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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Thinking Like A Research Expert: Schemata For Teaching Complex Problem-Solving Skills, Paul D. Callister Jan 2009

Thinking Like A Research Expert: Schemata For Teaching Complex Problem-Solving Skills, Paul D. Callister

Paul D. Callister

The difference between expert and novice problem-solvers is that experts have organized their thinking into schemata or mental constructs to both see and solve problems. This article demonstrates why schemata are important, arguing that schemata need to be made explicit in the classroom. It illustrates the use of schemata to understand and categorize complex research problems, map the terrain of legal research resources, match appropriate resources to types of problems, and work through the legal research process. The article concludes by calling upon librarians and research instructors to produce additional schemata and develop a common hierarchical taxonomy of skills, a ...


Legal Storytelling: The Theory And The Practice - Reflective Writing Across The Curriculum, Nancy Levit Jan 2009

Legal Storytelling: The Theory And The Practice - Reflective Writing Across The Curriculum, Nancy Levit

Nancy Levit

This article concentrates on the theory of narrative or storytelling and addresses the reasons it is vital to encourage in law schools in non-clinical or primarily doctrinal courses. Section I traces the advent of storytelling in legal theory and practice: while lawyers have long recognized that part of their job is to tell their clients' stories, the legal academy was, for many years, resistant to narrative methodologies. Section II examines the current applications of Writing Across the Curriculum in law schools. Most exploratory writing tasks in law school come in clinical courses, although a few adventurous professors are adding reflective ...


Phd Abstract, Marie Mckenzie Mills Jan 2009

Phd Abstract, Marie Mckenzie Mills

Marie McKenzie Mills PhD, CSci

This developmental research study concerned how trainers, drawn mainly from the commercial (pharmaceutical) sector of the field of clinical research, shared understandings of practice in a professionally localised community, as part of their continuing professional development. Trainers in this community had a heterogeneous range of identities including full-time and part-time trainers: clinical research trainers, training managers; clinical research managers, clinical research associates, compliance managers, auditors and others. The main aim was to explain conditions shaping this community and its concept of practice using Cultural-Historical-Activity-Theory.


Thesis Chapter 1, Marie Mckenzie Mills Jan 2009

Thesis Chapter 1, Marie Mckenzie Mills

Marie McKenzie Mills PhD, CSci

This research is a study of trainers, drawn mainly from the commercial sector of the field of clinical research, journeying towards becoming a community of practice (CoP). The focus of the study is the concept of practice among this community, formed within the professional body of the Institute of Clinical Research (ICR). Its scope is limited to discussing emergent features of the community, known as the Trainers Forum (TF), in terms of the ‘ecology’ of the commercial sector.


Thesis Chapter 7, Marie Mckenzie Mills Jan 2009

Thesis Chapter 7, Marie Mckenzie Mills

Marie McKenzie Mills PhD, CSci

Viewing activity from the perspective of respective actors in the system of activity enables a comprehensive picture to be built of the systematic elements involved. In addition, according to Lave and Wenger (op.cit.), the identity of members in terms of who they are, and what they do, is bound up with the activity or practice that defines them as a community. Consequently, describing who the subjects are within the system of activity, and the tensions between them, provides an insight into the social structure of the activity system in terms of the features of their shared practice, such as ...


Thesis Chapter 10, Marie Mckenzie Mills Jan 2009

Thesis Chapter 10, Marie Mckenzie Mills

Marie McKenzie Mills PhD, CSci

In this chapter, the purpose, research questions and hypotheses of the thesis are revisited in the process of drawing conclusions. In addition, a critique of the methodology used in this research is offered to assess the contribution to knowledge. The overall aims of this research study were: to explain the conditions creating and sustaining a professional community of trainers and its concept of training practice against a backdrop of increasing regulation; and, to understand the effects of compliance culture on the sharing of practice and development of shared understandings in this community. The pertinent questions posed in line with these ...


Thesis Chapter 9, Marie Mckenzie Mills Jan 2009

Thesis Chapter 9, Marie Mckenzie Mills

Marie McKenzie Mills PhD, CSci

The community constituting the Forum, the division of labour within it, and the rules affecting its activity and individual chains of actions were described and analysed in the previous chapter. Analyses revealed that trainers replicated the circumstances that they endured in their workplace through the predominance of a time-bound, content driven agenda, driven by a compliance culture that can be traced to the workplace, where it operated as a rule. In turn, this rule was traced to another neighbouring activity system, the regulatory environment, where compliance culture is used as a tool to enforce adherence to GCP standards (L1TO2d). In ...


Thesis Chapter 8, Marie Mckenzie Mills Jan 2009

Thesis Chapter 8, Marie Mckenzie Mills

Marie McKenzie Mills PhD, CSci

The Trainers’ Forum is viewed as an activity system (AS) in its entirety through considering the continuous patterns of activity within sessions of Forum meetings. However, in order to proceed with analyses at the level of the declarative, procedural and social interactions/discourses that Engeström suggests are necessary for actual-empirical analyses, the community, its rules and division of labour are foregrounded. The object of activity can then be analysed subsequently in light of the conceptual models that have emerged in the Forum. Findings concerning the object of activity are therefore presented last in Chapter 9, in order to conclude discussion ...