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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper Dec 2009

The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Children in households reporting the receipt of free or reduced price school meals through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are more likely to have negative health outcomes than eligible nonparticipants. Assessing the causal effects of the program is made difficult, however, by the presence of endogenous selection into the program and systematic misreporting of participation status. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we extend and apply partial identification methods to account for these two identification problems in a single unifying framework. Similar to a regression discontinuity design, we introduce a new way to conceptualize ...


Investing In People For The 21st Century, Wallace E. Huffman Nov 2009

Investing In People For The 21st Century, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The paper draws upon the work of T.W. Schultz to show that human capital theory and labor market adjustments have important implications for investing in people for the 21st Century.


Does Information Change Behavior?, Wallace E. Huffman Nov 2009

Does Information Change Behavior?, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.


Consumer Preferences For Country-Of-Origin, Geographical Indication, And Protected Designation Of Origin Labels, Luisa Menapace, Gregory J. Colson, Carola Grebitus, Maria Facendola Nov 2009

Consumer Preferences For Country-Of-Origin, Geographical Indication, And Protected Designation Of Origin Labels, Luisa Menapace, Gregory J. Colson, Carola Grebitus, Maria Facendola

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Motivated by the recognition that geography is often correlated with and/or an important determinant of the overall quality of agricultural products, consumer groups, industry representatives, and domestic and trade representatives have increasingly considered the potential role of geographical origin labels as consumer information and marketing tools. We investigate whether consumers recognize and value the informational content of a variety of nested geographical origin labels. In particular, this study disentangles and assesses three nested types of origin labels: country of origin (COOL), geographical indications (GI), and PDO/PGI. We find that, within the context of a high quality value-added commodity ...


Hierarchy Of Players In Swap Robust Voting Games, Monisankar Bishnu, Sonali Roy Oct 2009

Hierarchy Of Players In Swap Robust Voting Games, Monisankar Bishnu, Sonali Roy

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Ordinarily, the process of decision making by a committee through voting is modelled by a monotonic game the range of whose characteristic function is restricted to {0,1}. The decision rule that governs the collective action of a voting body induces a hierarchy in the set of players in terms of the a-priori influence that the players have over the decision making process. In order to determine this hierarchy in a swap robust game, one has to either evaluate a number-based power index (e.g., the Shapley-Shubik index, the Banzhaf-Coleman index) for each player or conduct a pairwise comparison between ...


Cooperatives: A Competitive Yardstick For Health Care, Mark A. Edelman, John R. Dunn Sep 2009

Cooperatives: A Competitive Yardstick For Health Care, Mark A. Edelman, John R. Dunn

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

As the national debate over health care reform continues, consideration is increasingly being given to the use of consumer-focused health care cooperatives as a key strategy for providing access to affordable health care and insurance for the millions of consumers and small businesses not presently able to afford or obtain adequate health care. Historically in many other sectors, the cooperative form of business has been successfully adapted by farmers, consumers, businesses, and public bodies as an effective strategy for attaining scale, lowering costs, improving incomes, providing services, and creating a better functioning marketplace. Reasons for forming cooperatives and analysis of ...


Technology And Innovation In World Agriculture: Prospects For 2010-2019, Wallace E. Huffman Aug 2009

Technology And Innovation In World Agriculture: Prospects For 2010-2019, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The objective of this paper is to assess prospects for increasing agricultural productivity through advances in technology and innovation in farming techniques for developed and selective developing and transition countries over 2010-2019. Over this period of time, the net impact of climate change is expected to be small, perhaps positive on cereal yields. However, environmental concerns (carbon dioxide release from bringing new lands into crop production and erosion on marginal lands brought into crop production, additional agricultural chemicals applied, and less biodiversity) may grow if meeting future demand for food, feed, fiber and bio-fuels require the conversion of forests and ...


Firm Entry, Firm Exit, And Urban-Biased Growth, Li Yu, Robert W. Jolly, Peter F. Orazem Aug 2009

Firm Entry, Firm Exit, And Urban-Biased Growth, Li Yu, Robert W. Jolly, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

We introduce a taxonomy that classifies industries using three criteria: net growth in the number of firms; the interrelationship between firm entry and firm exit; and the degree of urban-bias in industry growth. We show that in 9 of 15 two-digit NAICS industries investigated, there is evidence of urban bias consistent with a comparative advantage to starting a business in urban markets. The urban advantage is due primarily to faster firm entry rates. Urban and rural firms have similar firm exit rates, consistent with a presumption that there are equal expected profit rates conditional on entry across markets. Urban areas ...


Unit Vs. Ad Valorem Taxes In Multi-Product Cournot Oligopoly, Harvey E. Lapan, David A. Hennessy Aug 2009

Unit Vs. Ad Valorem Taxes In Multi-Product Cournot Oligopoly, Harvey E. Lapan, David A. Hennessy

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes over unit taxes in a single-market Cournot oligopoly is well-known. This article extends the analysis to multi-market oligopoly. Provided all ad valorem taxes are positive, unit costs are constant, firms are active in all considered markets, and a representative consumer has convex preferences, it is shown that ad valorem taxes dominate in multi-product equilibrium. We discuss the role of unit cost covariances across multi-product firms in determining the extent of cost efficiencies arising under ad valorem taxation. The issue of merger under oligopoly is also considered. Conditions are identified under which a merger ...


Fishing Behavior Across Space And Time, Luc Pierre Veyssiere, Quinn Weninger Aug 2009

Fishing Behavior Across Space And Time, Luc Pierre Veyssiere, Quinn Weninger

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Models of fishing behavior rarely incorporate the complexities of marine ecosystems, multiple-stock harvest technologies, and regulations present in real world marine fisheries. We introduce a structural model of a multi-species, weak-output-disposability harvest technology. A latent target-cost-minimizing share vector is estimated to link the technology to a spatially and temporally heterogeneous fish stock. Data from the Gulf of Mexico reef fish fishery is used to estimate the model. The results provide a robust characterization of harvest and discard behavior across space and time. Our approach considerably improves methods used to study fishing behavior and evaluate alternative fisheries management policies.


Choosing To Keep Up With The Joneses And Income Inequality, Richard C. Barnett, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Helle Bunzel Jul 2009

Choosing To Keep Up With The Joneses And Income Inequality, Richard C. Barnett, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Helle Bunzel

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

We study a variant of the conventional keeping-up-with-the-Joneses setup in which heterogeneous-ability agents care both about consumption and leisure and receive an utility premium if their consumption exceeds that of the Joneses'. Unlike the conventional setup in which all agents are assumed to want to participate in the rat race of staying ahead of the Joneses, our formulation explicitly permits the option to drop out. Mean-preserving changes in the spread of the underlying ability distribution, via its effect on the economy-wide composition of rat-race participants and drop-outs, have important consequences for induced distributions of leisure and income, consequences that are ...


How Ya Gonna Keep 'Em Down On The Farm: Which Land Grant Graduates Live In Rural Areas?, Georgeanne M. Artz, Li Yu Jul 2009

How Ya Gonna Keep 'Em Down On The Farm: Which Land Grant Graduates Live In Rural Areas?, Georgeanne M. Artz, Li Yu

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Out-migration of college-educated youth from rural areas of the United States is a persistent trend and a salient concern for rural development practitioners. Using a unique dataset compiled from a survey of alumni graduating from a major Midwestern Land Grant University between 1982 and 2006, we address four policy relevant questions pertaining to rural brain drain: which college graduates choose to live in rural areas, how do rural alumni's career goals differ from those of urban alumni, how do occupation and income differ across these groups and is interest in rural living increasing or decreasing over time? We find ...


Migration And Rural Entrepreneurship, Li Yu, Georgeanne M. Artz Jul 2009

Migration And Rural Entrepreneurship, Li Yu, Georgeanne M. Artz

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This paper investigates entrepreneurship of migrants and their location choice in attempt to draw connections between migration and economic development, especially the role of business formation in rural development. Rural entrepreneurship is firstly attempted to be better understood form perspectives of individual people's migration, human capital, social capital and family background. The study uses a recent survey on alumni of Iowa State University. We find that social capital and social networks established in one's home region are shown to be a strong factor in location choice of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs from rural origins tend to choose to start their ...


Why Do Rural Firms Live Longer?, Li Yu, Peter Orazem, Robert W. Jolly Jul 2009

Why Do Rural Firms Live Longer?, Li Yu, Peter Orazem, Robert W. Jolly

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

For the first 13 years after entry, the hazard rate for firm exits is persistently higher for urban than rural firms. While differences in observed industry market, local market and firm attributes explain some of the rural-urban gap in firm survival, rural firms retain a survival advantage 25% greater than observationally equivalent urban firms. In competitive markets, the remaining survival advantage for rural firms must be attributable to unobserved factors that are known at the time of entry. One plausible candidate for such a factor is thinner markets for the capital of failed rural firms. The implied lower salvage value ...


Stopping Start-Ups: How The Business Cycle Affects Entrepreneurship, Li Yu, Peter F. Orazem, Robert W. Jolly Jul 2009

Stopping Start-Ups: How The Business Cycle Affects Entrepreneurship, Li Yu, Peter F. Orazem, Robert W. Jolly

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This study analyzes whether economic conditions at the time of labor market entry affect entrepreneurship, using difference in business start-ups between cohorts of college students graduating in boom or bust economic conditions. Those graduating during an economic bust tend to delay their business start-ups relative to boom period graduates by about two years. Our results are consistent with additional findings that higher unemployment rates at time of graduation significantly delay the first business start-up across all college graduation cohorts over the 1982-2004 period. The adverse effect of a bust is temporary, delaying but not preventing self-employment over the life-cycle.


Community Issues And The Bioeconomy Transition: Moving Independence From Imported Oil And Climate Change Up The Local Policy Agenda, Mark A. Edelman Jul 2009

Community Issues And The Bioeconomy Transition: Moving Independence From Imported Oil And Climate Change Up The Local Policy Agenda, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Many issues and some myths are drivers of change in the emerging transition to a bioeconomy. This working paper focuses on two of the key drivers in much of the discussion and they are not likely to disappear from the agenda anytime soon. First is the broad based national priority for reducing domestic dependence on imported oil. Second is the emergence of the global concern over climate change and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. A framework for local policy decisions is developed for each issue using the alternatives and consequences approach.


Biofuels Policies And Welfare: Is The Stick Of Mandates Better Than The Carrot Of Subsidies?, Harvey E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini Jun 2009

Biofuels Policies And Welfare: Is The Stick Of Mandates Better Than The Carrot Of Subsidies?, Harvey E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Significant government support for biofuels has led to rapid growth in U.S. ethanol production and research to develop more advanced biofuels. In this paper we construct a general equilibrium, open economy model that captures the rationale typically invoked to justify government intervention in this setting: to alleviate the environmental impact of energy consumption and to decrease U.S. energy dependence on foreign sources. The model is used to study both the positive and normative implications of alternative policy instruments, including the subsidies and mandates specified by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. From a positive perspective, we find ...


Patience Cycles, Richard C. Barnett, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Mikko Puhakka Jun 2009

Patience Cycles, Richard C. Barnett, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Mikko Puhakka

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Evidence supports the notion that those who grow up to be patient do better than those who do not. Parents can inculcate the virtue of delayed gratification in their children by taking the right actions. We study a model in which parents, for selfish reasons, invest resources to raise patient children. In the model, patience raises the marginal return to human capital acquisition giving the patient young an incentive to spend more on their own education at the expense of investment in their own progeny’s patience. This dynamic generates intergenerational patience cycles.


Firing Cost And Firm Size: A Study Of Sri Lanka's Severance Pay System, Babatunde Abidoye, Peter F. Orazem, Milan Vodopivec Jun 2009

Firing Cost And Firm Size: A Study Of Sri Lanka's Severance Pay System, Babatunde Abidoye, Peter F. Orazem, Milan Vodopivec

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Sri Lanka's Termination of Employment of Workmen Act (TEWA) requires that firms with 15 or more employees justify layoffs and provide generous severance pay to displaced workers, with smaller firms being exempted. Although formally subject to TEWA, firms in Export Processing Zones (EPZs) may have been partially exempt from TEWA due to lax enforcement in that sector. A theoretical model shows that firms subject to TEWA will tend to mass at or below the threshold of 14 workers until they get an atypically large productivity shock that would propel them beyond the threshold. EPZ firms will be largely unaffected ...


Indirect Land Use: The Folly Of Over-Indulgent Environmentalism?, Mark A. Edelman May 2009

Indirect Land Use: The Folly Of Over-Indulgent Environmentalism?, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This working paper employs an alternatives and consequences approach to evaluate some of the potential consequences of using computer simulation models to estimate indirect land use for the purposes of regulating production of biofuels.


A Return Of The Threshing Ring? Motivations, Benefits And Challenges Of Machinery And Labor Sharing Arrangements, Georgeanne M. Artz, Gregory J. Colson, Roger Ginder May 2009

A Return Of The Threshing Ring? Motivations, Benefits And Challenges Of Machinery And Labor Sharing Arrangements, Georgeanne M. Artz, Gregory J. Colson, Roger Ginder

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Cooperative approaches provide an alternative for small- and medium-sized producers to obtain the efficiencies of large farming operations and remain competitive in an increasingly concentrated agricultural industry. This article examines the motivation and effectiveness of equipment and labor sharing arrangements in the Midwestern US. Case study evidence shows that in addition to cost savings, access to skilled, seasonal labor is an important motivation for farm-level cooperation. Key factors identified for successful cooperative agreements include compatibility of operations and members' willingness to communicate and adapt. Sharing resources is found to improve farm profitability, efficiency and farmers' quality of life.


Identification Of Expected Outcomes In A Data Error Mixing Model With Multiplicative Mean Independence, Brent Kreider, John V. Pepper May 2009

Identification Of Expected Outcomes In A Data Error Mixing Model With Multiplicative Mean Independence, Brent Kreider, John V. Pepper

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

We consider the problem of identifying a mean outcome in corrupt sampling where the observed outcome is a mixture of the distribution of interest and some other distribution.We make two contributions to this literature. First, the statistical independence assumption maintained under contaminated sampling is relaxed to the weaker assumption that the outcome is mean independent of the mixing process. We then generalize this restriction to allow the two conditional means to differ by a known or bounded factor of proportionality. Second, in the special case of a binary outcome, we consider the possibility that draws from the alternative distribution ...


Measuring Public Agricultural Research Capital And Its Contribution To State Agricultural Productivity, Wallace E. Huffman Mar 2009

Measuring Public Agricultural Research Capital And Its Contribution To State Agricultural Productivity, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

A methodology for measuring public agricultural research capital is developed and described for the first time, new public agricultural research capital measures for each of the 48 contiguous US states, 1970-1999, are presented, and a new econometric analysis of the contribution of public agricultural research capital to state agricultural productivity is reported. Public agricultural research capital across the states is shown to have five different growth patterns, only one of which is at a constant rate. New TFP results show that public agricultural research capital contributes significantly to agricultural productivity and is larger than previous estimates. Intrastate and spillin public ...


After They Graduate: An Overview Of The Iowa State University Alumni Survey, Robert W. Jolly, Li Yu, Peter F. Orazem Feb 2009

After They Graduate: An Overview Of The Iowa State University Alumni Survey, Robert W. Jolly, Li Yu, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This report provides a descriptive overview of the Iowa State University Alumni Survey. In late 2007, 25,000 Iowa State University alumni who received bachelor's degree between 1982 and 2006 were surveyed to obtain information on their career paths, employment status, further education, entrepreneurial activities, community engagement and current income. The on-line and written survey resulted in approximately 5,500 valid returns.


Ag Bankers -- Today And Tomorrow, Robert W. Jolly, Michael Gaul Feb 2009

Ag Bankers -- Today And Tomorrow, Robert W. Jolly, Michael Gaul

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

A survey of 401 Iowa bank executives was conducted in October 2008. We received 106 valid responses. The survey requested information on expected loan growth and staffing levels for agricultural credit professionals over the next decade. In addition respondents reported the desired training and experience and expected compensation of new hires. Bank executives expect agricultural loans to grow over the next decade but at a slower rate than total loans. A gain in agricultural loan officer employment is expected net of retirements. Bank executives reported that soft skills such as problem solving ability and communication were more important for new ...


Comments To Usda On Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program, Mark A. Edelman Jan 2009

Comments To Usda On Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Comments to USDA Rural Development Agency regarding the development of administrative rules for the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program authorized by the 2008 Farm Bill as submitted during USDA Listening Meeting, Room 107-A Whitten Building, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 12th and Jefferson Drive SW, Washington D.C. on January 26, 2009.