Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2009

Iowa State University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 271 - 284 of 284

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Comparison Of Social Interactions Between Preschool Students From Spanish Speaking Homes And Preschool Students From English Speaking Homes, Molly Ann Luchtel Jan 2009

A Comparison Of Social Interactions Between Preschool Students From Spanish Speaking Homes And Preschool Students From English Speaking Homes, Molly Ann Luchtel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the differences between preschool students from Spanish speaking homes and preschool students from English speaking homes in the areas of classroom conduct, social skills, and teacher-child relationship quality, as rated by their teachers. Data were taken from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE), a longitudinal study beginning in 1996. Participants in the current study included 1,034 parents, 1,034 children, and 743 teachers. Significant results revealed that students from Spanish speaking homes were rated more positively in the areas of classroom conduct and teacher-child relationship quality than students from English speaking homes. Analyses ...


Cognitive Responses, Attitudes, And Product Involvement Of Female Consumers To Traditional And Non-Traditional Models In Beauty Advertising, Laura Jean Dillavou Jan 2009

Cognitive Responses, Attitudes, And Product Involvement Of Female Consumers To Traditional And Non-Traditional Models In Beauty Advertising, Laura Jean Dillavou

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates how female consumers cognitively respond to traditional and non-traditional models in beauty product advertisements, and why they have the attitudes they do toward those ads. Using identification theory and schema theory as a framework, results showed that regardless of demographic variables, women felt traditional models in beauty product advertisements were unrealistic. Many said advertisements were hard to ignore, and continued to serve as a reminder that their own bodies, skin, and hair were nowhere near the standard depicted in modern day advertising.


Crisis Communication During Beef Recalls Due To E. Coli O157:H7 Contamination, Jennifer Marie Scharpe Jan 2009

Crisis Communication During Beef Recalls Due To E. Coli O157:H7 Contamination, Jennifer Marie Scharpe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to evaluate the quantity and quality of crisis communication efforts during one specific type of public health emergency, beef recalls due to E. coli O157:H7 contamination. A content analysis of 452 US newspaper reports within 30 days of a beef recall was conducted to determine the sources cited and the messages communicated to the public. The analysis involved a total of 36 recalls issued from 2003 to 2008. The study found the sources cited by reporters include two of the major stakeholders involved in the crisis - government agencies and meat companies who processed or sold the ...


Single Versus Multiple Submissions In The Publication Process, Ying Gao Jan 2009

Single Versus Multiple Submissions In The Publication Process, Ying Gao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we develop a model to investigate some implications of single and multiple submissions policies of academic journals. We make the following four assumptions. First, authors are identical and they produce papers with the same quality distribution; Second, there are only two journals and their quality standards are common knowledge; Third, the errors in the referee's assessment of papers' quality are uncorrelated. Finally, if a paper is rejected by a journal it can not be resubmitted to the same journal in the future. We find that if multiple submissions were allowed, the average quality of accepted papers ...


Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr Jan 2009

Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social reality can be created through self-fulfilling prophecies and perceptual biases. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a false belief that leads to its own fulfillment. A perceptual bias occurs when an individual believes that her or his inaccurate expectation about another has been confirmed to a greater extent than it has in reality. Although research findings bearing on these processes are robust, these effects are typically small. Nonetheless, this does not mean that self-fulfilling prophecy and perceptual bias effects are always small. There are conditions under which such effects have the potential to be powerful. The current experiment tested this possibility ...


The Influence Of Child, Family, And Community Characteristics On Change In Children's Body Mass Index: Mediating Role Of Community-Based Physical Activity Trajectories, Florensia Flora Surjadi Jan 2009

The Influence Of Child, Family, And Community Characteristics On Change In Children's Body Mass Index: Mediating Role Of Community-Based Physical Activity Trajectories, Florensia Flora Surjadi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Researchers investigating the prevalence of childhood obesity have documented an upward trend. However, little research has focused on the processes that might explain changes in children's Body Mass Index (BMI), a commonly used measure to determine overweight and obese status. The purpose of this dissertation is to elucidate the pathways in which child, family, and community characteristics might influence children's BMI. Specifically, using an ecological framework, this study investigates how children's participation in community-based physical activity mediates the influences of child, family, and community characteristics on change in BMI. Data from kindergarten through the fifth-grade from a ...


Conceptualizing Design Affordances From A Cognitive Perspective, Jeremiah D. Still Jan 2009

Conceptualizing Design Affordances From A Cognitive Perspective, Jeremiah D. Still

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The term affordance carries multiple meanings for designers. Traditionally, affordances were discussed within a Gibsonian framework as arising from direct perception of physical constraints. However, some authors extended the meaning to include learned cultural constraints, leading to a theoretical debate about whether designers should draw a distinction between perceptual affordances and learned cultural conventions. In this dissertation it is suggested that a broader meaning of affordance is more appropriate for designers and that a unified account of affordances can be achieved using a cognitive conceptualization of perceived affordances. Within this cognitive framework, perceived affordances arise from automatic processes in the ...


The Role Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Object-Based Attentional Selection, Wah Pheow Tan Jan 2009

The Role Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Object-Based Attentional Selection, Wah Pheow Tan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated the relationship between object-based attention and visual short-term memory (VSTM). Three claims were investigated: (a) spatial attention and spatial STM share similar processing resources; (b) object-based attention and object STM share similar processing resources; and (c) both sets of processing resources are dissociable. Although the first claim is well established, the latter two claims are less established due to limited empirical evidence in the literature. Specifically, studies that provided evidence for the latter two claims (Matsukura & Vecera, 2008; Tan, 2008) employed an object-based attention task (Duncan, 1984) with no spatial component that heavily engaged object STM. These issues ...


Making A Postmodern Turn: Re-Creating Community Cultural Capital During Economic Restructurings, Ryan Orr Jan 2009

Making A Postmodern Turn: Re-Creating Community Cultural Capital During Economic Restructurings, Ryan Orr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After Whirlpool Corporation officials acquired Maytag Corporation in 2006, Maytag operations in Newton, Iowa, the birthplace of Maytag and former home to Maytag headquarters office and a long-standing manufacturing plant, were subsequently closed. With the closings, Newton residents encounter a double victimization. In addition to losing the community's primary employer and tax base contributor, residents lost a primary source of community culture for over 100 years. This study examines residents' practices in re-creating community cultural capital - Newton's collective identities, senses of place, and general cultural ways - following local Maytag closings. Along with focusing on the interplay between structure ...


Ideology And Party In Congressional Iraq War Voting Patterns, John Hart Siebenmann Jan 2009

Ideology And Party In Congressional Iraq War Voting Patterns, John Hart Siebenmann

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined whether party identity (ID), or the ideological score assigned by Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), was a better predictor of roll-call voting on Iraq War legislation during the 110th Congress in 2007. Party ID and ADA scores were separately correlated with voting outcomes on twenty-two Senate, and twenty-six House votes on Iraq War bills. Though party and ideology both correlated strongly with voting outcomes in cross-tabulation statistics, a test of significance of the difference between two nonindependent correlations revealed ADA scores predominated in all House votes, and nearly half of the Senate votes. While the results add ...


Keeping The Wineglass Full: Exploring The Intersection Of Sustainable Viticulture And Sustaining Winegrower Legacy In Lodi, California, Matthew Hoffman Jan 2009

Keeping The Wineglass Full: Exploring The Intersection Of Sustainable Viticulture And Sustaining Winegrower Legacy In Lodi, California, Matthew Hoffman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis broadly explores one community of winegrowers as they attempt to collectively sustain their livelihoods by employing the sustainable agriculture model. Through in-depth interviews with fourteen organizationally defined sustainable winegrowers, this thesis articulates the actual and potential role sustainable viticulture plays in sustaining the livelihoods of winegrowers in Lodi, California. The unassuming town of Lodi is of particular interest, since these winegrowers have blazed a trail in the field of sustainable viticulture. Lodi winegrowers have established some of the most robust sustainable agriculture programs in California, and arguably in the country. My interpretations of Lodi's achievements are couched ...


Construction Resource Use Of Two Different Types And Scales Of Iowa Swine Production Facilities, Peter J. Lammers, Mark S. Honeyman, Jay D. Harmon, James B. Kliebenstein, Matthew J. Helmers Jan 2009

Construction Resource Use Of Two Different Types And Scales Of Iowa Swine Production Facilities, Peter J. Lammers, Mark S. Honeyman, Jay D. Harmon, James B. Kliebenstein, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

As global populations and affluence rise, there is increasing demand for energy, animal protein, and construction materials. In many cases, available resource pools are insufficient to meet growing market demands, resulting in increased prices and competition for limited resources. This study evaluates key construction resources needed to build different types and scales of Iowa swine production facilities. Two types of facilities — conventional confinement and hoop barn-based — within farrow-to-finish pig production systems scaled to produce either 5,200 or 15,600 market pigs annually are examined. Conventional confinement facilities are typical of pork industry practice in the United States and are ...


Incorporating Crisis Planning And Management Into Orientation Programs, Dian Squire, Victor Wilson, Joe Ritchie, Abbey Wolfman Jan 2009

Incorporating Crisis Planning And Management Into Orientation Programs, Dian Squire, Victor Wilson, Joe Ritchie, Abbey Wolfman

Education Publications

On April 16, 2007, at 6:47 a.m., Seung-Hui Cho stood outside West Ambler Johnston residence hall. Approximately 30 minutes later Cho shot and killed Emily Hischler and a resident assistant, Ryan Christopher Clark. By 7:30 a.m., a “person of interest” had been identified, and the University’s Policy Group called a meeting. Within an hour of the incident, the chief of police provided information to the Policy Group; requested the Virginia Tech Police Department Emergency Response Team arrive at the scene; and the Policy Group discussed how to notify the community of the homicides. Meanwhile, Cho ...


The Foreign Policy Of The Bush Administration: Terrorism And The Promotion Of Democracy, James M. Mccormick Jan 2009

The Foreign Policy Of The Bush Administration: Terrorism And The Promotion Of Democracy, James M. Mccormick

Political Science Publications

During the 2000 presidential campaign, George W. Bush announced that he would pursue a "distinctly American internationalism" in foreign policy (Bush i999a), largely in contrast to the liberal internationalism of the Clinton administration. He initially sought to have a foreign policy that placed greater emphasis on American national interests than on global interests. The 9/11 attacks quickly changed both the content of the administration's foreign policy and the process by which American foreign policy was made. As a result, the administration pursued a foreign policy that was universal in scope and that viewed virtually all international actions as ...