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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Index To Volume 20, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2009

Index To Volume 20, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Are Adjustment Clauses In Disclaimers Void As Against Public Policy?, Neil E. Harl Dec 2009

Are Adjustment Clauses In Disclaimers Void As Against Public Policy?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In a 2009 Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals case, Estate of Christiansen v. Commissioner,1 the issue of fractional or formula disclaimers was raised, with the Eighth Circuit confronted with the assertion by the Internal Revenue Service that “. . . such disclaimers should be categorically disqualified as against public policy.”2 The case involved the estate of a South Dakota rancher who had implemented a rather novel estate plan prior to her death.3 The appellate court upheld a bequest of property to a charitable foundation as a result of the daughter’s disclaimer in an amount that reflected the increased valuation ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Warning To Grandparents And Others: Bankruptcy Filing By A Section 529 Account Owner Can Result In Loss Of A Contribution Within Last 720 Days, Neil E. Harl Dec 2009

Warning To Grandparents And Others: Bankruptcy Filing By A Section 529 Account Owner Can Result In Loss Of A Contribution Within Last 720 Days, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

A recent Bankruptcy Court decision1 interpreting an amendment in the 2005 Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act2 has confirmed that the 2005 amendment poses a substantial risk where the account owner files bankruptcy within 720 days or less of contributions made to a Section 529 plan. Part or all of the contributions within that period became property of the bankruptcy estate (the debtor had a legal interest in the account as of the petition date) and the contributions are not fully excluded under 11 U.S.C. § 541(c)(2).3 That poses a risk that many ...


Statement At The Hearing On Costs And Benefits Of Domestic Offsets, Dermot J. Hayes Dec 2009

Statement At The Hearing On Costs And Benefits Of Domestic Offsets, Dermot J. Hayes

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Outlook For 2010: Big Crops, Big Demands, Chad Hart Dec 2009

The Outlook For 2010: Big Crops, Big Demands, Chad Hart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Weather has been the big story for this fall. Between the freezing temperatures, early snow, and the steady flow of storms across the state, Iowa crop producers have not enjoyed the fall season. The late maturing crop faced a freeze that was about a week earlier than average. Areas of the state were blanketed by the 1st measurable snowfall of the season in mid-October, well before average. Typically in October, Iowa receives on average 2.5 inches of precipitation. In 2009, precipitation levels ranged from 4 to 8 inches in the month. This combination of weather has brought production expectations ...


The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper Dec 2009

The Impact Of The National School Lunch Program On Child Health: A Nonparametric Bounds Analysis, Craig Gundersen, Brent Kreider, John Pepper

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Children in households reporting the receipt of free or reduced price school meals through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) are more likely to have negative health outcomes than eligible nonparticipants. Assessing the causal effects of the program is made difficult, however, by the presence of endogenous selection into the program and systematic misreporting of participation status. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we extend and apply partial identification methods to account for these two identification problems in a single unifying framework. Similar to a regression discontinuity design, we introduce a new way to conceptualize ...


Assessing China's Potential Import Demand For Distillers Dried Grain: Implications For Grain Trade, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, James Hansen, Holger Matthey, Suwen Pan, Francis Tuan Dec 2009

Assessing China's Potential Import Demand For Distillers Dried Grain: Implications For Grain Trade, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, James Hansen, Holger Matthey, Suwen Pan, Francis Tuan

CARD Staff Reports

A team of U.S. analysts visited China to assess the potential for use of distillers dried grain plus solubles (DDGS) in China's livestock sector. They examined the economics of the use of DDGS in feeds, the policy issues surrounding the use of the product, and transportation-logistic constraints in the expansion of DDGS imports. The team collected actual and secondary data to conduct a micro-economic analysis of the impact of DDGS on feed cost, solicited official and expert opinions through interviews, and conducted site visits. They found the development of the DDGS import market in China to be very ...


Cancer-Risk Benefits Of Clean Fuel Technology And Policy: A Statistical Analysis, Paul Gallagher, William Lazarus, Hosein Shapouri, Roger Conway, James Duffield Dec 2009

Cancer-Risk Benefits Of Clean Fuel Technology And Policy: A Statistical Analysis, Paul Gallagher, William Lazarus, Hosein Shapouri, Roger Conway, James Duffield

Economics Publications

The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the lung cancer mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-section regressions of the mortality rate due to lung cancer against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cancer rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 10 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas ...


Worker, Homeownership, And Business Assistance Act Of 2009, Neil E. Harl Nov 2009

Worker, Homeownership, And Business Assistance Act Of 2009, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

One of the shortest tax bills in modern time, containing only 18 provisions, passed the Congress and was signed into law on November 6, 2009.1 Notwithstanding its brevity, the legislation contains some very significant provisions for workers, homeowners and businesses.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Installment Sales Between Related Parties, Neil E. Harl Nov 2009

Installment Sales Between Related Parties, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For transactions involving farm and ranch property, installment sales are common1 and installment sales between related persons are almost as common.2 A 2009 private letter ruling3 has cast light on both of the related person rules for installment sales4 and on the recapture consequences of such transactions.5 The two provisions governing related person transactions with respect to installment transactions are quite different and require careful planning if adverse income tax consequences are to be avoided.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Investing In People For The 21st Century, Wallace E. Huffman Nov 2009

Investing In People For The 21st Century, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The paper draws upon the work of T.W. Schultz to show that human capital theory and labor market adjustments have important implications for investing in people for the 21st Century.


Does Information Change Behavior?, Wallace E. Huffman Nov 2009

Does Information Change Behavior?, Wallace E. Huffman

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.


Consumer Preferences For Country-Of-Origin, Geographical Indication, And Protected Designation Of Origin Labels, Luisa Menapace, Gregory J. Colson, Carola Grebitus, Maria Facendola Nov 2009

Consumer Preferences For Country-Of-Origin, Geographical Indication, And Protected Designation Of Origin Labels, Luisa Menapace, Gregory J. Colson, Carola Grebitus, Maria Facendola

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Motivated by the recognition that geography is often correlated with and/or an important determinant of the overall quality of agricultural products, consumer groups, industry representatives, and domestic and trade representatives have increasingly considered the potential role of geographical origin labels as consumer information and marketing tools. We investigate whether consumers recognize and value the informational content of a variety of nested geographical origin labels. In particular, this study disentangles and assesses three nested types of origin labels: country of origin (COOL), geographical indications (GI), and PDO/PGI. We find that, within the context of a high quality value-added commodity ...


A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process With Beta Distribution As Limit, David A. Hennessy Nov 2009

A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process With Beta Distribution As Limit, David A. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

The modeling of price risk in the theory and practice of commodity risk management has been developed far beyond that of crop yield risk. This is in large part due to the use of plausible stochastic price processes. We use the Pólya urn to identify and develop a model of the crop yield expectation stochastic process over a growing season. The process allows a role for agronomic events, such as growing degree days. The model is internally consistent in adhering to the martingale property. The limiting distribution is the beta, commonly used in yield modeling. By applying binomial tree analysis ...


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Nov 2009

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Can A Roth Ira Be A Shareholder In An S Corporation?, Neil E. Harl Oct 2009

Can A Roth Ira Be A Shareholder In An S Corporation?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Initially, as enacted in 1958,1 trusts could not be shareholders in an S corporation.2 In a series of enactments beginning in 1982, several different types of trusts were authorized to hold stock in an S corporation including grantor trusts,3 grantor trusts that continue to hold stock after death of the deemed owner for up to two years,4 testamentary trusts for up to two years,5 voting trusts,6 electing small business trusts7 and, in the case of a corporation which is a bank, “. . . a trust which constitutes an individual retirement account under section 408(a ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Oct 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Hierarchy Of Players In Swap Robust Voting Games, Monisankar Bishnu, Sonali Roy Oct 2009

Hierarchy Of Players In Swap Robust Voting Games, Monisankar Bishnu, Sonali Roy

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Ordinarily, the process of decision making by a committee through voting is modelled by a monotonic game the range of whose characteristic function is restricted to {0,1}. The decision rule that governs the collective action of a voting body induces a hierarchy in the set of players in terms of the a-priori influence that the players have over the decision making process. In order to determine this hierarchy in a swap robust game, one has to either evaluate a number-based power index (e.g., the Shapley-Shubik index, the Banzhaf-Coleman index) for each player or conduct a pairwise comparison between ...


Major Development In Income Taxation Of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy Debtors, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer Oct 2009

Major Development In Income Taxation Of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy Debtors, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer

Agricultural Law Digest

The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals,1 on September 16, 2009, handed down a decision in the long-running battle between the Internal Revenue Service and Chapter 12 bankruptcy debtors over the meaning of the 2005 amendment to the Bankruptcy Code.2 That amendment was to provide relief to Chapter 12 farm and ranch debtors in light of the long-standing favorable treatment given individual debtors under Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code.3 Congress had refused to extend the same treatment to individuals filing under Chapter 12 but instead enacted in 2005 a special provision for Chapter 12 ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Oct 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Are U.S. Corn And Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant?, Tian Yu, Bruce A. Babcock Oct 2009

Are U.S. Corn And Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant?, Tian Yu, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

An objective drought index that measures the dry and hot conditions adversely affecting crop yields is used in a regression analysis to test whether corn and soybeans have become more drought tolerant. Results indicate that corn yield losses from a drought of a given severity, whether measured in quantity terms or as a percentage of mean yield, have decreased over time. The null hypothesis that the absolute level of soybean yield losses due to drought has not changed cannot be rejected. But soybean yield losses in percentage terms have decreased over time. Because drought is the primary cause of yield ...


Does Local School Control Raise Student Outcomes? Evidence On The Roles Of School Autonomy And Parental Participation, Victoria Gunnarsson, Peter F. Orazem, Mario A. Sanchez, Aimee Verdisco Oct 2009

Does Local School Control Raise Student Outcomes? Evidence On The Roles Of School Autonomy And Parental Participation, Victoria Gunnarsson, Peter F. Orazem, Mario A. Sanchez, Aimee Verdisco

Economics Publications

As early as 1962, international agencies such as the United Nations and the World Bank were advising that the decentralization of public service delivery could serve as a development strategy. The strategy has become even more prominent over the past 15 years, particularly in education.1 Decentralization efforts in developed countries include various programs in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and in at least 44 states in the United States. Among the developing countries, Burkina Faso, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, India, and Nicaragua have introduced new programs aimed at devolving power to the local schools ...


Cooperatives: A Competitive Yardstick For Health Care, Mark A. Edelman, John R. Dunn Sep 2009

Cooperatives: A Competitive Yardstick For Health Care, Mark A. Edelman, John R. Dunn

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

As the national debate over health care reform continues, consideration is increasingly being given to the use of consumer-focused health care cooperatives as a key strategy for providing access to affordable health care and insurance for the millions of consumers and small businesses not presently able to afford or obtain adequate health care. Historically in many other sectors, the cooperative form of business has been successfully adapted by farmers, consumers, businesses, and public bodies as an effective strategy for attaining scale, lowering costs, improving incomes, providing services, and creating a better functioning marketplace. Reasons for forming cooperatives and analysis of ...


Hazards Of Basing An Estate Plan On Successive Life Estates, Neil E. Harl Sep 2009

Hazards Of Basing An Estate Plan On Successive Life Estates, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Recent reviews of two fact situations, hundreds of miles apart and both the products of planning a half century or more ago, illustrate the hazards of using a deceptively simple estate plan – basing the plan on successive life estates.1 The strategy often involves unexpected federal estate tax consequences,2 federal gift tax problems,3 income tax basis complications4 and assorted problems relating to like-kind exchanges, involuntary conversions and easements, to mention just a few of the more likely events occurring during the term of the life estates. Although often viewed as more complex (and costly to set up ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Sep 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


More On Related-Party Like-Kind Exchanges, Neil E. Harl Sep 2009

More On Related-Party Like-Kind Exchanges, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Although like-kind exchanges have been almost routine for decades for trades involving machinery, equipment and business vehicles,1 the use of like-exchanges for real estate has become much more widespread in recent years.2 Until 1989, there were no limitations imposed on related-party like-kind exchanges. The 1989 amendment imposing limits on related party like-kind exchanges3 was motivated by concern overthe tax avoidance potential of transactions in which related parties enter into like-kind exchanges involving low-basis property (which the owner contemplates selling) for high basis property with the new owner of the high basis property selling the property received at ...