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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part I: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams, Barbara Constable, Helena Farrell, Brian C. Giggey, Chris Jennett, Zhujun Kong, Megan Plante, Ben Eli Webb, Deborah A. Zervas Dec 2009

Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part I: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams, Barbara Constable, Helena Farrell, Brian C. Giggey, Chris Jennett, Zhujun Kong, Megan Plante, Ben Eli Webb, Deborah A. Zervas

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

The Master Plan Committee for the town of Ludlow contracted with the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission (PVPC) to prepare a new Master Plan. PVPC engaged the Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning (LARP) at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to assist with a portion of the Master Plan work. This work included: executing analysis and assessment of existing community conditions, conducting a weekend visioning workshop, and developing land use scenarios for the purpose of providing concrete visualization of possible futures for the Town of Ludlow in 2030.


Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part Ii: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams Dec 2009

Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part Ii: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

The Master Plan Committee for the town of Ludlow contracted with the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission (PVPC) to prepare a new Master Plan. PVPC engaged the Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning (LARP) at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to assist with a portion of the Master Plan work. This work included: executing analysis and assessment of existing community conditions, conducting a weekend visioning workshop, and developing land use scenarios for the purpose of providing concrete visualization of possible futures for the Town of Ludlow in 2030.


Labor Turnover In The Child-Care Industry: Voice And Exit, Lynn A. Hatch Sep 2009

Labor Turnover In The Child-Care Industry: Voice And Exit, Lynn A. Hatch

Open Access Dissertations

What relationship exists between working conditions and teacher turnover in child-care (early care and education) programs? Research has shown high staff turnover is a major factor affecting the quality of care. Using a new survey and data set I designed of union and randomly selected non-union programs in Massachusetts, I examine factors other than compensation that might be related to lower teacher turnover. Focusing on different institutional settings, including unionization and regional unemployment, I use economist Albert Hirschman’s theory of exit, voice and loyalty to see if “voice” alternatives to quitting are an effective method of reducing exits. “Voice ...


Essays On Environmental Policy And Markets, Linus M. Nyiwul Sep 2009

Essays On Environmental Policy And Markets, Linus M. Nyiwul

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation consists of two theoretical papers on market-based environmental policy. The first paper exploits the correlation between the environmental performance of firms and their economic performance to show that financial markets can be used to help enforce environmental policy and to design more efficient regulations. The results indicate that when markets punish firms for not complying with environmental standards, environmental regulators can exploit this by setting stricter standards. In fact, it is possible for the regulator to use market-driven enforcement to reduce a firm’s emissions and monitoring of the firm simultaneously. The second paper provides a theoretical analysis ...


Skill Mismatch And Wage Inequality In The U.S., Fabian Slonimczyk Sep 2009

Skill Mismatch And Wage Inequality In The U.S., Fabian Slonimczyk

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation is an empirical investigation into the distributive effects of overand under-education, defined as market outcomes such that some workers possess skills over or below those required at their jobs respectively. This type of market failure can arise in assignment and search equilibrium settings, as well as in the presence of asymmetric information regarding workers' performance on the job. The existence of permanent and sizable mismatch rates means that returns to education are depressed for over-educated workers and in ated for under-qualified workers. Thus, irreversible decisions to invest in human capital are made in a context of uncertainty regarding ...


Essays On Financial Behavior And Its Macroeconomic Causes And Implications, Soon Ryoo Sep 2009

Essays On Financial Behavior And Its Macroeconomic Causes And Implications, Soon Ryoo

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three independent essays. The first essay, “Long Waves and Short Cycles in a Model of Endogenous Financial Fragility,” presents a stock flow consistent macroeconomic model in which financial fragility in firm and household sectors evolves endogenously through the interaction between real and financial sectors. Changes in firms’ and households’ financial practices produce long waves. The Hopf bifurcation theorem is applied to clarify the conditions for the existence of limit cycles, and simulations illustrate stable limit cycles. The long waves are characterized by periodic economic crises following long expansions. Short cycles, generated by the interaction between effective ...


Economic Reforms In East African Countries: The Impact On Government Revenue And Public Investment, Adam Beni Swebe Mwakalobo May 2009

Economic Reforms In East African Countries: The Impact On Government Revenue And Public Investment, Adam Beni Swebe Mwakalobo

Open Access Dissertations

In the empirical literature on the revenue consequences of trade liberalization, most studies have focused on cross-country analysis. Because these studies are static in nature, they have not addressed the short-run and long-run dynamic public revenue and public investment consequences of economic reforms in developing countries. This dissertation contributes to the literature employing a dynamic time series analysis of the three East African countries-Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. The dissertation uses a co-integration and error-correction framework to distinguish between short-run and long-run relationships. The results indicate that trade reforms in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda had varying impacts on government revenue, tax ...


Three Essays On Conflict And Cooperation, Sungha Hwang May 2009

Three Essays On Conflict And Cooperation, Sungha Hwang

Open Access Dissertations

Conflict theory has in recent years found important applications and made contributions in fields such as economics, political sciences and evolutionary biology. Economists have examined various aspects and implications of appropriation, a typical example of conflicting economic interests, in rent-seeking models. Political scientists, focusing on political turmoil such as war, civil war and demonstration, have scrutinized the effects of conflictual outcomes on political transitions and political systems. More importantly, early human lethal conflict is being recognized as a key factor in explaining human cooperation in evolutionary biology. The first essay concerns the technical aspects of conflict theories. Two well-known forms ...


Reaching The Poorest Through Microfinance: Learning From Saving For Change Program In Mali, Mukul Acharya May 2009

Reaching The Poorest Through Microfinance: Learning From Saving For Change Program In Mali, Mukul Acharya

Open Access Dissertations

This study used secondary data to analyze the Saving for Change (SfC) program of Oxfam America in Mali. SfC uses a model of microfinance that is based on education and savings-led approach and self-help methodology. The program teaches the poorest women how to form and manage a group to handle savings and credit related needs. The group learns to systematically collect savings from its members; lend the money to its members with interest and keep a record of all transactions. SfC has created an oral recordkeeping system which is helpful for groups that have mostly or all illiterate women. The ...


Justice In The Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution From America's Industries And Companies To Our States, Cities And Neighborhoods, Michael Ash, James Boyce, Grace Chang, Manuel Pastor, Justin Scoggins, Jennifer Tran Apr 2009

Justice In The Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution From America's Industries And Companies To Our States, Cities And Neighborhoods, Michael Ash, James Boyce, Grace Chang, Manuel Pastor, Justin Scoggins, Jennifer Tran

James K. Boyce

No abstract provided.


Post-Marxism After Althusser: A Critique Of The Alternatives, Ceren Ozselcuk Feb 2009

Post-Marxism After Althusser: A Critique Of The Alternatives, Ceren Ozselcuk

Doctoral Dissertations 1896 - February 2014

This dissertation provides a particular Marxian class analytical political economy critique of post-Marxism. The dissertation demonstrates the ways in which different positions within post-Marxism continue to essentialize the conceptualizations of class and capitalist economy. What distinguishes this dissertation from other dominant critiques of post-Marxism is the anti-essentialist epistemological and ontological position it adopts. By adopting an anti-essentialist epistemological position the dissertation is able to demonstrate the discontinuities and continuities between post-Marxism and the Marxian tradition. The dissertation does this by reading the heterogeneous and disparate post-Marxian approaches as so many different ways to "resolve" the central tension of the Althusserian ...


The Bonus-Driven “Rainmaker” Financial Firm: How These Firms Enrich Top Employees, Destroy Shareholder Value And Create Systemic Financial Instability, James Crotty Jan 2009

The Bonus-Driven “Rainmaker” Financial Firm: How These Firms Enrich Top Employees, Destroy Shareholder Value And Create Systemic Financial Instability, James Crotty

Economics Department Working Paper Series

We recently experienced a global financial crisis so severe that only massive rescue operations by governments around the world prevented a total financial market meltdown and perhaps another global Great Depression. One necessary precondition for the crisis was the perverse, bonus-driven compensation structure employed in important financial institutions such as investment banks. This structure provided the rational incentive for key decision makers in these firms (who I call “rainmakers”) to take the excessive risk and employ the excessive leverage in the bubble that created the preconditions for the crisis. This paper presents and evaluates extensive data on compensation practices in ...


Exploring The Robustness Of The Balance Of Payments- Constrained Growth Idea In A Multiple Good Framework, Arslan Razmi Jan 2009

Exploring The Robustness Of The Balance Of Payments- Constrained Growth Idea In A Multiple Good Framework, Arslan Razmi

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper derives the balance of payments-constrained growth (BPCG) model as a special case of a three good framework that incorporates ex- portables, importables, and non-tradables. The conditions under which the canonical form of the BPCG rate can be derived are made explicit and the assumptions scrutinized. It is shown that the presence of non- tradables, substitutability between exportables and importables, and in- complete specialization in expenditure generally dampen the externally- constrained growth rate. These findings help explain why empirical esti- mates tend to overestimate the BPCG rate. Overall our findings under- score the observation that tests of the BPCG ...


Relations Of Production And Modes Of Surplus Extraction In India: An Aggregate Study, Amit Basole, Deepankar Basu Jan 2009

Relations Of Production And Modes Of Surplus Extraction In India: An Aggregate Study, Amit Basole, Deepankar Basu

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper uses aggregate-level data, as well as case-studies, to trace the evolution of some key structural features of the Indian economy, relating both to the agricultural and the informal industrial sector. These aggregate trends are used to infer: (a) the dominant relations of production under which the vast majority of the Indian working people labour, and (b) the predominant ways in which the surplus labour of the direct producers is appropriated by the dominant classes. This summary account is meant to inform and link up with on-going attempts at radically restructuring Indian society.


Economic Incentives And Social Preferences: A Preference-Based Lucas Critique Of Public Policy, Samuel Bowles, Sandra Polanía Reyes Jan 2009

Economic Incentives And Social Preferences: A Preference-Based Lucas Critique Of Public Policy, Samuel Bowles, Sandra Polanía Reyes

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Policies and explicit incentives designed for self-regarding individuals sometimes are less effective or even counterproductive when they diminish altruism, ethical norms and other social preferences. Evidence from 51 experimental studies indicates that this crowding out effect is pervasive, and that crowding in also occurs. A model in which self-regarding and social preferences may be either substitutes or complements is developed and evidence for the mechanisms underlying this non-additivity feature of preferences is provided. The result is a preference-based analogue to the Lucas Critique restricting feasible implementation to allocations that are supportable given the effect of incentives on preferences.


Must Improved Labor Standards Hurt Accumulation In The Targeted Sector? Stylized Analysis Of A Developing Economy, Arslan Razmi Jan 2009

Must Improved Labor Standards Hurt Accumulation In The Targeted Sector? Stylized Analysis Of A Developing Economy, Arslan Razmi

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper analyzes a stylized small open economy. The analysis classifies the economy into two tradable output-producing sectors: a manufacturing sector and a (mainly tourism-related) services sector. Assuming sectoral differences based on stylized facts, we explore the impact of higher labor standards in the manufacturing sector on the long-term prospects of the economy using comparative dynamic exercises to analyze changes in output, foreign direct investment, relative prices, sectoral distribution, and accumulation. We find, in particular, that imposing higher standards across the manufacturing sector could, in the long run, shift the structure of the domestic economy in favor of that sector.


Larger Groups May Alleviate Collective Action Problems, Sung-Ha Hwang Jan 2009

Larger Groups May Alleviate Collective Action Problems, Sung-Ha Hwang

Economics Department Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Son Preference, Sex Selection And The Problem Of Missing Women In India, Deepankar Basu Jan 2009

Son Preference, Sex Selection And The Problem Of Missing Women In India, Deepankar Basu

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper empirically tests for two competing explanations of the increasing sex ratio at birth (SRB) in India: hepatitis B and human intervention. Estimating a male- preferring stopping rule with data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey in India (1992, 1998 and 2005), I find that the probability of a male birth varies significantly across birth parities. Using a novel proxy for hepatitis B in India - tribal status - I also find that hepatitis B has no impact on the probability of male birth. I conclude that human intervention explains the increasing SRB in India.


The Real Exchange Rate As An Instrument Of Development Policy, Arslan Razmi, Martin Rapetti, Peter Skott Jan 2009

The Real Exchange Rate As An Instrument Of Development Policy, Arslan Razmi, Martin Rapetti, Peter Skott

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Growth is endogenous in small open economies with substantial hidden or open unemployment, even under constant returns to scale. Growth promoting policies, however, have implications for the balance of trade, and two instruments are needed in order to achieve targets for both the growth rate and the balance of trade. The real exchange rate can serve as one of those instruments. Distributional con‡ict imposes constraints on real exchange rate policies, but in LDCs the main exchange-rate related distributional con‡ict may be over the sectoral distribution of pro…ts, rather than the real wage. This paper develops a model ...


Contest Success Functions: Theory And Evidence, Sung-Ha Hwang Jan 2009

Contest Success Functions: Theory And Evidence, Sung-Ha Hwang

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Contest success functions, which show how probabilities of winning depend on resources devoted to a conflict, have been widely used in the literature addressing appropriative activities (economics), international and civil wars (political science), and group conflict and selection (evolutionary biology). Two well-known forms of contest success functions predict contest outcomes from the difference between the resources of each side and from the ratio of resources. The analytical properties of a given conflict model, such as the existence of equilibrium, can be drastically changed simply by altering the form of the contest success function. Despite this problem, there is no consensus ...


International Trade, Factor Mobility And The Persistence Of Cultural-Institutional Diversity, Marianna Belloc, Samuel Bowles Jan 2009

International Trade, Factor Mobility And The Persistence Of Cultural-Institutional Diversity, Marianna Belloc, Samuel Bowles

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Cultural and institutional differences among nations may result in differences in the ratios of marginal costs of goods in autarchy and thus be the basis of specialization and comparative advantage, as long as these differences are not eliminated by trade. We provide an evolutionary model of endogenous preferences and institutions under autarchy, trade and factor mobility in which multiple asymptotically stable cultural-institutional conventions may exist, among which transitions may occur as a result of decentralized and un-coordinated actions of employers or employees. We show that: i) specialization and trade may arise and enhance welfare even when the countries are identical ...


Long Waves And Short Cycles In A Model Of Endogenous Financial Fragility, Soon Ryoo Jan 2009

Long Waves And Short Cycles In A Model Of Endogenous Financial Fragility, Soon Ryoo

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper presents a stock-flow consistent macroeconomic model in which financial fragility in firm and household sectors evolves endogenously through the interaction between real and financial sectors. Changes in firms’ and households’ financial practices produce long waves. The Hopf bifurcation theorem is applied to clarify the conditions for the existence of limit cycles, and simulations illustrate stable limit cycles. The long waves are characterized by periodic economic crises following long expansions. Short cycles, generated by the interaction between effective demand and labor market dynamics, fluctuate around the long waves.


Labor History Symposium: Gerald Friedman, Reigniting The Labor Movement, Craig Phelan, Frances Fox Piven, Catherine Collomp, Guy Groux, Michael Hanagan, Gerald Friedman Jan 2009

Labor History Symposium: Gerald Friedman, Reigniting The Labor Movement, Craig Phelan, Frances Fox Piven, Catherine Collomp, Guy Groux, Michael Hanagan, Gerald Friedman

Economics Department Faculty Publications Series

When trade union growth worldwide came to a halt in the 1980s, a wide body of literature appeared on the causes of trade union decline. Since that time an even more substantial number of books and articles have been penned on the possibility of trade union revitalization: which combination of factors might lead to resurgence; what organizational forms are best suited to the new political and economic landscape; which goals, strategies and tactics are most likely to spark a reversal of trade unionism’s fortunes. Gerald Friedman, Professor of Economics at the University of Massachusetts and the US editor of ...


The Structuralist Growth Model, Bill Gibson Jan 2009

The Structuralist Growth Model, Bill Gibson

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This paper examines the underlying theory of structuralist growth models in an effort to compare that framework with the standard approach of Solow and others. Both the standard and structuralist models are solved in a common mathematical framework that emphasizes their similarities. It is seen that while the standard model requires the growth rate of the labor force to be taken as exogenously determined, the structuralist growth model must take investment growth to be determined exogenously in the long run. It is further seen that in order for the structuralist model to reliably converge to steady growth, considerable attention must ...


Socialization Of Risks Without Socialization Of Investment: The Minsky Paradox And The Structural Contradiction Of Big Government Capitalism, Minqi Li Jan 2009

Socialization Of Risks Without Socialization Of Investment: The Minsky Paradox And The Structural Contradiction Of Big Government Capitalism, Minqi Li

PERI Working Papers

A big government sector is indispensable for the normal operations of modern capitalist economy. However, the very success of the big government institutions encourages private investors to engage in excessive risk-taking activities, leading to growing financial fragility and frequent financial crises. The crises necessitate government interventions, forcing the government to run large deficits during recessions. These deficits, however, are not offset by surpluses during expansions. As a result, there is a tendency for the government debt to rise in relation to GDP. The government debt-GDP ratios cannot keep rising indefinitely. Beyond certain point, the debt-GDP ratio could be so high ...


The Interaction Of Metropolitan Cost-Of-Living & The Federal Earned Income Tax Credit: One Size Fits All?, Jeffrey P. Thompson, Katie Fitzpatrick Jan 2009

The Interaction Of Metropolitan Cost-Of-Living & The Federal Earned Income Tax Credit: One Size Fits All?, Jeffrey P. Thompson, Katie Fitzpatrick

PERI Working Papers

This paper explores the interaction between the federal Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and the cost-of-living faced by single mothers. After the 1993 EITC expansion, we identify up to a 10 percentage point increase in labor force participation for single mothers in the lowest cost areas but no discernable response in the highest cost areas. We conclude that the EITC’s welfare-enhancing properties are undermined by the interaction of the program’s fixed national rules and geographic variation in wages and cost-of-living. In addition, our findings suggest that the EITC does little to reduce joblessness in many of the nation ...


Goodwin Or Kalecki In Demand? Functional Income Distribution And Aggregate Demand In The Short Run, Engelbert Stockhammer, Robert Stehrer Jan 2009

Goodwin Or Kalecki In Demand? Functional Income Distribution And Aggregate Demand In The Short Run, Engelbert Stockhammer, Robert Stehrer

PERI Working Papers

In a seminal paper on Marxian business cycle theory Goodwin (1967) presented a model, which assumed that a higher wage share leads to lower investment and thus a general economic slowdown. In contrast Kalecki (1971) was arguing that a higher wage share would have an expansionary effect because the consumption propensity out of wage income is higher than that out of profit income. Based on a general model that allows for wage-led as well as profit-led demand regimes, this paper estimates the effects of a change in the wage share on aggregate private domestic demand with quarterly data for 12 ...


The Effectiveness Of Monetary Policy Reconsidered, John Weeks Jan 2009

The Effectiveness Of Monetary Policy Reconsidered, John Weeks

PERI Working Papers

This paper inspects the standard policy rule that under a flexible exchange rate regime with perfectly elastic capital flows monetary policy is effective and fiscal policy is not. The logical validity of the statement requires that the effect of an exchange rate change on the domestic price level be ignored. The price level effect is noted in some textbooks, but not formally analysed. When it is subjected to a rigorous analysis, the interaction between changes in the exchange rate and the domestic price level significantly alters the standard policy rule. The logically correct statement would be, under a flexible exchange ...


Unemployment Compensation And High European Unemployment: A Reassessment With New Benefit Indicators, David R. Howell, Miriam Rehm Jan 2009

Unemployment Compensation And High European Unemployment: A Reassessment With New Benefit Indicators, David R. Howell, Miriam Rehm

PERI Working Papers

Generous unemployment benefits lie at the heart of the conventional explanation for persistent high unemployment. The effects of benefit generosity are more ambiguous in a broader behavioral framework in which workers get substantial disutility from unemployment controlling for income, and know that unemployment has scarring effects in the future. The micro evidence suggests modest effects of changes in generosity, but there are reasons to doubt that the impacts on national unemployment rates are consequential. The strongest evidence for the orthodox prediction comes from cross-country regressions on the OECD’s gross replacement rate (GRR), but we find little support in the ...


The Simple Analytics Of Debt-Driven Business Cycles, Thomas I. Palley Jan 2009

The Simple Analytics Of Debt-Driven Business Cycles, Thomas I. Palley

PERI Working Papers

This paper explores the economics of debt-driven business cycles, distinguishing between Keynesian and new Keynesian approaches. Keynesians emphasize the impact of borrowing and debt on aggregate demand (AD), whereas new Keynesians emphasize the impact on aggregate supply (AS). A unique Keynesian feature is emphasis on debtor – creditor debt-service income transfers. Business cycles result from two mechanisms. One is the multiplier – accelerator AD mechanism. The second is a predator – prey mechanism whereby increased income feeds the level of debt, but the level of debt preys on the level of income. Both the Keynesian and new Keynesian approaches are logically coherent, but ...