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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting And When Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications For Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, And Text Processing, Jason C.K. Chan Aug 2009

When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting And When Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications For Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, And Text Processing, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material – a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20(5), 1063–1087). Recent research, however, has shown that retrieval practice can sometimes improve later recall of the nontested material – a phenomenon termed retrieval-induced facilitation (Chan, J. C. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2006). Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can ...


It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons Feb 2009

It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons

Psychology Publications

Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was mediated by racial socialization and positive parenting. Parenting and community influences contributed to adolescent racial identity and self image, which protected against common negative responses to racism; including academic underachievement, succumbing to peer pressure, and aggressive tendencies. Qualitative results ...


Obtaining And Interpreting Eyewitness Identification Test Evidence: The Influence Of Police–Witness Interactions, Neil Brewer, Gary L. Wells Jan 2009

Obtaining And Interpreting Eyewitness Identification Test Evidence: The Influence Of Police–Witness Interactions, Neil Brewer, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

Eyewitnesses to a crime are frequently asked to view an identification parade to see if they can identify the offender. Conduct of a line-up involves police or line-up administrators in a number of important decisions, such as who to put in the line-up, the method of presentation of the line-up, and what to say to witnesses before and after the line-up. The identification test can be conceptualized as a variant on an interview between the police and the witness, involving important interactions between police (or other line-up administrators) and witnesses. These interactions can profoundly influence witness decisions and impact on ...


Recalling A Witnessed Event Increases Eyewitness Suggestibility The Reversed Testing Effect, Jason C.K. Chan, Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich Jan 2009

Recalling A Witnessed Event Increases Eyewitness Suggestibility The Reversed Testing Effect, Jason C.K. Chan, Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich

Psychology Publications

People's later memory of an event can be altered by exposure to misinformation about that event. The typical misinformation paradigm, however, does not include a recall test prior to the introduction of misinformation, contrary to what real-life eyewitnesses encounter when they report to a 911 operator or crime-scene officer. Because retrieval is a powerful memory enhancer (the testing effect), recalling a witnessed event prior to receiving misinformation about it should reduce eyewitness suggestibility. We show, however, that immediate cued recall actually exacerbates the later misinformation effect for both younger and older adults. The reversed testing effect we observed was ...


Expert Testimony Regarding Eyewitness Identification, Brian L. Cutler, Gary L. Wells Jan 2009

Expert Testimony Regarding Eyewitness Identification, Brian L. Cutler, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

Increasingly, psychologists are giving expert testimony in court on the accu­ racy of eyewitness identification (Kassin, Tubb, Hosch, & Memon, 2001). Eyewitness experts typically are cognitive or social psychologists who have published research articles on the topic of eyewitness memory. Expert testi­ mony in eyewitness identification is most commonly offered by the defense in criminal cases but is occasionally countered by opposing expert testimony offered by the prosecution. The increasing use of such expert testimony owes largely to the growing recognition that mistaken eyewitness identification is the single most common precursor to the conviction of innocent people (Doyle, 2005). In addition ...