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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Iowa Farm And Rural Life Poll: 2009 Summary Report, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Peter Korsching, Paul Lasley, Chris Kast Dec 2009

Iowa Farm And Rural Life Poll: 2009 Summary Report, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Peter Korsching, Paul Lasley, Chris Kast

Extension Community and Economic Development Publications

The Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is an annual survey that collects and disseminates information on issues of importance to rural communities across Iowa and the Midwest. Conducted every year since its establishment in 1982, the Farm Poll is the longest-running survey of its kind in the nation. Iowa State University Extension, the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship are all partners in the Farm Poll effort. The information gathered through the Farm Poll is used to inform the development and improvement of research and extension programs and is ...


Engaged Lifestyle, Personality, And Mental Status Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Joan Baenziger, Maurice Macdonald, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard W. Poon Dec 2009

Engaged Lifestyle, Personality, And Mental Status Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Joan Baenziger, Maurice Macdonald, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard W. Poon

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

This study assessed engaged lifestyle activities (e.g., volunteering, traveling, and public speaking) for centenarians of the Georgia Centenarian Study. A total of 285 centenarians and near-centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older) and their proxy informants participated in this study. The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was assessed for all centenarians, and proxy informants reported on lifestyle activities and personality traits of the centenarians. Results suggested that participants who had volunteered, traveled, and those who had given public talks and balanced their checkbooks were more likely to show relatively high mental status scores (i.e., MMSE > 17). Personality traits were ...


Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz Sep 2009

Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Background: Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity) at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community).

Methods: Participants were 1,323 children and their parents ...


International Extension Curriculum: Strengthening Extension's Capacity For International Engagement—Module 6: Exploring Cultural Perspective Of Families, Kimberly A. Greder, Beth Fleming, Tom Quinn Aug 2009

International Extension Curriculum: Strengthening Extension's Capacity For International Engagement—Module 6: Exploring Cultural Perspective Of Families, Kimberly A. Greder, Beth Fleming, Tom Quinn

Human Development and Family Studies Extension and Outreach Publications

Families build the foundation of communities. As the demographic profiles of families in communities change, communities change. In order to design and deliver extension programs and services to effectively meet the needs of communities, it is important to understand the needs and wants of those who live there. This module can provide professional development to extension staff. However, activities in this module can also be used in extension programming to assist others in learning about the role of culture in families, how individuals can design and deliver programs and services.


Parent-Child Relationships, Melinda S. Leidy, Thomas J. Schofield, Ross D. Parke Jun 2009

Parent-Child Relationships, Melinda S. Leidy, Thomas J. Schofield, Ross D. Parke

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

One of the most important and earliest relationships is the parent-child relationship. During infancy, this relationship focuses on the parent responding to the infant's basic needs. Over time, an attachment forms between the parent and child in response to the these day-to-day interactions. During toddlerhood, parents attempt to shape their children's social behaviors. Parents play various roles for their toddlers, including acting as teacher, nurturers, and providers of guidance and affection. Throughout childhood, children become more interested in peers. However, parents continue to influence their children through their parenting styles. In addition, parents serve as providers of social ...


Program Evaluation Of The State Revolving Fund Loan Programs For Agricultural Best Practices: Executive Summary, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Mary Swalla Holmes Jun 2009

Program Evaluation Of The State Revolving Fund Loan Programs For Agricultural Best Practices: Executive Summary, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Mary Swalla Holmes

Sociology Technical Reports

This report presents the results of a study of the Iowa State Revolving Fund’s (SRF) Local Water Protection Program (LWPP) and Livestock Water Quality (LWQ) Program. The purpose of the project was to improve understanding of landowner knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to use of the programs’ low-interest loans to finance implementation of agricultural best management practices. The project’s objectives were to 1) examine the effectiveness of the low-interest loan programs, and 2) generate information that could inform efforts to increase their use as tools to help landowners reach their conservation goals. This research was a joint effort ...


Recognizing, Characterizing, And "Unsettling" Unintended Bias In The Faculty Search Process In Engineering, Kristen P. Constant, Sharon R. Bird Jun 2009

Recognizing, Characterizing, And "Unsettling" Unintended Bias In The Faculty Search Process In Engineering, Kristen P. Constant, Sharon R. Bird

Materials Science and Engineering Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Faculty searches are one of the most critical activities undertaken with regards to shaping the future of a department, college or university. Despite the importance of this activity, most search committees are comprised of faculty who have very little time to commit to this task, and little if any training on ‘best practices’ or policies for conducting searches. National recognition of the need in faculty search processes for decision-makers to understand the prevalence of unintended biases and how to combat them has grown precipitously in recent years. Cognitive scientists have shown that many of the selection and evaluation processes we ...


On Rereading Klaus Theweleit's Male Fantasies, Kevin S. Amidon, Daniel A. Krier Jun 2009

On Rereading Klaus Theweleit's Male Fantasies, Kevin S. Amidon, Daniel A. Krier

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Klaus Theweleit's Male Fantasies has generated broad interest in the literature of several academic disciplines. His analysis of the symbolic and gender dynamics of the leaders of the German Freikorps (German paramilitary mercenary units of the period 1918-1923) has been widely generalized into a theory of modern masculinity. Two issues inadequately explored in Theweleit's work nonetheless must be read through more recent empirical and theoretical work in history and sociology: (1) the formative role of colonial military experience in the careers of the German Freikorps officers who provide the material for his analysis and (2) the complex historical ...


It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons Feb 2009

It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons

Psychology Publications

Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was mediated by racial socialization and positive parenting. Parenting and community influences contributed to adolescent racial identity and self image, which protected against common negative responses to racism; including academic underachievement, succumbing to peer pressure, and aggressive tendencies. Qualitative results ...


Investigating The Feasibility Of Establishing Food Processing And Distribution Centers For Western Iowa, Patrick Garrity Jan 2009

Investigating The Feasibility Of Establishing Food Processing And Distribution Centers For Western Iowa, Patrick Garrity

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

With increasing enthusiasm for local food in western Iowa, there is interest in production, purchasing and processing of items grown in the region. This study examined the capacity, skills, and demands for local food in this area.


The Benefits And Costs Of Alternative Strategies To Improve Educational Outcomes, Peter F. Orazem, Paul Glewwe, Harry Patrinos Jan 2009

The Benefits And Costs Of Alternative Strategies To Improve Educational Outcomes, Peter F. Orazem, Paul Glewwe, Harry Patrinos

Economics Publications

Few empirical relationships have been investigated more frequently than that between years of schooling and earnings. Hundreds of studies using a wide variety of datasets from developed countries, spanning many decades, and employing alternative specifications to correct for various potential sources of bias, have consistently found positive private returns per year of schooling.• Returns arc frequent ly equal to or above long-run average market returns to other investments.


Managers Of Latino Workers In The Iowa Horticulture Industry Want Educational Programs To Bridge Language And Cultural Barriers, Emilie Justen, Cynthia L. Haynes, Ann Marie Vanderzanden, Nancy Grudens-Schuck Jan 2009

Managers Of Latino Workers In The Iowa Horticulture Industry Want Educational Programs To Bridge Language And Cultural Barriers, Emilie Justen, Cynthia L. Haynes, Ann Marie Vanderzanden, Nancy Grudens-Schuck

Horticulture Publications

Horticulture is the fastest-growing sector of the agricultural industry, and this is true particularly in Iowa where the number of private horticultural businesses has more than doubled since 1993. The industry is relying more on non-English–speaking employees, especially Spanish-speaking workers, for golf course maintenance, landscape installation, and nursery production. Determining and serving the educational and training needs of a workforce that is not fluent in English is historically difficult for university extension programs. This study assessed educational needs and technical issues of English-speaking managers of primarily Spanish-speaking workers in the horticultural industry in Iowa, with special attention to language ...


Review Of Economic Facts And Fallacies, Peter F. Orazem Jan 2009

Review Of Economic Facts And Fallacies, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Publications

The latest book by prolific author Thomas Sowell, the Rose and Milton Friedman Senior Fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution, has two aims: to provide a list of widely held but demonstrably false economic beliefs and then to demonstrate their invalidity using hard facts. These economic beliefs come in six areas: the economics of cities, differences between men and women, differences among races, higher education, income inequality, and developing economies. He deals with each topic in a separate chapter.


Developing A Rural Renaissance Community Index: A Multi-Disciplinary Project With Research And Outreach Elements, Ann Marie Fiore, Linda S. Niehm, Christopher Seeger, Jessica L. Hurst, Daniel Russell, Steven Garasky, Sara J. Kadolph Jan 2009

Developing A Rural Renaissance Community Index: A Multi-Disciplinary Project With Research And Outreach Elements, Ann Marie Fiore, Linda S. Niehm, Christopher Seeger, Jessica L. Hurst, Daniel Russell, Steven Garasky, Sara J. Kadolph

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The main purpose of this project was to develop a multi-functional instrument to capture information about the relative attractiveness of rural community features, including retail offerings, to the Creative Class as well as other prospective residents.


Impact Of Social Capital On Food Security In Southeast Uganda, Haroon Sseguya Jan 2009

Impact Of Social Capital On Food Security In Southeast Uganda, Haroon Sseguya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Assuring food security in Uganda is a fundamental challenge that the government and development agencies face. Recent analyses indicate that some successes have been achieved, but food insecurity gaps still exist, with implications for more concerted investments in a multiplicity of community assets to achieve better results. This study assessed whether social capital is a key asset for achievement of food security in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. More specifically, it focused on the determinants and levels of participation in food security groups. The study also explored the status, challenges and gaps of information flows in rural communities. Potential relationships between ...


Individual And Partner Effects: Influences Of Anxiety And Warmth On Marital Satisfaction Among African American Spouses, Sonja Stutzman Jan 2009

Individual And Partner Effects: Influences Of Anxiety And Warmth On Marital Satisfaction Among African American Spouses, Sonja Stutzman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

African Americans are currently the 2nd largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2004); however, there is a paucity of research within this population examining the unique context and characteristics of both individuals and couples related to marital and emotional distress. The current study addressed these limitations through the utilization of self-reported and observational data measures of partner warmth provided through the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). The current analyses focused on the longitudinal effects of anxiety and partner warmth on marital satisfaction among 99 African American couples within FACHS. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant associations ...


Dyadic Perceptions Of Grandmothers' Influence On Adult Granddaughters' Beliefs, Merea D. Bentrott Jan 2009

Dyadic Perceptions Of Grandmothers' Influence On Adult Granddaughters' Beliefs, Merea D. Bentrott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing role, both formally and informally, of grandparents in their grandchildren's lives necessitates greater exploration of the influence grandparents have on their grandchildren. In the current study, intergenerational transmission was defined as the process through which purposely or unintentionally an older generation influences the values and belief systems of a younger generation. Prior research has demonstrated the influence of grandparents on their grandchildren in regards to socioeconomic status, education, and physical health. The current study aim was to investigate similarity (i.e., congruence) between grandmothers' and granddaughters' perceptions of grandmothers' influence across four domains (i.e., religious, moral ...


Conceptualizations Of God By Lutheran Laypeople, Ashley Burgess Leininger Jan 2009

Conceptualizations Of God By Lutheran Laypeople, Ashley Burgess Leininger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

God concept researchers have used quantitative methodology exclusively. The Likert Scale combined with the Adjective Rating of God Scale is the most common measurement used in God concept research. The Adjective Rating of God Scale (Gorsuch, 1968) measures conceptualizations of God through a list of adjectives describing God. Combined with the Likert scale, researchers have measured relationships between adjectives, sex, and religious denomination. Although research that has employed these methods has yielded intriguing information, it has not been able to fully explore the area of God concept research. It is argued this scheme ignores three important topics in God concept ...


Conceptualizing Factors Influencing The Perception Of Barriers To Mental Health Treatment And Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Chinese Americans, Wendy Liu Jan 2009

Conceptualizing Factors Influencing The Perception Of Barriers To Mental Health Treatment And Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Chinese Americans, Wendy Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current literature: Despite being one of the fastest growing ethnic minority populations in the U.S., research shows that Asian Americans as a whole underutilize mental health treatment. Disaggregation of ethnic subgroups is imperative to identify within and between group differences in intentions to seek help and barriers to treatment. Study aims: This study examined selected personal and cultural factors hypothesized to influence attitudes towards professional mental health treatment among Chinese Americans. This study employed an experimental component with mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the effectiveness of alleviating practical and cultural barriers to treatment. Results: Results of this ...


To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers Jan 2009

To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the United States population ages and their healthcare needs grow it is necessary to examine health-related issues experienced by this population. Food insecurity is one such issue impacting not only older adults but the general population as well. Working to better understand determinants of food insecurity and what factors may protect against it may help in the fight against it.

Cross-sectional data from a survey studying food pantry clients living in four Iowa counties were used to (1) explore what household characteristics may increase the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity and (2) identify what resources may protect against it ...


Small Meat Processors Working Group: Managing Knowledge In A New Era Of Agriculture, Arion Thiboumery Jan 2009

Small Meat Processors Working Group: Managing Knowledge In A New Era Of Agriculture, Arion Thiboumery

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Interest has grown considerably during recent years around what Lyson's (2004) calls "civic agriculture," the localization of food production with the conscious goal of contributing to local sustainable development. A central challenge facing the growth civic agriculture has been methodological; what techniques can be used to support collective action towards this new era of agriculture? In this dissertation, I examine knowledge management using a "community of practice" as one method that shows particular promise. I detail the operations of the Small Meat Processors Working Group, a community of practice among technical assistance providers, regulators, and meat locker operators which ...


Accessing And Affording Child Care And Low-Income Mothers' Employment Over Time: An Ecological Approach, Brinn Hope Shjegstad Jan 2009

Accessing And Affording Child Care And Low-Income Mothers' Employment Over Time: An Ecological Approach, Brinn Hope Shjegstad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

These two studies utilized a large, longitudinal random sample to examine the relationship between child problem behaviors and maternal risk factors and low-income mothers' ability to access and afford child care, as well as how the ability to access and afford child care influences low-income mothers' employment over time. Results showed that low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were significantly more likely to report a decreased ability to access and afford child care. Additionally, low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were more likely to become unemployed than to maintain employment over time. Policy implication ...


The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green Jan 2009

The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lesbian couples often present for therapy for the same reasons as heterosexual couples; however, lesbian couples also have to negotiate societal homonegativity that devalues and marginalizes their relationships. The aim of this study was to explore a common experience of therapy from the perspective of lesbian couples and their therapists. A feminist qualitative method was used to attend to diversity within and among triads, maintain an awareness of the multiple influences on the client-therapist relationship, view the participants in their larger societal context, and consider the power dynamics that are inherent in relationships. Interviews were conducted with seven lesbian clients ...


Cultural Forms Underlying Health-Related Discourses In The United States And Canada:A Historical-Comparative Study Of The Two Countries' Editorials From 1965-1999, Hexuan Liu Jan 2009

Cultural Forms Underlying Health-Related Discourses In The United States And Canada:A Historical-Comparative Study Of The Two Countries' Editorials From 1965-1999, Hexuan Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper investigates cultural reasons for differences between the U.S. health care system and its Canadian counterpart. The U.S. health care system is an entrepreneurial system based upon free market principles, while the Canadian health care system is a welfare-oriented system based upon governmental responsibilities. Differences in health care systems may reflect differences between two cultures. This paper is based upon Roberts' theoretical framework on modalities. The basic assumption is that social systems can be understood through the discursive use of modal statements (sentences in which actors declare what is possible, impossible, inevitable, or contingent for each other ...


The Influence Of Negative Affectivity On Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Social Support And Marital Satisfaction Among African American Women, Ashley Nicole Rink Jan 2009

The Influence Of Negative Affectivity On Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Social Support And Marital Satisfaction Among African American Women, Ashley Nicole Rink

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined whether the relationship between depressive symptoms and relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction and perceived spousal social support reflect the influence of a third variable, negative affectivity. Specifically, the study addressed whether the effects of negative affectivity on these other self report measures extend over time. Negative affectivity, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal social support were tested as predictors of depression. The sample included 178 married African American women participating in the FACHS study. Both perceived spousal support and marital satisfaction continued to significantly predict depression after controlling for negative affectivity at a previous time point. These ...


Practicing Gender Or Practicing Science? Gender Practices Of Women Scientists, Laura Anne Rhoton Jan 2009

Practicing Gender Or Practicing Science? Gender Practices Of Women Scientists, Laura Anne Rhoton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The subtle biases women face in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields have been the subject of many studies and initiatives in recent years. Many programs hoping to increase the numbers of women in these fields and to contribute to women's advancement have focused on identifying and remedying gendered institutional barriers and practices that ultimately disadvantage women. This dissertation focuses specifically on one component of institutional barriers and practices: individual women's gender practices. The interactions in which women engage and the way women position themselves relative to other women professionally using gender practices contributes to the recreation ...


A Lattice Analysis Of Social Capital And Related Concepts In Small Iowa Towns, Ehren Dean Stover-Wright Jan 2009

A Lattice Analysis Of Social Capital And Related Concepts In Small Iowa Towns, Ehren Dean Stover-Wright

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using the 2004 Rural Development Initiative data, 99 communities are compared. Three varieties of social capital and ten other constructs serve as dependent variables. The social capital forms are within group, between group, and out-bridging. The dependent qualities are homogeneity, us-versus-them, embeddedness, selectorate, trusting attitude, cohesiveness, contentment, relational rationality, satisfaction with public services and satisfaction with government services. The four forms of cardinality are level cardinality, bijective cardinality, injective cardinality and composite cardinality. An analytic paradigm employing lattices and network analysis is developed to analyze hypotheses. I also address a confusion that grows from sociology investigating groups and group interaction ...


Making A Postmodern Turn: Re-Creating Community Cultural Capital During Economic Restructurings, Ryan Orr Jan 2009

Making A Postmodern Turn: Re-Creating Community Cultural Capital During Economic Restructurings, Ryan Orr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

After Whirlpool Corporation officials acquired Maytag Corporation in 2006, Maytag operations in Newton, Iowa, the birthplace of Maytag and former home to Maytag headquarters office and a long-standing manufacturing plant, were subsequently closed. With the closings, Newton residents encounter a double victimization. In addition to losing the community's primary employer and tax base contributor, residents lost a primary source of community culture for over 100 years. This study examines residents' practices in re-creating community cultural capital - Newton's collective identities, senses of place, and general cultural ways - following local Maytag closings. Along with focusing on the interplay between structure ...


Predictors Of Youth After-School Involvement: The Role Of Congruence Between Perceived Early Community And Family Supportive Control, Duhita Mahatmya Jan 2009

Predictors Of Youth After-School Involvement: The Role Of Congruence Between Perceived Early Community And Family Supportive Control, Duhita Mahatmya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the present study was twofold: 1) to understand how perceived community and family supportive control during early adolescence were associated with late adolescent after-school involvement while controlling for self-selection factors for a sample of low-income, urban, minority adolescents; and 2) to examine how congruency between the perceived community and family contexts influenced after-school involvement overtime. Three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N = 528; Ages 16-20 at Wave 3). First, a series of lagged Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine if exposure to early ...


Value-Added Agriculture Producers: How They Find, Obtain And Validate Knowlege Inputs, Mary Holz-Clause Jan 2009

Value-Added Agriculture Producers: How They Find, Obtain And Validate Knowlege Inputs, Mary Holz-Clause

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We live in the age of ubiquitous and readily accessible information, particularly due to electronic media. This raises the need to reassess traditional diffusion theory, sources of information, and delivery modes. Do agricultural producers favor or need personal human interaction and or analytical interpretation in this new mode? The study surveyed many of the producer grant recipients of a federal program; the Value-Added Agriculture Producer Grants (VAPG) to determine, How do farmers and agribusinesses find, receive, and validate knowledge inputs in a world flooded with ubiquitous data and information? The results of this study relate to agricultural educators who daily ...