ...


Web 2.0 In The Process Of E-Participation: The Case Of Organizing For America And The Obama Administration, Aysu Kes-Erkul, R. Erdem Erkul Oct 2009

Web 2.0 In The Process Of E-Participation: The Case Of Organizing For America And The Obama Administration, Aysu Kes-Erkul, R. Erdem Erkul

National Center for Digital Government

The presidential campaign of Barack Obama during the 2008 elections sparked new discussion about the public engagement issue in the political processes. The campaign used Web 2.0 tools intensively to reach the general public and seek support and collect feedback from voters. In this paper, we analyze the major website of this project, “Organizing for America” (OFA) from the perspective of e-participation, which is a concept that include all the processes of public involvement via information and communication technologies.


Information & Communication Technologies And Digital Government: The Turkish Case, Turhan Mentes Sep 2009

Information & Communication Technologies And Digital Government: The Turkish Case, Turhan Mentes

National Center for Digital Government

The technological innovations of the last decades have opened the doors to a new and different world for businesses and governments. As access to the Internet penetrates more populations each day, ICTs continue to shape societies all over the world. This presentation will explore the development of ICTs and e-government in Turkey. It will include significant figures and statistics about e-government in Turkey and discuss the social consequences of such developments.


Professional Ethics-Responsible Conduct Of Research Training: Making Sense Of Complex Problems, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes Sep 2009

Professional Ethics-Responsible Conduct Of Research Training: Making Sense Of Complex Problems, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

General Course Abstract

This two-day seminar format course exposes students to the complexities involved in real-world ethical decision-making. It provides students with strategies, or tools, for understanding and thinking through ethical problems to arrive at a decision. Students practice working with these strategies by applying them to realistic, complex cases.

Day 1 Abstract

During the first day of the course, guidelines and principles for ethical research practices are discussed. It is emphasized that students must apply guidelines in a context to arrive at a decision, and the course provides guidance on this decision-making process. Next, students learn about the personal ...


Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation Aug 2009

Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is announcing its implementation of Section 7009 of the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o–1). This section of the Act requires that ‘‘each institution that applies for financial assistance from the Foundation for science and engineering research or education describe in its grant proposal a plan to provide appropriate training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers participating in the proposed research project.’’

[Abstract by author]


E-Science @ Umass: Anticipating And Supporting E-Science Activities At The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen Jul 2009

E-Science @ Umass: Anticipating And Supporting E-Science Activities At The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen

Maxine G Schmidt

In March of 2008 an Ad Hoccommittee of Science Librarians from the University of Massachusetts Five Campus System convened to discuss the challenges of e-science and prepare the Libraries for their role in e-science initiatives. Three primary outcomes intended to support e-science activities emerged from the work of the Ad Hoc committee.


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Conflict Of Interest, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign May 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Conflict Of Interest, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This faculty adviser in this role-play has a major conflict of interest, which puts the student in an awkward situation. If the conflict oversight committee hasn’t contacted the student already (an unfortunately common situation), they should have. In an ideal situation, every student affected by a potential conflict of interest should have some written guidance about what to expect and how to get advice if concerns arise.

One useful step is to find out if there are any written policies or guidelines about what students can expect in situations like this: for example, is there a meeting annually or ...


Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research: Assessment Of Outcomes, Stephanie N. Seiler, Michael C. Loui, Kerri L. Kristich, Kyoung Jin Kim, C. K. Gunsalus, Bradley J. Brummel May 2009

Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research: Assessment Of Outcomes, Stephanie N. Seiler, Michael C. Loui, Kerri L. Kristich, Kyoung Jin Kim, C. K. Gunsalus, Bradley J. Brummel

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Conference Proceedings, Youtube And The 2008 Election Cycle Apr 2009

Conference Proceedings, Youtube And The 2008 Election Cycle

YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States

The YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States Conference took place April 16-17, 2009 at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The conference brought together political and computer scientists to explore the electoral impact of user-created YouTube technologies and to demonstrate new technical and analytic opportunities associated with new media technologies and politics. The conference proceedings includes copies of all papers presented at the conference as well as abstracts of all posters and keynote presentations.


E-Science @ The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen, Raquel Rivera, Cecilia P. Mullen Mar 2009

E-Science @ The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen, Raquel Rivera, Cecilia P. Mullen

Maxine G Schmidt

e-Science @ the University of Massachusetts Abstract: What is e-Science and how can libraries and librarians support it? The University of Massachusetts takes a proactive approach to support network-enabled research on its campuses and provides examples where e-Science is already at work. Statement: “e-Science” is a term commonly used to describe research in a networked environment, a growing trend not only in the sciences, but the arts and humanities as well. e-Science creates both opportunities and challenges for academic libraries. The opportunities lie in leveraging the basic skill set that libraries and librarians already possess: the knowledge of and practical experience ...


Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation Feb 2009

Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is soliciting public comment on the agency’s proposed implementation of Section 7009 of the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o–1). This section of the Act requires that ‘‘each institution that applies for financial assistance from the Foundation for science and engineering research or education describe in its grant proposal a plan to provide appropriate training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers participating in the proposed research project.’’

[Abstract ...


Ethical Issues In Peer Review Of Research, Michael C. Loui Feb 2009

Ethical Issues In Peer Review Of Research, Michael C. Loui

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Peer Review, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Peer Review, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario is based on “What is Responsible Peer Review?” http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/rcr/rcr_authorship/case/index.html#2, which is based on the “Confidentiality vs. Mentor Responsibilities: A Conflict of Obligations” scenario, http://onlineethics.org/reseth/appe/vol3/conflictobligations.html, which is based on a real incident.

This scenario highlights several issues in the peer review of manuscripts submitted for publication:

• Conflict of interest in the role of the reviewer

• Confidentiality of information in the manuscript

• Role of the adviser in the professional development of a graduate student

Although this scenario is not based on a single ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Human Subjects, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Human Subjects, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play addresses issues involved with human subject research and working with an Institutional Review Board (IRB).

The Belmont Report (1979) identifies three basic ethical principles that underlie all human subject research. These principles are Respect for persons, Beneficence, and Justice. Respect for persons requires us to treat individuals as autonomous human beings and not to use people as a means to an end. We must allow people to choose for themselves and provide extra protection to those with limited ability to choose, such as children. Rules derived from the principle of respect for persons include the requirements to obtain ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistle-Blowing And Professional Relationships, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistle-Blowing And Professional Relationships, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play focuses on a whistle-blowing scenario involving data management issues in a research lab, complicated by uncomfortable personal relationships. Whistle-blowing involves raising concerns or allegations of wrongdoing or misconduct. There is an obligation for whistle-blowers to do so in good faith, which means based on reasonable belief or facts. Suspecting that someone has engaged in research misconduct is one of the most difficult situations researchers face. This is especially true when relationships are strained for other reasons.

If you have the suspicion of research misconduct, the possible consequences for all involved can be serious. To handle the situation responsibly ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Mentoring, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Mentoring, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario highlights the mismatch of expectations that can arise in a mentoring relationship between a graduate student and a research adviser. The adviser wants a solely professional relationship, but the student seeks a more personal relationship. Their inconsistent desires lead to inconsistent expectations about how long they should meet and what they should discuss, and subsequently to misunderstandings about the preliminary results.

Some of the problems in this scenario could have been avoided had the adviser and student negotiated mutual expectations and responsibilities when they first began working together. In general, a professor and student should agree on expectations ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistleblowing Data Management, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistleblowing Data Management, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play involves data mismanagement in a research lab. The graduate students suspects that the post-doc fabricated experimental results, which is a form of research misconduct. The realization or suspicion that someone has engaged in research misconduct is one of the most difficult situations researchers face. However, someone who has witnessed misconduct has an obligation to act and report this behavior. Reporting the misconduct, which also known as whistle-blowing, should be done in a cautious and responsible way. Ideally, whistle-blowers should never be afraid to come forward with questions of misconduct, as they should be supported by their institutions and ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Authorship, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Authorship, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play deals with issues concerning authorship credit. Concerns about authorship raise the ethical principle of fairness because people should receive credit for their contributions. Authors of a scientific work must have made substantial or significant contributions to the project because they are taking public responsibility for its content. Authors must also be willing and able to respond to questions about the work. The hard part of authorship is deciding what kind of intellectual contribution counts as substantial or significant and therefore warrants authorship. Despite the availability of guidelines, there are differences of opinions within and between scientific disciplines. Broad ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Hazardous Substances, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Hazardous Substances, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play focuses on the dilemmas in balancing regulatory requirements, personal relationships and a natural reluctance to “cause trouble.” These dilemmas arise in many settings, and can be particularly acute in laboratories that handle hazardous substances because of the serious safety implications of violations. In addition, violations can carry fines and penalties for laboratories and universities where they occur. The worries of the graduate student in the role-play about potential laboratory shut-downs and corresponding research delays are all too real. Specifics of regulations vary according to the materials being handled. The underlying principles regarding human and environmental safety stay the ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Animals, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Animals, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario highlights ethical issues in reporting violations in a situation where extensive federal regulations and guidance apply. Specifically, the lab was using animals in ways that violated its own protocol and included making unauthorized purchases of animals.

The driving issue in this scenario is how to handle the discovery that another lab might have violated these regulations. Labs often have a great deal of autonomy and faculty members may feel uncomfortable questioning the conduct of their colleagues. Professor Prenlen appears to be violating animal care regulations, and involving students in those violations. This creates a difficult situation for the ...


The Open Source Software Ecosystem, Charles M. Schweik Jan 2009

The Open Source Software Ecosystem, Charles M. Schweik

National Center for Digital Government

[first paragraph] Open source research in the late 1990s and early 2000's described open source development projects as all-volunteer endeavors without the existence of monetary incentives (Chakravarty, Haruvy and Wu, 2007), and relatively recent empirical studies (Ghosh, 2005; Wolf {{243}}) confirm that a sizable percentage of open source developers are indeed volunteers.1 Open source development projects involving more than one developer were seen to follow a “hacker ethic” (Himanen, 2000; von Hippel and von Krogh, 2003) where individuals freely give away and exchange software they had written so that it could be modified and built upon, with an ...


America Competes Act Excerpt And Nsf Implementation Plan From The Federal Register, Ethics In Science And Engineering National Clearinghouse Jan 2009

America Competes Act Excerpt And Nsf Implementation Plan From The Federal Register, Ethics In Science And Engineering National Clearinghouse

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This document excerpts relevant RCR and mentoring sections from the America COMPETES Act and the National Science Foundation’s Implementation Plan posted in the Federal Register on August 20, 2009 (Vol. 74, No. 160).


How To Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide For Faculty, Rackham Graduate School - University Of Michigan Jan 2009

How To Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide For Faculty, Rackham Graduate School - University Of Michigan

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich, Michael C. Loui, Stephanie N. Seiler Jan 2009

Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich, Michael C. Loui, Stephanie N. Seiler

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Umass Libraries 2009, Maxine G. Schmidt Jan 2009

Umass Libraries 2009, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

No abstract provided.