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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Is Corruption Endogenous To Foreign Direct Investment In Resource-Rich Developing Economies?, Saw Htay Wah Jan 2009

Is Corruption Endogenous To Foreign Direct Investment In Resource-Rich Developing Economies?, Saw Htay Wah

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper offers econometric evidence that corruption and foreign direct investment (FDI) can co-evolve if conditional on the level of development, the type of regimes, and the level of natural resource endowment. In conventional FDI empirical studies, the perceived corruption level in host countries is treated as being exogenous. Corruption, however, is also found to be endogenous to FDI depending upon economic circumstances and political conditions prevailing in host countries. The impact of FDI on corruption in host economies is found to vary across economies if disaggregated samples are used. Asian economies show a different pattern as compared to other ...


Health Risk Cognitions: An Empirical Examination Of The Effects Of Heuristic Versus, Rachel Ann Reimer Jan 2009

Health Risk Cognitions: An Empirical Examination Of The Effects Of Heuristic Versus, Rachel Ann Reimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examined adolescent health risk behaviors from the perspective of dual-process theories. Specifically, assumptions underlying dual-processing theories were empirically examined in two experiments in which processing route was manipulated and subsequent measures of behavioral willingness and behavioral intentions to engage in casual sex and to drink alcohol were examined. The primary goals of Study 1 were two-fold. One goal was to demonstrate that processing route can be varied via an external factor, such as the instructional set used in the current study. The second goal was to examine the effect that the induced route of processing style had on ...


An Economic Analysis Of Decisions On Physical Activity And Energy Imbalance: Cross-Sectional Evidence From A Panel Of Middle-Aged Adults, Yanni Chen Jan 2009

An Economic Analysis Of Decisions On Physical Activity And Energy Imbalance: Cross-Sectional Evidence From A Panel Of Middle-Aged Adults, Yanni Chen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ample evidence indicates that regular physical activity has many human health benefits. Maintenance of good physical fitness enables one to meet the physical demands of work and leisure comfortably and be less prone to a number of illnesses. In addition to physical inactivity, a poor diet is another factor in energy imbalance (more calories consumed than expended). According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, physical inactivity and poor diets are the two most important factors contributing to the increase in overweight and obesity in the United States. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for certain chronic diseases such ...


Single Versus Multiple Submissions In The Publication Process, Ying Gao Jan 2009

Single Versus Multiple Submissions In The Publication Process, Ying Gao

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we develop a model to investigate some implications of single and multiple submissions policies of academic journals. We make the following four assumptions. First, authors are identical and they produce papers with the same quality distribution; Second, there are only two journals and their quality standards are common knowledge; Third, the errors in the referee's assessment of papers' quality are uncorrelated. Finally, if a paper is rejected by a journal it can not be resubmitted to the same journal in the future. We find that if multiple submissions were allowed, the average quality of accepted papers ...


Impact Of Social Capital On Food Security In Southeast Uganda, Haroon Sseguya Jan 2009

Impact Of Social Capital On Food Security In Southeast Uganda, Haroon Sseguya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Assuring food security in Uganda is a fundamental challenge that the government and development agencies face. Recent analyses indicate that some successes have been achieved, but food insecurity gaps still exist, with implications for more concerted investments in a multiplicity of community assets to achieve better results. This study assessed whether social capital is a key asset for achievement of food security in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. More specifically, it focused on the determinants and levels of participation in food security groups. The study also explored the status, challenges and gaps of information flows in rural communities. Potential relationships between ...


Individual And Partner Effects: Influences Of Anxiety And Warmth On Marital Satisfaction Among African American Spouses, Sonja Stutzman Jan 2009

Individual And Partner Effects: Influences Of Anxiety And Warmth On Marital Satisfaction Among African American Spouses, Sonja Stutzman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

African Americans are currently the 2nd largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2004); however, there is a paucity of research within this population examining the unique context and characteristics of both individuals and couples related to marital and emotional distress. The current study addressed these limitations through the utilization of self-reported and observational data measures of partner warmth provided through the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). The current analyses focused on the longitudinal effects of anxiety and partner warmth on marital satisfaction among 99 African American couples within FACHS. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant associations ...


Gender Role Orientation And The Role Of Empathy In Interventions Promoting The Development Of Interpersonal Forgiveness., Daniel B. Goldman Jan 2009

Gender Role Orientation And The Role Of Empathy In Interventions Promoting The Development Of Interpersonal Forgiveness., Daniel B. Goldman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research over the past quarter-century has revealed a host of benefits associated with forgiving someone for a past hurt, such as reductions in anxiety and depression and increased satisfaction with life and subjective well-being. Despite these potential benefits, forgiving is difficult. As such, researchers and clinicians have examined the efficacy of therapeutic interventions that assist clients in developing forgiveness. Ultimately, such interventions are evaluated by their efficacy in successfully cultivating forgiveness and promoting well-being (e.g., reducing psychological symptoms).

The present experiment was conducted to understand the potential value of two group counseling interventions for individuals suffering the effects of ...


Dyadic Perceptions Of Grandmothers' Influence On Adult Granddaughters' Beliefs, Merea D. Bentrott Jan 2009

Dyadic Perceptions Of Grandmothers' Influence On Adult Granddaughters' Beliefs, Merea D. Bentrott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing role, both formally and informally, of grandparents in their grandchildren's lives necessitates greater exploration of the influence grandparents have on their grandchildren. In the current study, intergenerational transmission was defined as the process through which purposely or unintentionally an older generation influences the values and belief systems of a younger generation. Prior research has demonstrated the influence of grandparents on their grandchildren in regards to socioeconomic status, education, and physical health. The current study aim was to investigate similarity (i.e., congruence) between grandmothers' and granddaughters' perceptions of grandmothers' influence across four domains (i.e., religious, moral ...


Conceptualizations Of God By Lutheran Laypeople, Ashley Burgess Leininger Jan 2009

Conceptualizations Of God By Lutheran Laypeople, Ashley Burgess Leininger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

God concept researchers have used quantitative methodology exclusively. The Likert Scale combined with the Adjective Rating of God Scale is the most common measurement used in God concept research. The Adjective Rating of God Scale (Gorsuch, 1968) measures conceptualizations of God through a list of adjectives describing God. Combined with the Likert scale, researchers have measured relationships between adjectives, sex, and religious denomination. Although research that has employed these methods has yielded intriguing information, it has not been able to fully explore the area of God concept research. It is argued this scheme ignores three important topics in God concept ...


Conceptualizing Factors Influencing The Perception Of Barriers To Mental Health Treatment And Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Chinese Americans, Wendy Liu Jan 2009

Conceptualizing Factors Influencing The Perception Of Barriers To Mental Health Treatment And Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Chinese Americans, Wendy Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current literature: Despite being one of the fastest growing ethnic minority populations in the U.S., research shows that Asian Americans as a whole underutilize mental health treatment. Disaggregation of ethnic subgroups is imperative to identify within and between group differences in intentions to seek help and barriers to treatment. Study aims: This study examined selected personal and cultural factors hypothesized to influence attitudes towards professional mental health treatment among Chinese Americans. This study employed an experimental component with mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the effectiveness of alleviating practical and cultural barriers to treatment. Results: Results of this ...


Behavioral Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) With Respect To Insectivory At Fongoli, Senegal, Stephanie L. Bogart Jan 2009

Behavioral Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) With Respect To Insectivory At Fongoli, Senegal, Stephanie L. Bogart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I examine the behavioral ecology of savanna chimpanzees in Senegal. I test hypotheses related to the effects of the environment on the diet of the chimpanzees at Fongoli, concentrating on their insectivory specifically. Fongoli is the hottest and driest site in which chimpanzees have been habituated for observational data collection. Grassland habitats (68%) dominate, characterizing the site as an open savanna mosaic, which is interspersed with woodland and small patches of closed forests. The environment at Fongoli presents a setting similar to that of Plio-Pleistocene hominans (Bobe & Behrensmeyer 2004, Bromage & Schrenk 1995, Cerling 1992, Reed 1997) and ...


To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers Jan 2009

To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the United States population ages and their healthcare needs grow it is necessary to examine health-related issues experienced by this population. Food insecurity is one such issue impacting not only older adults but the general population as well. Working to better understand determinants of food insecurity and what factors may protect against it may help in the fight against it.

Cross-sectional data from a survey studying food pantry clients living in four Iowa counties were used to (1) explore what household characteristics may increase the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity and (2) identify what resources may protect against it ...


Small Meat Processors Working Group: Managing Knowledge In A New Era Of Agriculture, Arion Thiboumery Jan 2009

Small Meat Processors Working Group: Managing Knowledge In A New Era Of Agriculture, Arion Thiboumery

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Interest has grown considerably during recent years around what Lyson's (2004) calls "civic agriculture," the localization of food production with the conscious goal of contributing to local sustainable development. A central challenge facing the growth civic agriculture has been methodological; what techniques can be used to support collective action towards this new era of agriculture? In this dissertation, I examine knowledge management using a "community of practice" as one method that shows particular promise. I detail the operations of the Small Meat Processors Working Group, a community of practice among technical assistance providers, regulators, and meat locker operators which ...


Changing Perceptions Of Seeking Help: A Test Of The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Video, Scott Alexander Kaplan Jan 2009

Changing Perceptions Of Seeking Help: A Test Of The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Video, Scott Alexander Kaplan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention video designed to promote positive associations with help seeking for mental health concerns. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a repeated exposure video intervention, a single exposure video intervention, or a control video condition. Participants completed measures pre-intervention, post-interventions, and at a six-week follow-up. The intervention repeated exposure group improved significantly more than the control group on help-seeking peer norms but not on the other outcome variables. The effect for peer norms was found at each time point, indicating both immediate and longer-term effects ...


Ethanol In The Media Agenda: The Life Cycle Of An Issue In Different Geographic Areas, Shoshana Esther Hebshi Jan 2009

Ethanol In The Media Agenda: The Life Cycle Of An Issue In Different Geographic Areas, Shoshana Esther Hebshi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The rise of ethanol as a fuel alternative has come with much controversy over its true benefits. Much of this debate has been played out in the media. This study aims to determine patterns in media coverage of ethanol through a content analysis of reports published from 1999 to 2008 in three newspapers whose respective service areas exhibit different dispositions about the topic--the Des Moines Register, the Houston Chronicle and the Fresno Bee. The study also aimed to expand on the attributes of coverage within each identified phase of the coverage cycle

The study found only one cycle of pre-hoopla ...


Three Essays Concerning Agriculture And Energy, Mindy Lyn Baker Jan 2009

Three Essays Concerning Agriculture And Energy, Mindy Lyn Baker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three papers, each regarding a particular aspect of the relationship between energy and agriculture. The objective of the first paper is to create a model that will enhance informed policy decisions regarding the bioeconomy. A forward-looking stochastic model captures the effect of uncertainty in crude oil prices and commodity yields on biofuel industry development. Acreage limitations on feedstocks such as corn, soybeans, and switchgrass are shown to create competition for acreage among the crops. Investors in the model are rational in the sense that they engage in biofuel production only if returns exceed what they expect ...


Accessing And Affording Child Care And Low-Income Mothers' Employment Over Time: An Ecological Approach, Brinn Hope Shjegstad Jan 2009

Accessing And Affording Child Care And Low-Income Mothers' Employment Over Time: An Ecological Approach, Brinn Hope Shjegstad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

These two studies utilized a large, longitudinal random sample to examine the relationship between child problem behaviors and maternal risk factors and low-income mothers' ability to access and afford child care, as well as how the ability to access and afford child care influences low-income mothers' employment over time. Results showed that low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were significantly more likely to report a decreased ability to access and afford child care. Additionally, low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were more likely to become unemployed than to maintain employment over time. Policy implication ...


The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green Jan 2009

The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lesbian couples often present for therapy for the same reasons as heterosexual couples; however, lesbian couples also have to negotiate societal homonegativity that devalues and marginalizes their relationships. The aim of this study was to explore a common experience of therapy from the perspective of lesbian couples and their therapists. A feminist qualitative method was used to attend to diversity within and among triads, maintain an awareness of the multiple influences on the client-therapist relationship, view the participants in their larger societal context, and consider the power dynamics that are inherent in relationships. Interviews were conducted with seven lesbian clients ...


Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Referential Model For The Evolution Of Habitual Bipedalism In Hominids, Christine Alexandra Tourkakis Jan 2009

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Referential Model For The Evolution Of Habitual Bipedalism In Hominids, Christine Alexandra Tourkakis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Observations of the bipedal behavior of wild savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) can provide insight into the evolution of habitual bipedalism in early hominids. This study provides data on the bipedal behavior of eight adult male chimpanzees at the Fongoli field site in southeastern Senegal. Data were collected during transition months at the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season. Focal instantaneous data on positional and locomotor behavior indicate that bipedalism in Fongoli chimpanzees is a rare, infrequent behavior, accounting for only 2.3% of all positional and locomotor behaviors. Focal all-occurrences data provides a more ...


Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr Jan 2009

Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social reality can be created through self-fulfilling prophecies and perceptual biases. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a false belief that leads to its own fulfillment. A perceptual bias occurs when an individual believes that her or his inaccurate expectation about another has been confirmed to a greater extent than it has in reality. Although research findings bearing on these processes are robust, these effects are typically small. Nonetheless, this does not mean that self-fulfilling prophecy and perceptual bias effects are always small. There are conditions under which such effects have the potential to be powerful. The current experiment tested this possibility ...


The Role Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Object-Based Attentional Selection, Wah Pheow Tan Jan 2009

The Role Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Object-Based Attentional Selection, Wah Pheow Tan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated the relationship between object-based attention and visual short-term memory (VSTM). Three claims were investigated: (a) spatial attention and spatial STM share similar processing resources; (b) object-based attention and object STM share similar processing resources; and (c) both sets of processing resources are dissociable. Although the first claim is well established, the latter two claims are less established due to limited empirical evidence in the literature. Specifically, studies that provided evidence for the latter two claims (Matsukura & Vecera, 2008; Tan, 2008) employed an object-based attention task (Duncan, 1984) with no spatial component that heavily engaged object STM. These issues ...


Ideology And Party In Congressional Iraq War Voting Patterns, John Hart Siebenmann Jan 2009

Ideology And Party In Congressional Iraq War Voting Patterns, John Hart Siebenmann

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examined whether party identity (ID), or the ideological score assigned by Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), was a better predictor of roll-call voting on Iraq War legislation during the 110th Congress in 2007. Party ID and ADA scores were separately correlated with voting outcomes on twenty-two Senate, and twenty-six House votes on Iraq War bills. Though party and ideology both correlated strongly with voting outcomes in cross-tabulation statistics, a test of significance of the difference between two nonindependent correlations revealed ADA scores predominated in all House votes, and nearly half of the Senate votes. While the results add ...


Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus Chrysomelas) Acclimation To A New Zoo Habitat: The Effect Of Visitor Presence On Behavior, Lindsay Jane Ingram Jan 2009

Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus Chrysomelas) Acclimation To A New Zoo Habitat: The Effect Of Visitor Presence On Behavior, Lindsay Jane Ingram

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Zoos play an increasingly important role in primate conservation due to the fact that primate species are increasingly endangered in the wild. Zoos now play a key role by preserving examples of genetic variation. The well-being of zoo animals is therefore of utmost concern. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of visitor presence on a newly transferred group of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) as they acclimated to a new zoo environment. Data were recorded on days when the zoo was open and on days it was closed to document any effects caused by visitor presence ...


Questions About Accountability And Illegality Of Virtual Rape, Melissa Mary Fenech Sander Jan 2009

Questions About Accountability And Illegality Of Virtual Rape, Melissa Mary Fenech Sander

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Virtual rape is not a new phenomenon in virtual communities, as Julian Dibbell’s 1993 article pointed out, but it is beginning to gain attention in some scholarly circles. Of the articles specifically covering virtual rape, most focus on whether or not virtual rape is “real” while some attempt to isolate its social construction. Only one scholar to date has argued the legality of the offense, but limited the discussion only to consensual virtual rape. With this in mind, this thesis is focused on defining non–consensual virtual rape, comparing and contrasting it to other types of online deviance such ...


Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects Among Chinese Newspapers, Chinese Blogs And The New York Times During Coverage Of The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, Xiaomin Qian Jan 2009

Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects Among Chinese Newspapers, Chinese Blogs And The New York Times During Coverage Of The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, Xiaomin Qian

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The unique characteristics of blogs make them a new important media outlet. As the population of Internet users grows rapidly, blogging has become one of the most popular online activities in China. To examine whether blogs have an inter-media agenda-setting function similar to the traditional media, this study applies content analysis, cross-lagged correlation analysis, and Rozelle-Campbell baseline analysis to explore the causal relationship among Chinese newspapers--the Southern Metropolis, the Beijing News, the Modern Express--Chinese blogs, and the New York Times on issues related to the 2008 Beijing Olympics both for a short term (1 week) and a long term (1 ...


Cultural Forms Underlying Health-Related Discourses In The United States And Canada:A Historical-Comparative Study Of The Two Countries' Editorials From 1965-1999, Hexuan Liu Jan 2009

Cultural Forms Underlying Health-Related Discourses In The United States And Canada:A Historical-Comparative Study Of The Two Countries' Editorials From 1965-1999, Hexuan Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper investigates cultural reasons for differences between the U.S. health care system and its Canadian counterpart. The U.S. health care system is an entrepreneurial system based upon free market principles, while the Canadian health care system is a welfare-oriented system based upon governmental responsibilities. Differences in health care systems may reflect differences between two cultures. This paper is based upon Roberts' theoretical framework on modalities. The basic assumption is that social systems can be understood through the discursive use of modal statements (sentences in which actors declare what is possible, impossible, inevitable, or contingent for each other ...


The Influence Of Negative Affectivity On Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Social Support And Marital Satisfaction Among African American Women, Ashley Nicole Rink Jan 2009

The Influence Of Negative Affectivity On Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Social Support And Marital Satisfaction Among African American Women, Ashley Nicole Rink

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined whether the relationship between depressive symptoms and relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction and perceived spousal social support reflect the influence of a third variable, negative affectivity. Specifically, the study addressed whether the effects of negative affectivity on these other self report measures extend over time. Negative affectivity, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal social support were tested as predictors of depression. The sample included 178 married African American women participating in the FACHS study. Both perceived spousal support and marital satisfaction continued to significantly predict depression after controlling for negative affectivity at a previous time point. These ...


Practicing Gender Or Practicing Science? Gender Practices Of Women Scientists, Laura Anne Rhoton Jan 2009

Practicing Gender Or Practicing Science? Gender Practices Of Women Scientists, Laura Anne Rhoton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation focuses specifically on one component of institutional barriers and practices: individual women's gender practices. The interactions in which women engage and the way women position themselves relative to other women professionally using gender practices contributes to the recreation ...


Improving Nutrient Content Through Genetic Modification: Evidence From Experimental Auctions On Consumer Acceptance And Willingness To Pay For Intragenic Foods, Gregory Colson Jan 2009

Improving Nutrient Content Through Genetic Modification: Evidence From Experimental Auctions On Consumer Acceptance And Willingness To Pay For Intragenic Foods, Gregory Colson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After more than a decade of experience in the global marketplace, genetically modified (GM) foods continue to be controversial. Early GM traits were obtained by transferring genes across species, largely from soil bacteria, and this transgenic nature is one dimension of consumer resistance. Recently, breakthroughs have occurred using intragenic bioengineering where genes are moved long distances within specie and without antibiotic markers. These new intragenic bioengineering methods offer the potential for new commercial crop varieties with traits of direct value to consumers (e.g., enhanced nutrition) without reliance on outside foreign genetic material.

To assess the potential market for new ...


A Lattice Analysis Of Social Capital And Related Concepts In Small Iowa Towns, Ehren Dean Stover-Wright Jan 2009

A Lattice Analysis Of Social Capital And Related Concepts In Small Iowa Towns, Ehren Dean Stover-Wright

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using the 2004 Rural Development Initiative data, 99 communities are compared. Three varieties of social capital and ten other constructs serve as dependent variables. The social capital forms are within group, between group, and out-bridging. The dependent qualities are homogeneity, us-versus-them, embeddedness, selectorate, trusting attitude, cohesiveness, contentment, relational rationality, satisfaction with public services and satisfaction with government services. The four forms of cardinality are level cardinality, bijective cardinality, injective cardinality and composite cardinality. An analytic paradigm employing lattices and network analysis is developed to analyze hypotheses. I also address a confusion that grows from sociology investigating groups and group interaction ...