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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack Dec 2009

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Prey On Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus Patas) At Fongoli, Senegal, Jill D. Pruetz, Joshua L. Marshack

Anthropology Publications

Chimpanzees across Africa include some meat in their diet1. In most communities where chimpanzees have been studied over the long term, primate prey is apparently preferred over other animal prey, with red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius) comprising the most common monkey species eaten2. At Fongoli, Senegal, it is likely that chimpanzees have never had access to red colobus monkeys at this hot, dry and open site, although the range of red colobus monkeys (P.b. temminckii) in Senegal and adjacent countries in West Africa has diminished3. Fongoli chimpanzees are currently not sympatric with red colobus, although they ...


Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Behavioral Responses To Stresses Associated With Living In A Savanna-Mosaic Environment: Implications For Hominin Adaptations To Open Habitats, Jill D. Pruetz, Paco Bertolani Jan 2009

Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Behavioral Responses To Stresses Associated With Living In A Savanna-Mosaic Environment: Implications For Hominin Adaptations To Open Habitats, Jill D. Pruetz, Paco Bertolani

Anthropology Publications

Anthropologists have long been interested in the behavioral ecology of nonhuman primates living in savannas given what we know of early hominin environments. As expected, chimpanzees in the Fongoli community in southeastern Sénégal show a unique suite of behavioral adaptations to stresses associated with their savanna habitat. While Fongoli chimpanzees are species-typical in certain regards, such as including ripe fruit in the diet during all months of the year, they also adjust their behavior to the particular stresses of this dry, hot and open environment. These behaviors include using caves as shelters during the dry season, soaking in pools of ...


Boned Up: Differential Decomposition Of Child-Sized Swine Remains To Model A Forensic Context, Elizabeth K. White Jan 2009

Boned Up: Differential Decomposition Of Child-Sized Swine Remains To Model A Forensic Context, Elizabeth K. White

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forensic anthropology is often connected with the identification of human skeletal remains using various skeletal analyses. However in a medicolegal context, forensic anthropologists aid investigators by collecting information on the condition of skeletal remains. Little research has been conducted on the differences in decomposition rate between subjects in outdoor and insect restricted environments in central Iowa. Limited accessibility to appropriate facilities in the Midwest for a comparison between indoor and outdoor decomposition rates has prevented comprehensive research with human or swine remains from being conducted. A study on the impact insect restriction has on the decomposition process and how subject ...


Interspecific And Integroup Interactions Of Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata) In Primary Versus Secondary Forest At El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, Melissa Joy Senf Jan 2009

Interspecific And Integroup Interactions Of Mantled Howling Monkeys (Alouatta Palliata) In Primary Versus Secondary Forest At El Zota Biological Field Station, Costa Rica, Melissa Joy Senf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Four groups of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) were observed at El Zota Biological Field Station in northeastern Costa Rica to assess whether resource scarcity caused by anthropogenic disturbance and hypothesized increased competition for limited resources would result in more frequent and more aggressive interactions between neighboring howling monkey groups and between howling monkeys and other, sympatric primate species, namely white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a comparison between the primary forest, as a control, and anthropogenically-altered secondary forest, I examined whether a behavioral difference existed between groups with hypothesized varying degrees of resource competition ...


Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Referential Model For The Evolution Of Habitual Bipedalism In Hominids, Christine Alexandra Tourkakis Jan 2009

Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Referential Model For The Evolution Of Habitual Bipedalism In Hominids, Christine Alexandra Tourkakis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Observations of the bipedal behavior of wild savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) can provide insight into the evolution of habitual bipedalism in early hominids. This study provides data on the bipedal behavior of eight adult male chimpanzees at the Fongoli field site in southeastern Senegal. Data were collected during transition months at the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season. Focal instantaneous data on positional and locomotor behavior indicate that bipedalism in Fongoli chimpanzees is a rare, infrequent behavior, accounting for only 2.3% of all positional and locomotor behaviors. Focal all-occurrences data provides a more ...


Referential Aspects In The Vocal Repertoire Of Bonobos (Pan Paniscus), Kathleen Marie Klag Jan 2009

Referential Aspects In The Vocal Repertoire Of Bonobos (Pan Paniscus), Kathleen Marie Klag

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The complexities of animal communication continue to be investigated. However, the potential for referential communication in nonhuman great apes' vocal repertoire has only been studied in chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) food vocalizations. The current study aimed to examine whether bonobos' (Pan paniscus) food vocalizations contained referential aspects. Vocalizations were collected from one bonobo while feeding on one of six different food types. These vocalizations could be significantly distinguished based of food type when using a four-variable model containing low frequency, delta time, average power, and energy. They also could be reclassified into the correct food type based on these variables on ...


Comprehension Of Tools By Orangutans: Causality, Tool Properties, And Manufacture, Kristina Ralene Walkup Jan 2009

Comprehension Of Tools By Orangutans: Causality, Tool Properties, And Manufacture, Kristina Ralene Walkup

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study of orangutan (Pongo spp.) cognitive complexity regarding tool use and manufacture is essential for accurate modeling of hominid evolution. Orangutans demonstrated comprehension of causal relations in four studies of tool use and manufacture. Study subjects were 3 captive orangutans (Great Ape Trust, Des Moines, IA). The distinction between rigid and flimsy tools was explored in the first study. The apes demonstrated comprehension by choosing the rigid tools significantly more than the flimsy tools to solve a problem. In the second study, the results provide support for orangutan comprehension of tool and apparatus properties in an extension of the ...


Behavioral Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) With Respect To Insectivory At Fongoli, Senegal, Stephanie L. Bogart Jan 2009

Behavioral Ecology Of Savanna Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) With Respect To Insectivory At Fongoli, Senegal, Stephanie L. Bogart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation I examine the behavioral ecology of savanna chimpanzees in Senegal. I test hypotheses related to the effects of the environment on the diet of the chimpanzees at Fongoli, concentrating on their insectivory specifically. Fongoli is the hottest and driest site in which chimpanzees have been habituated for observational data collection. Grassland habitats (68%) dominate, characterizing the site as an open savanna mosaic, which is interspersed with woodland and small patches of closed forests. The environment at Fongoli presents a setting similar to that of Plio-Pleistocene hominans (Bobe & Behrensmeyer 2004, Bromage & Schrenk 1995, Cerling 1992, Reed 1997) and ...


Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus Chrysomelas) Acclimation To A New Zoo Habitat: The Effect Of Visitor Presence On Behavior, Lindsay Jane Ingram Jan 2009

Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus Chrysomelas) Acclimation To A New Zoo Habitat: The Effect Of Visitor Presence On Behavior, Lindsay Jane Ingram

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Zoos play an increasingly important role in primate conservation due to the fact that primate species are increasingly endangered in the wild. Zoos now play a key role by preserving examples of genetic variation. The well-being of zoo animals is therefore of utmost concern. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of visitor presence on a newly transferred group of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) as they acclimated to a new zoo environment. Data were recorded on days when the zoo was open and on days it was closed to document any effects caused by visitor presence ...


Witches, Heathens And Shamans: Religious Experience And Gender Identity Among Contemporary Pagans In The United States., Holly R. Raabe Jan 2009

Witches, Heathens And Shamans: Religious Experience And Gender Identity Among Contemporary Pagans In The United States., Holly R. Raabe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research explores the relationships between religious experience and gender identity among contemporary Pagans in America. Personal experience, specifically spiritual experience, is fundamental in how Pagans described not only their spirituality but also their identities. In a social context where the mind is viewed as sacred and the body as profane, contemporary Pagans are challenging hegemonic beliefs. Through linguistic adaptation and linguistic appropriation, men and women in the Pagan community outline new identities for themselves. In the same way that Pagans understand their spirituality through bodily experience, gender and sexuality are also understood through personal experience. Because of the primacy ...