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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper Dec 2009

The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Children in households reporting the receipt of free or reduced price school meals through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are more likely to have negative health outcomes than eligible nonparticipants. Assessing the causal effects of the program is made difficult, however, by the presence of endogenous selection into the program and systematic misreporting of participation status. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we extend and apply partial identification methods to account for these two identification problems in a single unifying framework. Similar to a regression discontinuity design, we introduce a new way to conceptualize ...


Bounding The Effects Of Food Insecurity On Children’S Health Outcomes, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider Sep 2009

Bounding The Effects Of Food Insecurity On Children’S Health Outcomes, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider

Economics Publications

Previous research has estimated that food insecure children are more likely to suffer from a wide array of negative health outcomes than food secure children, leading many to claim that alleviating food insecurity would lead to better health outcomes. Identifying the causal impacts is problematic, however, given endogenous selection into food security status and potential mismeasurement of true food security status. Using recently developed nonparametric bounding methods and data from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), we assess what can be identified about the effects of food insecurity on child health outcomes in the presence of nonrandom ...


Crop Residues: The Rest Of The Story, Douglas L. Karlen, Rattan Lal, Ronald F. Follett, John M. Kimble, Jerry L. Hatfield, John A. Miranowski, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Andrew Manale, Robert P. Anex, Charles W. Rice Sep 2009

Crop Residues: The Rest Of The Story, Douglas L. Karlen, Rattan Lal, Ronald F. Follett, John M. Kimble, Jerry L. Hatfield, John A. Miranowski, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Andrew Manale, Robert P. Anex, Charles W. Rice

Economics Publications

Synopsis In the February 15, 2009 issue of ES&T Strand and Benford argued that oceanic deposition of agricultural crop residues was a viable option for net carbon sequestration (43 [4], 1000−1007). In reviewing the calculations and bringing their experience to bear, Karlen et al. argue in this Viewpoint that crop residue oceanic permanent sequestration (CROPS) as envisioned by Strand and Benford will not work. They further propose alternative possibilities in agricultural methods to achieve a net decrease of CO2 emissions.


Identification Of Expected Outcomes In A Data Error Mixing Model With Multiplicative Mean Independence, Brent Kreider, John V. Pepper May 2009

Identification Of Expected Outcomes In A Data Error Mixing Model With Multiplicative Mean Independence, Brent Kreider, John V. Pepper

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

We consider the problem of identifying a mean outcome in corrupt sampling where the observed outcome is a mixture of the distribution of interest and some other distribution.We make two contributions to this literature. First, the statistical independence assumption maintained under contaminated sampling is relaxed to the weaker assumption that the outcome is mean independent of the mixing process. We then generalize this restriction to allow the two conditional means to differ by a known or bounded factor of proportionality. Second, in the special case of a binary outcome, we consider the possibility that draws from the alternative distribution ...


Partially Identifying Treatment Effects With An Application To Covering The Uninsured, Brent Kreider, Steven C. Hill Apr 2009

Partially Identifying Treatment Effects With An Application To Covering The Uninsured, Brent Kreider, Steven C. Hill

Economics Publications

We extend the nonparametric literature on partially identified probability distributions and use our analytical results to provide sharp bounds on the impact of universal health insurance on provider visits and medical expenditures. Our approach accounts for uncertainty about the reliability of self-reported insurance status as well as uncertainty created by unknown counterfactuals. We construct health insurance validation data using detailed information from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Imposing relatively weak nonparametric assumptions, we estimate that under universal coverage monthly per capita provider visits and expenditures would rise by less than 8 percent and 16 percent, respectively, across the nonelderly population.


The Rise Of Obesity In Transition: Theory And Empirical Evidence From Russia, Sonya K. Huffman, Marian Rizov Jan 2009

The Rise Of Obesity In Transition: Theory And Empirical Evidence From Russia, Sonya K. Huffman, Marian Rizov

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Since the early 1990s series of political and economic reforms have been implemented in transition economies. As a result, the population experienced dramatic changes in lifestyle and a significant decline in life expectancy. The adverse effects of transition were most severe in the Former Soviet Union. Several studies examine the reasons for the mortality crisis in Russia and other former Soviet republics (Brainerd and Cutler, 2005; Shkolnikov et al., 2004). Greater alcohol consumption and increased stress from the transition to a market economy had dramatically affected the lifestyle and diet of the population, and led to higher mortality in Russia ...