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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Index To Volume 20, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2009

Index To Volume 20, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Are Adjustment Clauses In Disclaimers Void As Against Public Policy?, Neil E. Harl Dec 2009

Are Adjustment Clauses In Disclaimers Void As Against Public Policy?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In a 2009 Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals case, Estate of Christiansen v. Commissioner,1 the issue of fractional or formula disclaimers was raised, with the Eighth Circuit confronted with the assertion by the Internal Revenue Service that “. . . such disclaimers should be categorically disqualified as against public policy.”2 The case involved the estate of a South Dakota rancher who had implemented a rather novel estate plan prior to her death.3 The appellate court upheld a bequest of property to a charitable foundation as a result of the daughter’s disclaimer in an amount that reflected the increased valuation ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Warning To Grandparents And Others: Bankruptcy Filing By A Section 529 Account Owner Can Result In Loss Of A Contribution Within Last 720 Days, Neil E. Harl Dec 2009

Warning To Grandparents And Others: Bankruptcy Filing By A Section 529 Account Owner Can Result In Loss Of A Contribution Within Last 720 Days, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

A recent Bankruptcy Court decision1 interpreting an amendment in the 2005 Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act2 has confirmed that the 2005 amendment poses a substantial risk where the account owner files bankruptcy within 720 days or less of contributions made to a Section 529 plan. Part or all of the contributions within that period became property of the bankruptcy estate (the debtor had a legal interest in the account as of the petition date) and the contributions are not fully excluded under 11 U.S.C. § 541(c)(2).3 That poses a risk that many ...


Statement At The Hearing On Costs And Benefits Of Domestic Offsets, Dermot J. Hayes Dec 2009

Statement At The Hearing On Costs And Benefits Of Domestic Offsets, Dermot J. Hayes

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Outlook For 2010: Big Crops, Big Demands, Chad Hart Dec 2009

The Outlook For 2010: Big Crops, Big Demands, Chad Hart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Weather has been the big story for this fall. Between the freezing temperatures, early snow, and the steady flow of storms across the state, Iowa crop producers have not enjoyed the fall season. The late maturing crop faced a freeze that was about a week earlier than average. Areas of the state were blanketed by the 1st measurable snowfall of the season in mid-October, well before average. Typically in October, Iowa receives on average 2.5 inches of precipitation. In 2009, precipitation levels ranged from 4 to 8 inches in the month. This combination of weather has brought production expectations ...


Assessing China's Potential Import Demand For Distillers Dried Grain: Implications For Grain Trade, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, James Hansen, Holger Matthey, Suwen Pan, Francis Tuan Dec 2009

Assessing China's Potential Import Demand For Distillers Dried Grain: Implications For Grain Trade, Jacinto F. Fabiosa, James Hansen, Holger Matthey, Suwen Pan, Francis Tuan

CARD Staff Reports

A team of U.S. analysts visited China to assess the potential for use of distillers dried grain plus solubles (DDGS) in China's livestock sector. They examined the economics of the use of DDGS in feeds, the policy issues surrounding the use of the product, and transportation-logistic constraints in the expansion of DDGS imports. The team collected actual and secondary data to conduct a micro-economic analysis of the impact of DDGS on feed cost, solicited official and expert opinions through interviews, and conducted site visits. They found the development of the DDGS import market in China to be very ...


Is Local Food More Expensive? A Consumer Price Perspective On Local And Non-Local Foods Purchased In Iowa, Rich S. Pirog, Nick W, Mccann Dec 2009

Is Local Food More Expensive? A Consumer Price Perspective On Local And Non-Local Foods Purchased In Iowa, Rich S. Pirog, Nick W, Mccann

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

Is local food more expensive than its non-local counterpart? The Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture’s Marketing and Food Systems Initiative conducted consumer market research in June, July, and August 2009 to examine what Iowa consumers pay for locally grown products and how these prices compare to non-local market channel prices.


Worker, Homeownership, And Business Assistance Act Of 2009, Neil E. Harl Nov 2009

Worker, Homeownership, And Business Assistance Act Of 2009, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

One of the shortest tax bills in modern time, containing only 18 provisions, passed the Congress and was signed into law on November 6, 2009.1 Notwithstanding its brevity, the legislation contains some very significant provisions for workers, homeowners and businesses.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Installment Sales Between Related Parties, Neil E. Harl Nov 2009

Installment Sales Between Related Parties, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For transactions involving farm and ranch property, installment sales are common1 and installment sales between related persons are almost as common.2 A 2009 private letter ruling3 has cast light on both of the related person rules for installment sales4 and on the recapture consequences of such transactions.5 The two provisions governing related person transactions with respect to installment transactions are quite different and require careful planning if adverse income tax consequences are to be avoided.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process With Beta Distribution As Limit, David A. Hennessy Nov 2009

A Crop Yield Expectation Stochastic Process With Beta Distribution As Limit, David A. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

The modeling of price risk in the theory and practice of commodity risk management has been developed far beyond that of crop yield risk. This is in large part due to the use of plausible stochastic price processes. We use the Pólya urn to identify and develop a model of the crop yield expectation stochastic process over a growing season. The process allows a role for agronomic events, such as growing degree days. The model is internally consistent in adhering to the martingale property. The limiting distribution is the beta, commonly used in yield modeling. By applying binomial tree analysis ...


Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna Nov 2009

Ag Decision Maker: Combine Ownership Or Custom Hire, William M. Edwards, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Includes advantages and disadvantages of custom hiring and information on estimating costs; includes worksheets.


Can A Roth Ira Be A Shareholder In An S Corporation?, Neil E. Harl Oct 2009

Can A Roth Ira Be A Shareholder In An S Corporation?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Initially, as enacted in 1958,1 trusts could not be shareholders in an S corporation.2 In a series of enactments beginning in 1982, several different types of trusts were authorized to hold stock in an S corporation including grantor trusts,3 grantor trusts that continue to hold stock after death of the deemed owner for up to two years,4 testamentary trusts for up to two years,5 voting trusts,6 electing small business trusts7 and, in the case of a corporation which is a bank, “. . . a trust which constitutes an individual retirement account under section 408(a ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Oct 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Major Development In Income Taxation Of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy Debtors, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer Oct 2009

Major Development In Income Taxation Of Chapter 12 Bankruptcy Debtors, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer

Agricultural Law Digest

The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals,1 on September 16, 2009, handed down a decision in the long-running battle between the Internal Revenue Service and Chapter 12 bankruptcy debtors over the meaning of the 2005 amendment to the Bankruptcy Code.2 That amendment was to provide relief to Chapter 12 farm and ranch debtors in light of the long-standing favorable treatment given individual debtors under Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code.3 Congress had refused to extend the same treatment to individuals filing under Chapter 12 but instead enacted in 2005 a special provision for Chapter 12 ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Oct 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Are U.S. Corn And Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant?, Tian Yu, Bruce A. Babcock Oct 2009

Are U.S. Corn And Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant?, Tian Yu, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

An objective drought index that measures the dry and hot conditions adversely affecting crop yields is used in a regression analysis to test whether corn and soybeans have become more drought tolerant. Results indicate that corn yield losses from a drought of a given severity, whether measured in quantity terms or as a percentage of mean yield, have decreased over time. The null hypothesis that the absolute level of soybean yield losses due to drought has not changed cannot be rejected. But soybean yield losses in percentage terms have decreased over time. Because drought is the primary cause of yield ...


Hazards Of Basing An Estate Plan On Successive Life Estates, Neil E. Harl Sep 2009

Hazards Of Basing An Estate Plan On Successive Life Estates, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Recent reviews of two fact situations, hundreds of miles apart and both the products of planning a half century or more ago, illustrate the hazards of using a deceptively simple estate plan – basing the plan on successive life estates.1 The strategy often involves unexpected federal estate tax consequences,2 federal gift tax problems,3 income tax basis complications4 and assorted problems relating to like-kind exchanges, involuntary conversions and easements, to mention just a few of the more likely events occurring during the term of the life estates. Although often viewed as more complex (and costly to set up ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Sep 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


More On Related-Party Like-Kind Exchanges, Neil E. Harl Sep 2009

More On Related-Party Like-Kind Exchanges, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Although like-kind exchanges have been almost routine for decades for trades involving machinery, equipment and business vehicles,1 the use of like-exchanges for real estate has become much more widespread in recent years.2 Until 1989, there were no limitations imposed on related-party like-kind exchanges. The 1989 amendment imposing limits on related party like-kind exchanges3 was motivated by concern overthe tax avoidance potential of transactions in which related parties enter into like-kind exchanges involving low-basis property (which the owner contemplates selling) for high basis property with the new owner of the high basis property selling the property received at ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Sep 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Costs, Returns, Production And Financial Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David R. Stender, James Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber Sep 2009

Costs, Returns, Production And Financial Efficiency Of Niche Pork Production In 2008, David R. Stender, James Kliebenstein, Richard Ness, John W. Mabry, Gary Huber

Iowa Pork Industry Center Reports

This report provides a summary of the costs, returns, and production and financial performance for participating niche pork producer s for the year 2008. There were 18 niche pork farrow-to-finish producers who completed record s for 2008. These 18 operations were typically ‘natural’ producers, meaning their pigs were raised without antibiotics using bedded pens with outdoor access.


Investigating The Potential Economic Impacts Of Local Foods For Southeast Iowa, Dave Swenson Sep 2009

Investigating The Potential Economic Impacts Of Local Foods For Southeast Iowa, Dave Swenson

Leopold Center Publications and Papers

This study evaluates regional economic impact gains that might accrue if the region were to increase its fresh fruit and vegetable production to accommodate local or regional demand. The region studied includes rural areas, yet it is influenced by nearby metropolitan centers, which also serve as potential markets.


The Impact Of Biofuels Policy On Agribusiness Stock Prices, Fatma Sine Tepe, Xiaodong Du, David A. Hennessy Sep 2009

The Impact Of Biofuels Policy On Agribusiness Stock Prices, Fatma Sine Tepe, Xiaodong Du, David A. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

Corn markets are important for many industries, including the seed, fertilizer, meat production/processing and agricultural machinery sectors, all of which are highly concentrated. Oligopoly theory suggests that corn input and field equipment suppliers likely benefit from policies that support corn markets, such as U.S. biofuels policy, while meat companies are likely adversely affected. Employing a linear two-factor (S&P 500 and corn prices) equilibrium asset pricing model, this study investigates the impact of biofuels policy on U.S. agribusiness and food processing firm stock prices. Conditional heteroskedasticity in stock returns is accounted for using a GARCH(1,1 ...


Dynamics Of Biofuel Stock Prices: A Bayesian Approach, Xiaodong Du, Dermot J. Hayes, Cindy L. Yu Sep 2009

Dynamics Of Biofuel Stock Prices: A Bayesian Approach, Xiaodong Du, Dermot J. Hayes, Cindy L. Yu

CARD Working Papers

We use Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to investigate the linkage between the volatility of ethanol security prices and the uncertainty surrounding the profitability of ethanol production and the price variations of non-ethanol energy securities. The joint evolution of return and volatility is modeled as a stochastic process that incorporates jumps in both return and volatility. While a strong and significant correlation is found between the volatility of ethanol securities and profit uncertainty from June 2005 to July 2008, the dynamic pattern of ethanol stock volatility is strikingly similar to that of the S&P 500 energy sector index ...


Impacts Of Agricultural Expansion On Surface Runoff: A Case Study Of A River Basin In The Brazilian Legal Amazon, E. E. Maeda, A. R. Formaggio, Y. E. Shimabukuro, Amy L. Kaleita Sep 2009

Impacts Of Agricultural Expansion On Surface Runoff: A Case Study Of A River Basin In The Brazilian Legal Amazon, E. E. Maeda, A. R. Formaggio, Y. E. Shimabukuro, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This work presents an analysis of the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes of a region in the Brazilian Legal Amazon, and an evaluation of their impacts on the surface runoff regime. This case study took place at the Suiá-Miçu River basin, located in the northeast region of Mato Grosso State. LULC maps were produced for the years 1973, 1984 and 2005 using remote sensing data. After analyzing the agricultural expansion in the study area, the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) was applied in performing the surface runoff modeling for each of the analyzed years using the SCS ...


A More Formal Disaster Relief Program, Neil E. Harl Aug 2009

A More Formal Disaster Relief Program, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Until 2008, with some exceptions which featured a more general scope,1 disaster relief tended to be enacted for a specific term and for a specific disaster.2 As an example, the $100 deductible was suspended for losses on or after August 25, 2005, attributable to Hurricane Katrina.3 However, in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008,4 the Congress created what some have termed a national disaster relief program. Additional legislation may be needed to create a complete fabric of relief provisions, particularly in light of the fact that many of the 2008 enactments have a limited life ...