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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz Sep 2009

Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Background: Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity) at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community).

Methods: Participants were 1,323 children and their parents ...


When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting And When Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications For Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, And Text Processing, Jason C.K. Chan Aug 2009

When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting And When Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications For Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, And Text Processing, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material – a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20(5), 1063–1087). Recent research, however, has shown that retrieval practice can sometimes improve later recall of the nontested material – a phenomenon termed retrieval-induced facilitation (Chan, J. C. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2006). Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can ...


It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons Feb 2009

It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons

Psychology Publications

Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was mediated by racial socialization and positive parenting. Parenting and community influences contributed to adolescent racial identity and self image, which protected against common negative responses to racism; including academic underachievement, succumbing to peer pressure, and aggressive tendencies. Qualitative results ...


Thirty-One Years Of Group Research In Social Psychology Quarterly (1975–2005), Wendy J. Harrod, Bridget K. Welch, Jeffrey D. Kushkowski Jan 2009

Thirty-One Years Of Group Research In Social Psychology Quarterly (1975–2005), Wendy J. Harrod, Bridget K. Welch, Jeffrey D. Kushkowski

Reference and Instruction Publications and Papers

We examined trends in group research published in Social Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) from 1975 to 2005. We identified a total of 332 papers about groups published during the time period. Following Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), we created an index of interest in groups by dividing the number of pages in papers about groups by the total number of journal pages. Results show that interest in groups in SPQ generally fell from the late 1970s through the 1980s, rose during most of the 1990s, but stalled in the late 1990s and early 2000s. In 2005 interest in groups hovered just ...


Can Intuition Improve Deception Detection Performance?, Justin S. Albrechtsen, Christian A. Meissner, Kyle J. Susa Jan 2009

Can Intuition Improve Deception Detection Performance?, Justin S. Albrechtsen, Christian A. Meissner, Kyle J. Susa

Christian A. Meissner, Ph.D.

Two studies examined the role of processing style (intuitive vs. deliberative processing) in a deception detection task. In the first experiment, a thin slicing manipulation was used to demonstrate that intuitive processing can lead to more accurate judgments of deception when compared with traditional deliberative forms of processing. In the second experiment, participants who engaged in a secondary (concurrent) task performed more accurately in a deception detection task than participants who were asked to provide a verbal rationale for each decision and those in a control condition. Overall, the results converge to suggest that intuitive processing can significantly improve deception ...


False Confessions, Christian A. Meissner, Allyson J. Horgan, Justin S. Albrechtsen Jan 2009

False Confessions, Christian A. Meissner, Allyson J. Horgan, Justin S. Albrechtsen

Christian A. Meissner, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Cross-Racial Lineup Identification: The Potential Benefits Of Context Reinstatement, Jacqueline R. Evans, Jessica L. Marcon, Christian A. Meissner Jan 2009

Cross-Racial Lineup Identification: The Potential Benefits Of Context Reinstatement, Jacqueline R. Evans, Jessica L. Marcon, Christian A. Meissner

Christian A. Meissner, Ph.D.

The current research examined the potential benefit of context reinstatement on the cross-race effect in lineup identification. Participants viewed a series of own- and other-race faces and subsequently attempted identification of these faces from target-present and target-absent lineups. The traditional cross-race effect was found on measures of discrimination accuracy and response bias; however, discrimination accuracy across own- and other-race faces was shown to interact with context reinstatement such that only own-race faces benefited from the provision of contextual information. This finding is discussed in light of encoding-based theories of the cross-race effect, and with regard to the theoretical and practical ...


The Need For Expert Psychological Testimony On Eyewitness Identification, Roy S. Malpass, Stephen J. Ross, Christian A. Meissner, Jessica L. Marcon Jan 2009

The Need For Expert Psychological Testimony On Eyewitness Identification, Roy S. Malpass, Stephen J. Ross, Christian A. Meissner, Jessica L. Marcon

Christian A. Meissner, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Expert Testimony Regarding Eyewitness Identification, Brian L. Cutler, Gary L. Wells Jan 2009

Expert Testimony Regarding Eyewitness Identification, Brian L. Cutler, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

Increasingly, psychologists are giving expert testimony in court on the accu­ racy of eyewitness identification (Kassin, Tubb, Hosch, & Memon, 2001). Eyewitness experts typically are cognitive or social psychologists who have published research articles on the topic of eyewitness memory. Expert testi­ mony in eyewitness identification is most commonly offered by the defense in criminal cases but is occasionally countered by opposing expert testimony offered by the prosecution. The increasing use of such expert testimony owes largely to the growing recognition that mistaken eyewitness identification is the single most common precursor to the conviction of innocent people (Doyle, 2005). In addition ...


Creating School-Family Partnerships In Adolescence: Challenges And Opportunities, Brenda J. Lohman, Jennifer L. Matjasko Jan 2009

Creating School-Family Partnerships In Adolescence: Challenges And Opportunities, Brenda J. Lohman, Jennifer L. Matjasko

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Adolescence is a time of rapid change. These changes present challenges and opportunities for developing youth including physical changes, significant cognitive advancements, emotional maturation, and new peer and romantic relationships. For most adolescents, these changes are also accompanied by changes in their environments including more demanding expectations for independence, more challenging academic tasks, and new expectations for social participation from parents and peers. At the same time, adolescents are becoming more independent from their families while also maintaining a sense of connection to them and to their schools.


Obtaining And Interpreting Eyewitness Identification Test Evidence: The Influence Of Police–Witness Interactions, Neil Brewer, Gary L. Wells Jan 2009

Obtaining And Interpreting Eyewitness Identification Test Evidence: The Influence Of Police–Witness Interactions, Neil Brewer, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

Eyewitnesses to a crime are frequently asked to view an identification parade to see if they can identify the offender. Conduct of a line-up involves police or line-up administrators in a number of important decisions, such as who to put in the line-up, the method of presentation of the line-up, and what to say to witnesses before and after the line-up. The identification test can be conceptualized as a variant on an interview between the police and the witness, involving important interactions between police (or other line-up administrators) and witnesses. These interactions can profoundly influence witness decisions and impact on ...


Recalling A Witnessed Event Increases Eyewitness Suggestibility The Reversed Testing Effect, Jason C.K. Chan, Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich Jan 2009

Recalling A Witnessed Event Increases Eyewitness Suggestibility The Reversed Testing Effect, Jason C.K. Chan, Ayanna K. Thomas, John B. Bulevich

Psychology Publications

People's later memory of an event can be altered by exposure to misinformation about that event. The typical misinformation paradigm, however, does not include a recall test prior to the introduction of misinformation, contrary to what real-life eyewitnesses encounter when they report to a 911 operator or crime-scene officer. Because retrieval is a powerful memory enhancer (the testing effect), recalling a witnessed event prior to receiving misinformation about it should reduce eyewitness suggestibility. We show, however, that immediate cued recall actually exacerbates the later misinformation effect for both younger and older adults. The reversed testing effect we observed was ...


Health Risk Cognitions: An Empirical Examination Of The Effects Of Heuristic Versus, Rachel Ann Reimer Jan 2009

Health Risk Cognitions: An Empirical Examination Of The Effects Of Heuristic Versus, Rachel Ann Reimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examined adolescent health risk behaviors from the perspective of dual-process theories. Specifically, assumptions underlying dual-processing theories were empirically examined in two experiments in which processing route was manipulated and subsequent measures of behavioral willingness and behavioral intentions to engage in casual sex and to drink alcohol were examined. The primary goals of Study 1 were two-fold. One goal was to demonstrate that processing route can be varied via an external factor, such as the instructional set used in the current study. The second goal was to examine the effect that the induced route of processing style had on ...


Gender Role Orientation And The Role Of Empathy In Interventions Promoting The Development Of Interpersonal Forgiveness., Daniel B. Goldman Jan 2009

Gender Role Orientation And The Role Of Empathy In Interventions Promoting The Development Of Interpersonal Forgiveness., Daniel B. Goldman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research over the past quarter-century has revealed a host of benefits associated with forgiving someone for a past hurt, such as reductions in anxiety and depression and increased satisfaction with life and subjective well-being. Despite these potential benefits, forgiving is difficult. As such, researchers and clinicians have examined the efficacy of therapeutic interventions that assist clients in developing forgiveness. Ultimately, such interventions are evaluated by their efficacy in successfully cultivating forgiveness and promoting well-being (e.g., reducing psychological symptoms).

The present experiment was conducted to understand the potential value of two group counseling interventions for individuals suffering the effects of ...


Changing Perceptions Of Seeking Help: A Test Of The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Video, Scott Alexander Kaplan Jan 2009

Changing Perceptions Of Seeking Help: A Test Of The Effectiveness Of An Intervention Video, Scott Alexander Kaplan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention video designed to promote positive associations with help seeking for mental health concerns. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a repeated exposure video intervention, a single exposure video intervention, or a control video condition. Participants completed measures pre-intervention, post-interventions, and at a six-week follow-up. The intervention repeated exposure group improved significantly more than the control group on help-seeking peer norms but not on the other outcome variables. The effect for peer norms was found at each time point, indicating both immediate and longer-term effects ...


Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr Jan 2009

Searching For Power: An Experimental Test For The Accumulation Of Expectancy Effects, Kyle Christopher Scherr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social reality can be created through self-fulfilling prophecies and perceptual biases. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a false belief that leads to its own fulfillment. A perceptual bias occurs when an individual believes that her or his inaccurate expectation about another has been confirmed to a greater extent than it has in reality. Although research findings bearing on these processes are robust, these effects are typically small. Nonetheless, this does not mean that self-fulfilling prophecy and perceptual bias effects are always small. There are conditions under which such effects have the potential to be powerful. The current experiment tested this possibility ...


The Role Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Object-Based Attentional Selection, Wah Pheow Tan Jan 2009

The Role Of Visual Short-Term Memory In Object-Based Attentional Selection, Wah Pheow Tan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigated the relationship between object-based attention and visual short-term memory (VSTM). Three claims were investigated: (a) spatial attention and spatial STM share similar processing resources; (b) object-based attention and object STM share similar processing resources; and (c) both sets of processing resources are dissociable. Although the first claim is well established, the latter two claims are less established due to limited empirical evidence in the literature. Specifically, studies that provided evidence for the latter two claims (Matsukura & Vecera, 2008; Tan, 2008) employed an object-based attention task (Duncan, 1984) with no spatial component that heavily engaged object STM. These issues ...


Individual Differences In Video Game Experience: Cognitive Control, Affective Processing, And Visuospatial Processing, Kira Bailey Jan 2009

Individual Differences In Video Game Experience: Cognitive Control, Affective Processing, And Visuospatial Processing, Kira Bailey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Independent groups of researchers have investigated video game effects on cognitive control (Mathews et al., 2005), affective processing (Kirsh & Mounts, 2007), and visuospatial processing (Green & Bavelier, 2003). However, no published research has studied all three domains in the same sample of gamers and non-gamers. In the current study nonviolent and violent gamers, and non-gamers performed two tasks tapping each of these three domains; the Stroop and N-back tasks for cognitive control, the picture rating and emotion search tasks for affective processing, and the enumeration and the visual short-term memory tasks for visuospatial processing. Consistent with past research (Bailey, West, & Anderson, 2009), there was a negative relationship between video game experience and proactive cognitive control that was more pronounced in the violent gamers than nonviolent gamers. There was a fundamental shift in the processing of violent and positive affective information in the violent gamers relative ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Religious Commitment And Forgiveness Through Quantitative And Qualitative Study, Julia E.M. Kidwell Jan 2009

Exploring The Relationship Between Religious Commitment And Forgiveness Through Quantitative And Qualitative Study, Julia E.M. Kidwell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forgiveness is considered a positive way to respond to an offense. Recently, researchers have suggested that a number of factors may be related to one's ability and desire to forgive. Specifically, the religious commitment of the offended individual has been proposed as a potentially influential variable in the forgiveness process; however, few studies have examined this connection. In study 1, to understand beliefs and values that may encourage forgiveness in different religious traditions, religious participants who had experienced an offense committed against them were interviewed about factors that motivated them to forgive and strategies they used to reach forgiveness ...


Identifying The Contributions Of Letter Identity And Relative Letter Position To Orthographic Priming, Mary Lynn Still Jan 2009

Identifying The Contributions Of Letter Identity And Relative Letter Position To Orthographic Priming, Mary Lynn Still

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Still and Morris (2008) discovered that nonword anagram primes interfere with word target processing when the letters in the prime appear in reverse order of the letters in the target (e.g., yruf - FURY). This finding was unexpected as facilitation is typically found when a word target is preceded by an orthographically similar nonword prime (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1999). The present study was designed to replicate and extend Still and Morris' finding of anagram interference. Results across three experiments indicate that anagram interference is modulated by target word frequency, stimulus length, prime exposure duration, and whether or not the ...


Upward Mobility: Experiences With Families Of Origin Among College-Educated African American Women, Danielle Jacqueline Simmons Jan 2009

Upward Mobility: Experiences With Families Of Origin Among College-Educated African American Women, Danielle Jacqueline Simmons

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that a significant number of African American women from lower-class statuses work hard to become upwardly mobile. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the interpersonal experiences of upwardly mobile African American women, particularly their interactions with their family and community of origin. The purposefully selected sample was composed of 13 African American women holding various positions at a Midwestern university. To maximize variation of experiences, respondents were graduate students, faculty members, and staff. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews along with examination of supplemental materials which included respondents' journal entries, e-mail exchanges, field ...


Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes And Intentions In A Latino/A Sample, Amy Elizabeth Cantazaro Jan 2009

Predicting Help-Seeking Attitudes And Intentions In A Latino/A Sample, Amy Elizabeth Cantazaro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There were two main goals of this study. The first goal was to test the generalizability of the help-seeking model developed by Vogel, Wester, Wei, and Boysen (2005) in a Latino/a college student sample. The second goal of this study was to assess whether the model fit would be improved when three culture-related, independent variables (i.e., acculturation, enculturation, and cultural congruity of local mental health services) were added into Vogel et al.'s (2005) model. Participants were 424 students all of whom self-identified as Latino, Latina, or Hispanic. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Indirect effects were assessed ...


Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory To College Science Majors, Leann R. Mills Jan 2009

Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory To College Science Majors, Leann R. Mills

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although there has been a substantial amount of research done to examine the applicability of social cognitive career theory (SCCT, Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), almost none of this has focused on the prediction of science interests or goals. Additionally, this theory has not been applied to a group of individuals focused on studying science. The present study applies social cognitive career theory to a group of 245 college science majors and pre-medical students at a large Midwestern University. Additionally, this study also expands beyond the core of the theory to more peripheral theorized predictors such as learning experiences, aptitude, and parent support. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess model fit for the whole sample as well as men and women separately. Results indicated that social cognitive career theory was a good fit for the data with some exceptions; it was also found that background factors such as parent support and aptitude were important contributors to the model. No significant sex differences were found in the models. Discussion emphasizes the good fit of the model as well as the importance of background factors in developing self-efficacy, interests, and goals in science.


Personality As A Potential Moderator Of The Relationship Between Stigma And Help-Seeking, Phillip James Miller Jan 2009

Personality As A Potential Moderator Of The Relationship Between Stigma And Help-Seeking, Phillip James Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many persons who could potentially benefit from psychological services do not seek help or follow through with treatment. While there are a variety of reasons why an individual might not pursue psychological treatment, the stigma associated with seeking help has been identified as a significant obstacle. Stigma, the perception that one is flawed, is based upon a real or imagined personal characteristic that is deemed socially unacceptable. Two types of stigma (i.e., public stigma and self-stigma) are involved in the help-seeking process and serve to decrease positive attitudes toward help- seeking and one's willingness to seek counseling. Researchers ...


Conceptualizing Design Affordances From A Cognitive Perspective, Jeremiah D. Still Jan 2009

Conceptualizing Design Affordances From A Cognitive Perspective, Jeremiah D. Still

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The term affordance carries multiple meanings for designers. Traditionally, affordances were discussed within a Gibsonian framework as arising from direct perception of physical constraints. However, some authors extended the meaning to include learned cultural constraints, leading to a theoretical debate about whether designers should draw a distinction between perceptual affordances and learned cultural conventions. In this dissertation it is suggested that a broader meaning of affordance is more appropriate for designers and that a unified account of affordances can be achieved using a cognitive conceptualization of perceived affordances. Within this cognitive framework, perceived affordances arise from automatic processes in the ...


Experimental Manipulation Of Vocational Interests: Influence On Self-Efficacy And Choice Goals, Verena Sylvia Bonitz Jan 2009

Experimental Manipulation Of Vocational Interests: Influence On Self-Efficacy And Choice Goals, Verena Sylvia Bonitz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was the first to use a true experimental design to test the hypothesis that vocational interests can be a precursor to the development of domain-specific self-efficacy beliefs in three occupational domains, namely information technology, sales, and teaching. Two levels of interest were created based on work values that differed in their level of appeal. Participants (206 college students from a large Midwestern university) rated sets of job descriptions that contained activity-based information in addition to a reference to work values associated with the position. Participants rated each of the job descriptions in terms of interest, confidence, and choice ...


Religious Coping, Trait Forgiveness, And Meaning As Protective Barriers For Soldiers, Donna Carla Bailey Jan 2009

Religious Coping, Trait Forgiveness, And Meaning As Protective Barriers For Soldiers, Donna Carla Bailey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study is the first to examine the potential moderating effects of positive and negative religious coping, trait forgiveness, and meaning in military duties on the identified link between combat exposure and subsequent symptoms of generalized psychological distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Adler, Vaitkus, & Martin, 1996; Kaylor, King, & King, 1987).The sample included 366 U.S. Army soldiers who were currently deployed to Iraq. Due to the much smaller number of women in the sample (n = 43 vs. n = 323 men), the primary analyses testing for moderation were conducted for men only. The findings showed that none of the study variables ...