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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz Sep 2009

Evaluation Of A Multiple Ecological Level Child Obesity Prevention Program: Switch®What You Do, View, And Chew, Douglas A. Gentile, Gregory Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Rachel A. Reimer, David A. Walsh, Daniel W. Rusell, Randi Callahan, Monica Walsh, Sarah Strickland, Katie Fritz

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Background: Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity) at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community).

Methods: Participants were 1,323 children and their parents ...


International Extension Curriculum: Strengthening Extension's Capacity For International Engagement—Module 6: Exploring Cultural Perspective Of Families, Kimberly A. Greder, Beth Fleming, Tom Quinn Aug 2009

International Extension Curriculum: Strengthening Extension's Capacity For International Engagement—Module 6: Exploring Cultural Perspective Of Families, Kimberly A. Greder, Beth Fleming, Tom Quinn

Human Development and Family Studies Extension and Outreach Publications

Families build the foundation of communities. As the demographic profiles of families in communities change, communities change. In order to design and deliver extension programs and services to effectively meet the needs of communities, it is important to understand the needs and wants of those who live there. This module can provide professional development to extension staff. However, activities in this module can also be used in extension programming to assist others in learning about the role of culture in families, how individuals can design and deliver programs and services.


Parent-Child Relationships, Melinda S. Leidy, Thomas J. Schofield, Ross D. Parke Jun 2009

Parent-Child Relationships, Melinda S. Leidy, Thomas J. Schofield, Ross D. Parke

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

One of the most important and earliest relationships is the parent-child relationship. During infancy, this relationship focuses on the parent responding to the infant's basic needs. Over time, an attachment forms between the parent and child in response to the these day-to-day interactions. During toddlerhood, parents attempt to shape their children's social behaviors. Parents play various roles for their toddlers, including acting as teacher, nurturers, and providers of guidance and affection. Throughout childhood, children become more interested in peers. However, parents continue to influence their children through their parenting styles. In addition, parents serve as providers of social ...


It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons Feb 2009

It Takes A Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth In The Context Of Racism, Cady Berkel, Velma Mcbride Murry, Tera R. Hurt, Yi-Fu Chen, Gene H. Brody, Ronald L. Simons, Carolyn Cutrona, Frederick X. Gibbons

Psychology Publications

Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was mediated by racial socialization and positive parenting. Parenting and community influences contributed to adolescent racial identity and self image, which protected against common negative responses to racism; including academic underachievement, succumbing to peer pressure, and aggressive tendencies. Qualitative results ...


The Benefits And Costs Of Alternative Strategies To Improve Educational Outcomes, Peter F. Orazem, Paul Glewwe, Harry Patrinos Jan 2009

The Benefits And Costs Of Alternative Strategies To Improve Educational Outcomes, Peter F. Orazem, Paul Glewwe, Harry Patrinos

Economics Publications

Few empirical relationships have been investigated more frequently than that between years of schooling and earnings. Hundreds of studies using a wide variety of datasets from developed countries, spanning many decades, and employing alternative specifications to correct for various potential sources of bias, have consistently found positive private returns per year of schooling.• Returns arc frequent ly equal to or above long-run average market returns to other investments.


The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green Jan 2009

The Experience Of Therapy From The Perspective Of Lesbian Couple Clients And Their Therapists, Mary Sue Green

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lesbian couples often present for therapy for the same reasons as heterosexual couples; however, lesbian couples also have to negotiate societal homonegativity that devalues and marginalizes their relationships. The aim of this study was to explore a common experience of therapy from the perspective of lesbian couples and their therapists. A feminist qualitative method was used to attend to diversity within and among triads, maintain an awareness of the multiple influences on the client-therapist relationship, view the participants in their larger societal context, and consider the power dynamics that are inherent in relationships. Interviews were conducted with seven lesbian clients ...


The Influence Of Negative Affectivity On Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Social Support And Marital Satisfaction Among African American Women, Ashley Nicole Rink Jan 2009

The Influence Of Negative Affectivity On Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Social Support And Marital Satisfaction Among African American Women, Ashley Nicole Rink

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined whether the relationship between depressive symptoms and relational outcomes such as marital satisfaction and perceived spousal social support reflect the influence of a third variable, negative affectivity. Specifically, the study addressed whether the effects of negative affectivity on these other self report measures extend over time. Negative affectivity, marital satisfaction, and perceived spousal social support were tested as predictors of depression. The sample included 178 married African American women participating in the FACHS study. Both perceived spousal support and marital satisfaction continued to significantly predict depression after controlling for negative affectivity at a previous time point. These ...


Individual And Partner Effects: Influences Of Anxiety And Warmth On Marital Satisfaction Among African American Spouses, Sonja Stutzman Jan 2009

Individual And Partner Effects: Influences Of Anxiety And Warmth On Marital Satisfaction Among African American Spouses, Sonja Stutzman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

African Americans are currently the 2nd largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2004); however, there is a paucity of research within this population examining the unique context and characteristics of both individuals and couples related to marital and emotional distress. The current study addressed these limitations through the utilization of self-reported and observational data measures of partner warmth provided through the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). The current analyses focused on the longitudinal effects of anxiety and partner warmth on marital satisfaction among 99 African American couples within FACHS. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant associations ...


The Unique Influence Of Mothers' And Fathers' Negative Parental Practices On Adolescent Anti-Social Behavior: Mediating Effects Of Adolescent Psychological Resources And Deviant Peer Relationships, Ryan Eugene Lott Jan 2009

The Unique Influence Of Mothers' And Fathers' Negative Parental Practices On Adolescent Anti-Social Behavior: Mediating Effects Of Adolescent Psychological Resources And Deviant Peer Relationships, Ryan Eugene Lott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Researchers investigating delinquent and anti-social behavior have documented that negative parental practices is linked to psychological resources (mastery), deviant relationships, and anti-social behaviors. However, there is a gap in the current literature on how these variables combine to influence an adolescent's anti-social behavior, specifically the causal effects of deviant relationships on anti-social behavior. The purpose of this thesis is to include all of these pathways in one succinct causal model that is founded by empirical research. The current study used structural equation model (SEM) analyses to estimate the comprehensive model in order to take measurement error into account. The ...


Examination Of Factors Related To Kindergarten Readiness, Katie Christoffersen Jan 2009

Examination Of Factors Related To Kindergarten Readiness, Katie Christoffersen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study provides information on various factors impacting kindergarten readiness. Survey information from six teachers and the families of 69 children is included. The study examines correlations among age at kindergarten entry and later academic and social skills, parent and teacher ratings of the importance of various dimensions of readiness, the relationship between parental characteristics and views on readiness, and the acceptance of transitional versus pre-kindergarten programs. Results indicate that age at entry had little effect on future academic performance or social skills. Parents and teachers differed in the ratings of the importance of four out of 14 readiness factors ...


Qualitative Analysis Of Couple Decision-Making, Tara Danielle Dekkers Jan 2009

Qualitative Analysis Of Couple Decision-Making, Tara Danielle Dekkers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Couple decision-making is a complex process which includes a variety of factors. Little research has been done that considers reflections after a decision has been made. The ways that couples make decisions varies but there are a number of underlying issues that are considered when making a family or couple decision. This qualitative study was a feminist grounded theory study in which the decision-making practices of nine couples were explored. These nine couples were interviewed together and separately about their decision-making practices. Themes indicate that outside influences such as one's faith, family, and friends affect most aspects of decision-making ...


An Investigation Of Preschool-Aged Children's Perceptions Of Their Peers With A Disability, Krista Noelle Van Hooser Jan 2009

An Investigation Of Preschool-Aged Children's Perceptions Of Their Peers With A Disability, Krista Noelle Van Hooser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study combines various aspects of previous research on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward children with a disability. It extends previous research in the attempts to evaluate attitudes and behavioral intentions toward intellectual and physical disability separately in addition to examining "general" disability. Study design also allowed for comparisons of children in both inclusive and non-inclusive settings, which many previous research studies did not provide.

Study findings suggest that preschool children are more positive toward and more willing to interact with typically developing peers than with peers with a disability. Moreover, most preschool children do not have an understanding or ...


To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers Jan 2009

To Have And Have Not: Household Determinants Of Food Insecurity By Age In A Sample Of Iowa Food Pantry Recipients, Kristin Marie Towers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the United States population ages and their healthcare needs grow it is necessary to examine health-related issues experienced by this population. Food insecurity is one such issue impacting not only older adults but the general population as well. Working to better understand determinants of food insecurity and what factors may protect against it may help in the fight against it.

Cross-sectional data from a survey studying food pantry clients living in four Iowa counties were used to (1) explore what household characteristics may increase the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity and (2) identify what resources may protect against it ...


From Object To Subject: Young Women's Experience Of Sexuality Education Within Sex-Negative Taboos, Erin Noelle Chapman Jan 2009

From Object To Subject: Young Women's Experience Of Sexuality Education Within Sex-Negative Taboos, Erin Noelle Chapman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Young female sexuality continues to be portrayed as problematic within cultural expectations of acceptable sexual conduct among young people (Moran, 2000; Russell, 2005; Welles, 2005). Contributing to this negativity is the marginalization of positive conceptualizations of female sexuality and the silencing of female sexual desire and pleasure within sexual education practices (Fields & Tolman, 2006; Fine, 1988; Tolman, 2002; Tolman, Hirschman, & Impett, 2005). This feminist critical ethnography utilizes the narratives of four young women participants in the From Object to Subject (O2S) curriculum--a curriculum emphasizing a sex-positive approach to sexuality education--to explore: (a) how adolescent females have been educated about sex and sexuality in the past; (b) how young women have experienced their own sexuality; and (c) the societal circumstances and messages that young women experience and have contributed to their sexual socialization. Findings revealed two major societal taboos that contribute to the marginalization of young female sexuality ...


Tension, Adjustment Strategies, And Family Business Success For Single And Dual Role Managers, An-Ti Shih Jan 2009

Tension, Adjustment Strategies, And Family Business Success For Single And Dual Role Managers, An-Ti Shih

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to understand if the family or business tension of Dual Role Managers (DRM) is different than that of Single Role Managers (SRM) of family business, and the influence of various adjustment strategies that could affect family and business success. A related goal was to understand the impact of gender on family business managers' success. The study relied on data collected from 294 households collected at two time points--the 1997 Wave 1 and 2000 Wave 2 survey panels from the National Family Business Study (NFBS). In the NFBS, the household manager was identified as the ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Moral Reconation Therapy With The Juvenile Offender Population, Courtney Behrens Jan 2009

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Moral Reconation Therapy With The Juvenile Offender Population, Courtney Behrens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) with the juvenile offender population in regard to the effects on recidivism. The analyses resulted in no significant differences in recidivism between the treatment group, which consisted of 375 juvenile offenders who participated in MRT, and the comparison group, which consisted of 375 juvenile offenders who did not participate in MRT. Specific attention to the number of MRT steps completed in relation to recidivism also resulted in no significant results. Therefore, recidivism did not change based on the number of MRT steps completed. In addition to analyses to ...


Low-Income Homeownership: Benefits, Barriers And Predictors For Families In Rural Areas, Andrea Lynn Bentzinger Jan 2009

Low-Income Homeownership: Benefits, Barriers And Predictors For Families In Rural Areas, Andrea Lynn Bentzinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined homeownership among rural, low-income families. Previous literature was examined to understand the financial, psychological and social benefits of and barriers to homeownership among this population. Although most low-income families appear to prefer to own their homes, limitations can prevent them from buying their `dream home' and risks can diminish the positive effects of homeownership. Recent public policy has attempted to extend opportunities for homeownership to households heretofore under served. Attaining and sustaining homeownership among low-income families has become an important area of research. In addition to a review of previous literature, this research examined the role ...


Dyadic Influences On Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults, Kate Daugherty Jan 2009

Dyadic Influences On Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults, Kate Daugherty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Self-rated health is deemed a parsimonious and multi-dimensional indicator of overall health, predictive of mortality. The current study evaluated personal as well as spousal predictors of self-rated health in older adults given the influence of partners over the life course. Hierarchical regression analyses assessed individual and dyadic (spousal) predictors of self-rated health for 552 couples from the Iowa version of the Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Individual predictors of education, depressive symptoms, and number of chronic conditions were predictive for both husbands and wives. No spousal variables were significant. Further analyses should be employed to test ...


Three Essays On Food Insecurity And Child Welfare, Oluyemisi O. Kuku Jan 2009

Three Essays On Food Insecurity And Child Welfare, Oluyemisi O. Kuku

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three major issues affecting the welfare of children are investigated in three papers in this dissertation. These issues are the intra-household allocation of resources, food insecurity and obesity. The first two papers are focused on the issue of intra-household allocation of food resources and food insecurity in a developing country setting, namely Zimbabwe, while the relationship between food insecurity and obesity is investigated n the United States.

In the first paper, a 2004 household survey of children in Zimbabwe is utilized to investigate differences in self-reports of food insecurity. A bivariate ordered probit regression is utilized to investigate any differences ...


Dyadic Perceptions Of Grandmothers' Influence On Adult Granddaughters' Beliefs, Merea D. Bentrott Jan 2009

Dyadic Perceptions Of Grandmothers' Influence On Adult Granddaughters' Beliefs, Merea D. Bentrott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing role, both formally and informally, of grandparents in their grandchildren's lives necessitates greater exploration of the influence grandparents have on their grandchildren. In the current study, intergenerational transmission was defined as the process through which purposely or unintentionally an older generation influences the values and belief systems of a younger generation. Prior research has demonstrated the influence of grandparents on their grandchildren in regards to socioeconomic status, education, and physical health. The current study aim was to investigate similarity (i.e., congruence) between grandmothers' and granddaughters' perceptions of grandmothers' influence across four domains (i.e., religious, moral ...


Precursors To Adolescents' Dating Violence Perpetration And Healthy Romantic Relationships, Melissa P. Schnurr Jan 2009

Precursors To Adolescents' Dating Violence Perpetration And Healthy Romantic Relationships, Melissa P. Schnurr

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Paper 1: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify how adolescent, family, school, and neighborhood risk factors were related to perpetration of dating violence among adolescents; and 2) to assess how perceived neighborhood collective efficacy may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between each of the risk factors and adolescents' perpetration of dating violence. Three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N = 765; Ages 16-20 at Wave 3). Lagged Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression techniques were utilized to examine the link between perpetration of dating violence and the risk factors ...


Conceptualizing Factors Influencing The Perception Of Barriers To Mental Health Treatment And Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Chinese Americans, Wendy Liu Jan 2009

Conceptualizing Factors Influencing The Perception Of Barriers To Mental Health Treatment And Help-Seeking Behaviors Among Chinese Americans, Wendy Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current literature: Despite being one of the fastest growing ethnic minority populations in the U.S., research shows that Asian Americans as a whole underutilize mental health treatment. Disaggregation of ethnic subgroups is imperative to identify within and between group differences in intentions to seek help and barriers to treatment. Study aims: This study examined selected personal and cultural factors hypothesized to influence attitudes towards professional mental health treatment among Chinese Americans. This study employed an experimental component with mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the effectiveness of alleviating practical and cultural barriers to treatment. Results: Results of this ...


Accessing And Affording Child Care And Low-Income Mothers' Employment Over Time: An Ecological Approach, Brinn Hope Shjegstad Jan 2009

Accessing And Affording Child Care And Low-Income Mothers' Employment Over Time: An Ecological Approach, Brinn Hope Shjegstad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

These two studies utilized a large, longitudinal random sample to examine the relationship between child problem behaviors and maternal risk factors and low-income mothers' ability to access and afford child care, as well as how the ability to access and afford child care influences low-income mothers' employment over time. Results showed that low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were significantly more likely to report a decreased ability to access and afford child care. Additionally, low-income mothers with higher levels of maternal risk factors were more likely to become unemployed than to maintain employment over time. Policy implication ...


The Cumulative Influences Of Socioeconomic Status On Health Outcomes In Late Adulthood: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis, Kyung Hwa Kwag Jan 2009

The Cumulative Influences Of Socioeconomic Status On Health Outcomes In Late Adulthood: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis, Kyung Hwa Kwag

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to examine a) the cumulative influences of demographic variables as well as socioeconomic status on trajectories of physical limitations, chronic diseases, and depressive symptoms, and b) cross-domain associations of these health problems in late adulthood. This study used the data (N = 4,374, age > 65 years) from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), collected biennially during the period from 1998 to 2006. The results of this study indicated that SES was confounded with demographic factors, especially ethnicity/race, because most of the influences of demographic factors and ethnicity/race on health problem trajectories diminished ...


Predictors Of Youth After-School Involvement: The Role Of Congruence Between Perceived Early Community And Family Supportive Control, Duhita Mahatmya Jan 2009

Predictors Of Youth After-School Involvement: The Role Of Congruence Between Perceived Early Community And Family Supportive Control, Duhita Mahatmya

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of the present study was twofold: 1) to understand how perceived community and family supportive control during early adolescence were associated with late adolescent after-school involvement while controlling for self-selection factors for a sample of low-income, urban, minority adolescents; and 2) to examine how congruency between the perceived community and family contexts influenced after-school involvement overtime. Three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N = 528; Ages 16-20 at Wave 3). First, a series of lagged Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine if exposure to early ...


A Comparison Of Social Interactions Between Preschool Students From Spanish Speaking Homes And Preschool Students From English Speaking Homes, Molly Ann Luchtel Jan 2009

A Comparison Of Social Interactions Between Preschool Students From Spanish Speaking Homes And Preschool Students From English Speaking Homes, Molly Ann Luchtel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the differences between preschool students from Spanish speaking homes and preschool students from English speaking homes in the areas of classroom conduct, social skills, and teacher-child relationship quality, as rated by their teachers. Data were taken from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (EHSRE), a longitudinal study beginning in 1996. Participants in the current study included 1,034 parents, 1,034 children, and 743 teachers. Significant results revealed that students from Spanish speaking homes were rated more positively in the areas of classroom conduct and teacher-child relationship quality than students from English speaking homes. Analyses ...


The Influence Of Child, Family, And Community Characteristics On Change In Children's Body Mass Index: Mediating Role Of Community-Based Physical Activity Trajectories, Florensia Flora Surjadi Jan 2009

The Influence Of Child, Family, And Community Characteristics On Change In Children's Body Mass Index: Mediating Role Of Community-Based Physical Activity Trajectories, Florensia Flora Surjadi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Researchers investigating the prevalence of childhood obesity have documented an upward trend. However, little research has focused on the processes that might explain changes in children's Body Mass Index (BMI), a commonly used measure to determine overweight and obese status. The purpose of this dissertation is to elucidate the pathways in which child, family, and community characteristics might influence children's BMI. Specifically, using an ecological framework, this study investigates how children's participation in community-based physical activity mediates the influences of child, family, and community characteristics on change in BMI. Data from kindergarten through the fifth-grade from a ...