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2009

Iowa State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 115

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Statement At The Hearing On Costs And Benefits Of Domestic Offsets, Dermot J. Hayes Dec 2009

Statement At The Hearing On Costs And Benefits Of Domestic Offsets, Dermot J. Hayes

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper Dec 2009

The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Children in households reporting the receipt of free or reduced price school meals through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are more likely to have negative health outcomes than eligible nonparticipants. Assessing the causal effects of the program is made difficult, however, by the presence of endogenous selection into the program and systematic misreporting of participation status. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we extend and apply partial identification methods to account for these two identification problems in a single unifying framework. Similar to a regression discontinuity design, we introduce a new way to conceptualize ...


Assessing China's Potential Import Demand For Distillers Dried Grain: Implications For Grain Trade, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, James Hansen, Holger Matthey, Suwen Pan, Francis Tuan Dec 2009

Assessing China's Potential Import Demand For Distillers Dried Grain: Implications For Grain Trade, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, James Hansen, Holger Matthey, Suwen Pan, Francis Tuan

CARD Staff Reports

A team of U.S. analysts visited China to assess the potential for use of distillers dried grain plus solubles (DDGS) in China's livestock sector. They examined the economics of the use of DDGS in feeds, the policy issues surrounding the use of the product, and transportation-logistic constraints in the expansion of DDGS imports. The team collected actual and secondary data to conduct a micro-economic analysis of the impact of DDGS on feed cost, solicited official and expert opinions through interviews, and conducted site visits. They found the development of the DDGS import market in China to be very ...


Road Safety Audit For Ia 150/Us 52 From I-380 To The Minnesota Border, Thomas J. Mcdonald Dec 2009

Road Safety Audit For Ia 150/Us 52 From I-380 To The Minnesota Border, Thomas J. Mcdonald

InTrans Project Reports

On June 9, 2009, the Northeast Iowa Highway 150/52 Coalition met with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) in Cedar Falls, Iowa to discuss concerns regarding roadway conditions and safety which has become a concern because of the potential economic development in the area. In response to the issues raised by the coalition, the Iowa DOT requested that a road safety audit be conducted on the corridor to identify where low-cost improvements could be beneficially applied to address safety concerns


Cancer-Risk Benefits Of Clean Fuel Technology And Policy: A Statistical Analysis, Paul Gallagher, William Lazarus, Hosein Shapouri, Roger Conway, James Duffield Dec 2009

Cancer-Risk Benefits Of Clean Fuel Technology And Policy: A Statistical Analysis, Paul Gallagher, William Lazarus, Hosein Shapouri, Roger Conway, James Duffield

Economics Publications

The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas ...


Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack Dec 2009

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack

Anthropology Publications

Chimpanzees across Africa include some meat in their diet1. In most communities where chimpanzees have been studied over the long term, primate prey is apparently preferred over other animal prey, with red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius) comprising the most common monkey species eaten2. At Fongoli, Senegal, it is likely that chimpanzees have never had access to red colobus monkeys at this hot, dry and open site, although the range of red colobus monkeys (P.b. temminckii) in Senegal and adjacent countries in West Africa has diminished3. Fongoli chimpanzees are currently not sympatric with red colobus, although they ...


Is Local Food More Expensive? A Consumer Price Perspective On Local And Non-Local Foods Purchased In Iowa, Rich S. Pirog, Nick W, Mccann Dec 2009

Is Local Food More Expensive? A Consumer Price Perspective On Local And Non-Local Foods Purchased In Iowa, Rich S. Pirog, Nick W, Mccann

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

Is local food more expensive than its non-local counterpart? The Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture’s Marketing and Food Systems Initiative conducted consumer market research in June, July, and August 2009 to examine what Iowa consumers pay for locally grown products and how these prices compare to non-local market channel prices.


Engaged Lifestyle, Personality, And Mental Status Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Joan Baenziger, Maurice Macdonald, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard W. Poon Dec 2009

Engaged Lifestyle, Personality, And Mental Status Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Joan Baenziger, Maurice Macdonald, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard W. Poon

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

This study assessed engaged lifestyle activities (e.g., volunteering, traveling, and public speaking) for centenarians of the Georgia Centenarian Study. A total of 285 centenarians and near-centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older) and their proxy informants participated in this study. The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was assessed for all centenarians, and proxy informants reported on lifestyle activities and personality traits of the centenarians. Results suggested that participants who had volunteered, traveled, and those who had given public talks and balanced their checkbooks were more likely to show relatively high mental status scores (i.e., MMSE > 17). Personality traits were ...


Investing In People For The 21st Century, Wallace E. Huffman Nov 2009

Investing In People For The 21st Century, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The paper draws upon the work of T.W. Schultz to show that human capital theory and labor market adjustments have important implications for investing in people for the 21st Century.


Does Information Change Behavior?, Wallace E. Huffman Nov 2009

Does Information Change Behavior?, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.


Consumer Preferences For Country-Of-Origin, Geographical Indication, And Protected Designation Of Origin Labels, Luisa Menapace, Gregory J. Colson, Carola Grebitus, Maria Facendola Nov 2009

Consumer Preferences For Country-Of-Origin, Geographical Indication, And Protected Designation Of Origin Labels, Luisa Menapace, Gregory J. Colson, Carola Grebitus, Maria Facendola

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Motivated by the recognition that geography is often correlated with and/or an important determinant of the overall quality of agricultural products, consumer groups, industry representatives, and domestic and trade representatives have increasingly considered the potential role of geographical origin labels as consumer information and marketing tools. We investigate whether consumers recognize and value the informational content of a variety of nested geographical origin labels. In particular, this study disentangles and assesses three nested types of origin labels: country of origin (COOL), geographical indications (GI), and PDO/PGI. We find that, within the context of a high quality value-added commodity ...


Mining Social Tagging Data For Enhanced Subject Access For Readers And Researchers, Karen G. Lawson Nov 2009

Mining Social Tagging Data For Enhanced Subject Access For Readers And Researchers, Karen G. Lawson

Collections and Technical Services Publications and Papers

Social tagging enables librarians to partner with users to provide enhanced subject access. This paper quantifies and compares LC subject headings from each of 31 different subject divisions with user tags from Amazon.com and LibraryThing assigned to the same titles. The intersection and integration of these schemas is described and evaluated.


A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process With Beta Distribution As Limit, David A. Hennessy Nov 2009

A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process With Beta Distribution As Limit, David A. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

The modeling of price risk in the theory and practice of commodity risk management has been developed far beyond that of crop yield risk. This is in large part due to the use of plausible stochastic price processes. We use the Pólya urn to identify and develop a model of the crop yield expectation stochastic process over a growing season. The process allows a role for agronomic events, such as growing degree days. The model is internally consistent in adhering to the martingale property. The limiting distribution is the beta, commonly used in yield modeling. By applying binomial tree analysis ...


Hierarchy Of Players In Swap Robust Voting Games, Monisankar Bishnu, Sonali Roy Oct 2009

Hierarchy Of Players In Swap Robust Voting Games, Monisankar Bishnu, Sonali Roy

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Ordinarily, the process of decision making by a committee through voting is modelled by a monotonic game the range of whose characteristic function is restricted to {0,1}. The decision rule that governs the collective action of a voting body induces a hierarchy in the set of players in terms of the a-priori influence that the players have over the decision making process. In order to determine this hierarchy in a swap robust game, one has to either evaluate a number-based power index (e.g., the Shapley-Shubik index, the Banzhaf-Coleman index) for each player or conduct a pairwise comparison between ...


Bibliography Of Writings On The History Of Libraries, Librarianship, And Book Culture (Fall 2009), Edward A. Goedeken Oct 2009

Bibliography Of Writings On The History Of Libraries, Librarianship, And Book Culture (Fall 2009), Edward A. Goedeken

Collections and Technical Services Publications and Papers

No abstract provided.


Are U.S. Corn And Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant?, Tian Yu, Bruce A. Babcock Oct 2009

Are U.S. Corn And Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant?, Tian Yu, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

An objective drought index that measures the dry and hot conditions adversely affecting crop yields is used in a regression analysis to test whether corn and soybeans have become more drought tolerant. Results indicate that corn yield losses from a drought of a given severity, whether measured in quantity terms or as a percentage of mean yield, have decreased over time. The null hypothesis that the absolute level of soybean yield losses due to drought has not changed cannot be rejected. But soybean yield losses in percentage terms have decreased over time. Because drought is the primary cause of yield ...


Does Local School Control Raise Student Outcomes? Evidence On The Roles Of School Autonomy And Parental Participation, Victoria Gunnarsson, Peter F. Orazem, Mario A. Sanchez, Aimee Verdisco Oct 2009

Does Local School Control Raise Student Outcomes? Evidence On The Roles Of School Autonomy And Parental Participation, Victoria Gunnarsson, Peter F. Orazem, Mario A. Sanchez, Aimee Verdisco

Economics Publications

As early as 1962, international agencies such as the United Nations and the World Bank were advising that the decentralization of public service delivery could serve as a development strategy. The strategy has become even more prominent over the past 15 years, particularly in education.1 Decentralization efforts in developed countries include various programs in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and in at least 44 states in the United States. Among the developing countries, Burkina Faso, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, India, and Nicaragua have introduced new programs aimed at devolving power to the local schools ...


Cooperatives: A Competitive Yardstick For Health Care, Mark A. Edelman, John R. Dunn Sep 2009

Cooperatives: A Competitive Yardstick For Health Care, Mark A. Edelman, John R. Dunn

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

As the national debate over health care reform continues, consideration is increasingly being given to the use of consumer-focused health care cooperatives as a key strategy for providing access to affordable health care and insurance for the millions of consumers and small businesses not presently able to afford or obtain adequate health care. Historically in many other sectors, the cooperative form of business has been successfully adapted by farmers, consumers, businesses, and public bodies as an effective strategy for attaining scale, lowering costs, improving incomes, providing services, and creating a better functioning marketplace. Reasons for forming cooperatives and analysis of ...


Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz Sep 2009

Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Background: Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity) at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community).

Methods: Participants were 1,323 children and their parents ...


Costs, Returns, Production And Financial Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David R. Stender, James Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber Sep 2009

Costs, Returns, Production And Financial Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David R. Stender, James Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber

Iowa Pork Industry Center Reports

This report provides a summary of the costs, returns, and production and financial performance for participating niche pork producer s for the year 2008. There were 18 niche pork farrow-to-finish producers who completed record s for 2008. These 18 operations were typically ‘natural’ producers, meaning their pigs were raised without antibiotics using bedded pens with outdoor access.


Investigating The Potential Economic Impacts Of Local Foods For Southeast Iowa, Dave Swenson Sep 2009

Investigating The Potential Economic Impacts Of Local Foods For Southeast Iowa, Dave Swenson

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

This study evaluates regional economic impact gains that might accrue if the region were to increase its fresh fruit and vegetable production to accommodate local or regional demand. The region studied includes rural areas, yet it is influenced by nearby metropolitan centers, which also serve as potential markets.


The Impact Of Biofuels Policy On Agribusiness Stock Prices, Fatma Sine Tepe, Xiaodong Du, David A. Hennessy Sep 2009

The Impact Of Biofuels Policy On Agribusiness Stock Prices, Fatma Sine Tepe, Xiaodong Du, David A. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

Corn markets are important for many industries, including the seed, fertilizer, meat production/processing and agricultural machinery sectors, all of which are highly concentrated. Oligopoly theory suggests that corn input and field equipment suppliers likely benefit from policies that support corn markets, such as U.S. biofuels policy, while meat companies are likely adversely affected. Employing a linear two-factor (S&P 500 and corn prices) equilibrium asset pricing model, this study investigates the impact of biofuels policy on U.S. agribusiness and food processing firm stock prices. Conditional heteroskedasticity in stock returns is accounted for using a GARCH(1,1 ...


Dynamics Of Biofuel Stock Prices: A Bayesian Approach, Xiaodong Du, Dermot J. Hayes, Cindy L. Yu Sep 2009

Dynamics Of Biofuel Stock Prices: A Bayesian Approach, Xiaodong Du, Dermot J. Hayes, Cindy L. Yu

CARD Working Papers

We use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to investigate the linkage between the volatility of ethanol security prices and the uncertainty surrounding the profitability of ethanol production and the price variations of non-ethanol energy securities. The joint evolution of return and volatility is modeled as a stochastic process that incorporates jumps in both return and volatility. While a strong and significant correlation is found between the volatility of ethanol securities and profit uncertainty from June 2005 to July 2008, the dynamic pattern of ethanol stock volatility is strikingly similar to that of the S&P 500 energy sector index ...


Impacts Of Agricultural Expansion On Surface Runoff: A Case Study Of A River Basin In The Brazilian Legal Amazon, E. E. Maeda, A. R. Formaggio, Y. E. Shimabukuro, Amy L. Kaleita Sep 2009

Impacts Of Agricultural Expansion On Surface Runoff: A Case Study Of A River Basin In The Brazilian Legal Amazon, E. E. Maeda, A. R. Formaggio, Y. E. Shimabukuro, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This work presents an analysis of the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes of a region in the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and an evaluation of their impacts on the surface runoff regime. This case study took place at the Suiá-Miçu River basin, located in the northeast region of Mato Grosso State. LULC maps were produced for the years 1973, 1984 and 2005 using remote sensing data. After analyzing the agricultural expansion in the study area, the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) was applied in performing the surface runoff modeling for each of the analyzed years using the SCS ...


Bounding The Effects Of Food Insecurity On Children’S Health Outcomes, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider Sep 2009

Bounding The Effects Of Food Insecurity On Children’S Health Outcomes, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider

Economics Publications

Previous research has estimated that food insecure children are more likely to suffer from a wide array of negative health outcomes than food secure children, leading many to claim that alleviating food insecurity would lead to better health outcomes. Identifying the causal impacts is problematic, however, given endogenous selection into food security status and potential mismeasurement of true food security status. Using recently developed nonparametric bounding methods and data from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), we assess what can be identified about the effects of food insecurity on child health outcomes in the presence of nonrandom ...


Crop Residues: The Rest Of The Story, Douglas L. Karlen, Rattan Lal, Ronald F. Follett, John M. Kimble, Jerry L. Hatfield, John A. Miranowski, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Andrew Manale, Robert P. Anex, Charles W. Rice Sep 2009

Crop Residues: The Rest Of The Story, Douglas L. Karlen, Rattan Lal, Ronald F. Follett, John M. Kimble, Jerry L. Hatfield, John A. Miranowski, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Andrew Manale, Robert P. Anex, Charles W. Rice

Economics Publications

Synopsis In the February 15, 2009 issue of ES&T Strand and Benford argued that oceanic deposition of agricultural crop residues was a viable option for net carbon sequestration (43 [4], 1000−1007). In reviewing the calculations and bringing their experience to bear, Karlen et al. argue in this Viewpoint that crop residue oceanic permanent sequestration (CROPS) as envisioned by Strand and Benford will not work. They further propose alternative possibilities in agricultural methods to achieve a net decrease of CO2 emissions.


Technology And Innovation In World Agriculture: Prospects For 2010-2019, Wallace E. Huffman Aug 2009

Technology And Innovation In World Agriculture: Prospects For 2010-2019, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The objective of this paper is to assess prospects for increasing agricultural productivity through advances in technology and innovation in farming techniques for developed and selective developing and transition countries over 2010-2019. Over this period of time, the net impact of climate change is expected to be small, perhaps positive on cereal yields. However, environmental concerns (carbon dioxide release from bringing new lands into crop production and erosion on marginal lands brought into crop production, additional agricultural chemicals applied, and less biodiversity) may grow if meeting future demand for food, feed, fiber and bio-fuels require the conversion of forests and ...


Firm Entry, Firm Exit, And Urban-Biased Growth, Li Yu, Robert W. Jolly, Peter F. Orazem Aug 2009

Firm Entry, Firm Exit, And Urban-Biased Growth, Li Yu, Robert W. Jolly, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

We introduce a taxonomy that classifies industries using three criteria: net growth in the number of firms; the interrelationship between firm entry and firm exit; and the degree of urban-bias in industry growth. We show that in 9 of 15 two-digit NAICS industries investigated, there is evidence of urban bias consistent with a comparative advantage to starting a business in urban markets. The urban advantage is due primarily to faster firm entry rates. Urban and rural firms have similar firm exit rates, consistent with a presumption that there are equal expected profit rates conditional on entry across markets. Urban areas ...


Unit Vs. Ad Valorem Taxes In Multi-Product Cournot Oligopoly, Harvey E. Lapan, David A. Hennessy Aug 2009

Unit Vs. Ad Valorem Taxes In Multi-Product Cournot Oligopoly, Harvey E. Lapan, David A. Hennessy

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes over unit taxes in a single-market Cournot oligopoly is well-known. This article extends the analysis to multi-market oligopoly. Provided all ad valorem taxes are positive, unit costs are constant, firms are active in all considered markets, and a representative consumer has convex preferences, it is shown that ad valorem taxes dominate in multi-product equilibrium. We discuss the role of unit cost covariances across multi-product firms in determining the extent of cost efficiencies arising under ad valorem taxation. The issue of merger under oligopoly is also considered. Conditions are identified under which a merger ...


Fishing Behavior Across Space And Time, Luc Pierre Veyssiere, Quinn Weninger Aug 2009

Fishing Behavior Across Space And Time, Luc Pierre Veyssiere, Quinn Weninger

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Models of fishing behavior rarely incorporate the complexities of marine ecosystems, multiple-stock harvest technologies, and regulations present in real world marine fisheries. We introduce a structural model of a multi-species, weak-output-disposability harvest technology. A latent target-cost-minimizing share vector is estimated to link the technology to a spatially and temporally heterogeneous fish stock. Data from the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery is used to estimate the model. The results provide a robust characterization of harvest and discard behavior across space and time. Our approach considerably improves methods used to study fishing behavior and evaluate alternative fisheries management policies.