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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Graduate Education In Research Ethics For Scientists And Engineers: Final Report, Jorge Ferrer-Negron, William Frey, Efrain O'Neill-Carrillo, Didier Valdes, Carlos Rios-Valazquez Dec 2009

Graduate Education In Research Ethics For Scientists And Engineers: Final Report, Jorge Ferrer-Negron, William Frey, Efrain O'Neill-Carrillo, Didier Valdes, Carlos Rios-Valazquez

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Professional Ethics-Responsible Conduct Of Research Training: Making Sense Of Complex Problems, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes Sep 2009

Professional Ethics-Responsible Conduct Of Research Training: Making Sense Of Complex Problems, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Alison L. Antes

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

General Course Abstract

This two-day seminar format course exposes students to the complexities involved in real-world ethical decision-making. It provides students with strategies, or tools, for understanding and thinking through ethical problems to arrive at a decision. Students practice working with these strategies by applying them to realistic, complex cases.

Day 1 Abstract

During the first day of the course, guidelines and principles for ethical research practices are discussed. It is emphasized that students must apply guidelines in a context to arrive at a decision, and the course provides guidance on this decision-making process. Next, students learn about the personal ...


Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation Aug 2009

Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is announcing its implementation of Section 7009 of the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o–1). This section of the Act requires that ‘‘each institution that applies for financial assistance from the Foundation for science and engineering research or education describe in its grant proposal a plan to provide appropriate training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers participating in the proposed research project.’’

[Abstract by author]


E-Science @ Umass: Anticipating And Supporting E-Science Activities At The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen Jul 2009

E-Science @ Umass: Anticipating And Supporting E-Science Activities At The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen

Maxine G Schmidt

In March of 2008 an Ad Hoccommittee of Science Librarians from the University of Massachusetts Five Campus System convened to discuss the challenges of e-science and prepare the Libraries for their role in e-science initiatives. Three primary outcomes intended to support e-science activities emerged from the work of the Ad Hoc committee.


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Conflict Of Interest, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign May 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Conflict Of Interest, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This faculty adviser in this role-play has a major conflict of interest, which puts the student in an awkward situation. If the conflict oversight committee hasn’t contacted the student already (an unfortunately common situation), they should have. In an ideal situation, every student affected by a potential conflict of interest should have some written guidance about what to expect and how to get advice if concerns arise.

One useful step is to find out if there are any written policies or guidelines about what students can expect in situations like this: for example, is there a meeting annually or ...


Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research: Assessment Of Outcomes, Stephanie N. Seiler, Michael C. Loui, Kerri L. Kristich, Kyoung Jin Kim, C. K. Gunsalus, Bradley J. Brummel May 2009

Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research: Assessment Of Outcomes, Stephanie N. Seiler, Michael C. Loui, Kerri L. Kristich, Kyoung Jin Kim, C. K. Gunsalus, Bradley J. Brummel

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Visuospatial Reasoning In Toddlers: A Correlational Study Of Door Task Performance, Iris Louella Price May 2009

Visuospatial Reasoning In Toddlers: A Correlational Study Of Door Task Performance, Iris Louella Price

Open Access Dissertations

Previous research using violation-of-expectation paradigms suggests that very young infants have a good understanding of unobserved physical events. Yet toddlers appear to lack this knowledge when confronted with the door task, a visuospatial reasoning task which parallels ones used in the habituation/looking time studies. Many studies have been conducted in an effort to determine why toddlers perform poorly on the door task yet the answer remains unclear. The current study used a correlational approach to investigate door task performance from both psychological (executive function), and neuroscience (prefrontal cortex) perspectives. Children between the ages of 2 ½ - 3 years were ...


E-Science @ The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen, Raquel Rivera, Cecilia P. Mullen Mar 2009

E-Science @ The University Of Massachusetts, Maxine G. Schmidt, Rebecca Reznik-Zellen, Raquel Rivera, Cecilia P. Mullen

Maxine G Schmidt

e-Science @ the University of Massachusetts Abstract: What is e-Science and how can libraries and librarians support it? The University of Massachusetts takes a proactive approach to support network-enabled research on its campuses and provides examples where e-Science is already at work. Statement: “e-Science” is a term commonly used to describe research in a networked environment, a growing trend not only in the sciences, but the arts and humanities as well. e-Science creates both opportunities and challenges for academic libraries. The opportunities lie in leveraging the basic skill set that libraries and librarians already possess: the knowledge of and practical experience ...


Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation Feb 2009

Federal Register: National Science Foundation, Responsible Conduct Of Research, National Science Foundation

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is soliciting public comment on the agency’s proposed implementation of Section 7009 of the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act (42 U.S.C. 1862o–1). This section of the Act requires that ‘‘each institution that applies for financial assistance from the Foundation for science and engineering research or education describe in its grant proposal a plan to provide appropriate training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research to undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers participating in the proposed research project.’’

[Abstract ...


Ethical Issues In Peer Review Of Research, Michael C. Loui Feb 2009

Ethical Issues In Peer Review Of Research, Michael C. Loui

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Peer Review, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Peer Review, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario is based on “What is Responsible Peer Review?” http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/rcr/rcr_authorship/case/index.html#2, which is based on the “Confidentiality vs. Mentor Responsibilities: A Conflict of Obligations” scenario, http://onlineethics.org/reseth/appe/vol3/conflictobligations.html, which is based on a real incident.

This scenario highlights several issues in the peer review of manuscripts submitted for publication:

• Conflict of interest in the role of the reviewer

• Confidentiality of information in the manuscript

• Role of the adviser in the professional development of a graduate student

Although this scenario is not based on a single ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Human Subjects, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Human Subjects, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play addresses issues involved with human subject research and working with an Institutional Review Board (IRB).

The Belmont Report (1979) identifies three basic ethical principles that underlie all human subject research. These principles are Respect for persons, Beneficence, and Justice. Respect for persons requires us to treat individuals as autonomous human beings and not to use people as a means to an end. We must allow people to choose for themselves and provide extra protection to those with limited ability to choose, such as children. Rules derived from the principle of respect for persons include the requirements to obtain ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistle-Blowing And Professional Relationships, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistle-Blowing And Professional Relationships, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play focuses on a whistle-blowing scenario involving data management issues in a research lab, complicated by uncomfortable personal relationships. Whistle-blowing involves raising concerns or allegations of wrongdoing or misconduct. There is an obligation for whistle-blowers to do so in good faith, which means based on reasonable belief or facts. Suspecting that someone has engaged in research misconduct is one of the most difficult situations researchers face. This is especially true when relationships are strained for other reasons.

If you have the suspicion of research misconduct, the possible consequences for all involved can be serious. To handle the situation responsibly ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Mentoring, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Mentoring, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario highlights the mismatch of expectations that can arise in a mentoring relationship between a graduate student and a research adviser. The adviser wants a solely professional relationship, but the student seeks a more personal relationship. Their inconsistent desires lead to inconsistent expectations about how long they should meet and what they should discuss, and subsequently to misunderstandings about the preliminary results.

Some of the problems in this scenario could have been avoided had the adviser and student negotiated mutual expectations and responsibilities when they first began working together. In general, a professor and student should agree on expectations ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistleblowing Data Management, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Whistleblowing Data Management, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play involves data mismanagement in a research lab. The graduate students suspects that the post-doc fabricated experimental results, which is a form of research misconduct. The realization or suspicion that someone has engaged in research misconduct is one of the most difficult situations researchers face. However, someone who has witnessed misconduct has an obligation to act and report this behavior. Reporting the misconduct, which also known as whistle-blowing, should be done in a cautious and responsible way. Ideally, whistle-blowers should never be afraid to come forward with questions of misconduct, as they should be supported by their institutions and ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Authorship, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Authorship, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play deals with issues concerning authorship credit. Concerns about authorship raise the ethical principle of fairness because people should receive credit for their contributions. Authors of a scientific work must have made substantial or significant contributions to the project because they are taking public responsibility for its content. Authors must also be willing and able to respond to questions about the work. The hard part of authorship is deciding what kind of intellectual contribution counts as substantial or significant and therefore warrants authorship. Despite the availability of guidelines, there are differences of opinions within and between scientific disciplines. Broad ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Hazardous Substances, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Hazardous Substances, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This role-play focuses on the dilemmas in balancing regulatory requirements, personal relationships and a natural reluctance to “cause trouble.” These dilemmas arise in many settings, and can be particularly acute in laboratories that handle hazardous substances because of the serious safety implications of violations. In addition, violations can carry fines and penalties for laboratories and universities where they occur. The worries of the graduate student in the role-play about potential laboratory shut-downs and corresponding research delays are all too real. Specifics of regulations vary according to the materials being handled. The underlying principles regarding human and environmental safety stay the ...


Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Animals, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign Feb 2009

Responsible Conduct Of Research Role-Plays: Animals, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, C. K. Gunsalus, M. C. Loui, And Their Students At The University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This scenario highlights ethical issues in reporting violations in a situation where extensive federal regulations and guidance apply. Specifically, the lab was using animals in ways that violated its own protocol and included making unauthorized purchases of animals.

The driving issue in this scenario is how to handle the discovery that another lab might have violated these regulations. Labs often have a great deal of autonomy and faculty members may feel uncomfortable questioning the conduct of their colleagues. Professor Prenlen appears to be violating animal care regulations, and involving students in those violations. This creates a difficult situation for the ...


Landscape Ecology Of Large Fires In Southwestern Forests, Usa, Sandra L Haire Feb 2009

Landscape Ecology Of Large Fires In Southwestern Forests, Usa, Sandra L Haire

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

The recent increase in large fires in southwestern forests has prompted concern regarding their ecological consequences. Recognizing the importance of spatial patterns in influencing successional processes, I asked: (1) How do large fires change plant communities?; (2) What are the implications of these changes for ponderosa pine forests?; and (3) What is the relationship of fire severity to gradients of climate, fuels, and topography? To address the first two questions, I studied succession in the woody plant community at two sites that burned in high-severity fire: La Mesa fire in northern New Mexico (1977) and Saddle Mountain in northern Arizona ...


A Photovoice Participatory Evaluation Of A School Gardening Program Through The Eyes Of Fifth Graders, Catherine Sands, Krista Harper, Lee Ellen Reed, Maggie Shar Jan 2009

A Photovoice Participatory Evaluation Of A School Gardening Program Through The Eyes Of Fifth Graders, Catherine Sands, Krista Harper, Lee Ellen Reed, Maggie Shar

Anthropology Department Faculty Publication Series

In the springtime, fifth grade students at the Williamsburg Elementary School in rural Western Massachusetts ask to snack on sorrel and chives from the school garden, between planting potatoes and building a shade structure for their outdoor classroom. They are members of the first cohort of the curriculum-integrated program initiated by Fertile Ground, a grassroots organization in western Massachusetts. The children’s delight in the fresh greens they have grown marks a national phenomenon: the farm-to-school movement. With limited resources, parents, teachers, students, administrators, and community activists are developing inroads to better school food and food education, by constructing school ...


America Competes Act Excerpt And Nsf Implementation Plan From The Federal Register, Ethics In Science And Engineering National Clearinghouse Jan 2009

America Competes Act Excerpt And Nsf Implementation Plan From The Federal Register, Ethics In Science And Engineering National Clearinghouse

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

This document excerpts relevant RCR and mentoring sections from the America COMPETES Act and the National Science Foundation’s Implementation Plan posted in the Federal Register on August 20, 2009 (Vol. 74, No. 160).


How To Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide For Faculty, Rackham Graduate School - University Of Michigan Jan 2009

How To Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide For Faculty, Rackham Graduate School - University Of Michigan

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich, Michael C. Loui, Stephanie N. Seiler Jan 2009

Role-Play Scenarios For Teaching Responsible Conduct Of Research, Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Kristich, Michael C. Loui, Stephanie N. Seiler

Ethics in Science and Engineering National Clearinghouse

No abstract provided.


A Photovoice Participatory Evaluation Of A School Gardening Program Through The Eyes Of Fifth Graders, Catherine Sands, Krista Harper, Lee Ellen Reed, Maggie Shar Jan 2009

A Photovoice Participatory Evaluation Of A School Gardening Program Through The Eyes Of Fifth Graders, Catherine Sands, Krista Harper, Lee Ellen Reed, Maggie Shar

Krista M. Harper

In the springtime, fifth grade students at the Williamsburg Elementary School in rural Western Massachusetts ask to snack on sorrel and chives from the school garden, between planting potatoes and building a shade structure for their outdoor classroom. They are members of the first cohort of the curriculum-integrated program initiated by Fertile Ground, a grassroots organization in western Massachusetts. The children’s delight in the fresh greens they have grown marks a national phenomenon: the farm-to-school movement. With limited resources, parents, teachers, students, administrators, and community activists are developing inroads to better school food and food education, by constructing school ...


Umass Libraries 2009, Maxine G. Schmidt Jan 2009

Umass Libraries 2009, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

No abstract provided.


Vision Of Self-Sufficiency Comes Alive (On Less Than Two Acres!), Madeleine K. Charney Jan 2009

Vision Of Self-Sufficiency Comes Alive (On Less Than Two Acres!), Madeleine K. Charney

University Librarians Publication Series

A Montague, Massachusetts family relishes their traditional homesteading lifestyle.