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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1725

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Do Citizens Know Whether Their State Has Decriminalized Marijuana? Assessing The Perceptual Component Of Deterrence Theory, Robert Maccoun, Rosalie Pacula, Jamie Chriqui, Katherine Harris, Peter Reuter Dec 2015

Do Citizens Know Whether Their State Has Decriminalized Marijuana? Assessing The Perceptual Component Of Deterrence Theory, Robert Maccoun, Rosalie Pacula, Jamie Chriqui, Katherine Harris, Peter Reuter

Robert MacCoun

Deterrence theory proposes that legal compliance is influenced by the anticipated risk of legal sanctions. This implies that changes in law will produce corresponding changes in behavior, but the marijuana decriminalization literature finds only fragmentary support for this prediction. But few studies have directly assessed the accuracy of citizens’ perceptions of legal sanctions. The heterogeneity in state statutory penalties for marijuana possession across the United States provides an opportunity to examine this issue. Using national survey data, we find that the percentages who believe they could be jailed for marijuana possession are quite similar in both states that have removed ...


Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach Apr 2012

Selection Bias In College Admissions Test Scores, Jesse Rothstein, Melissa Clark, Diane Schanzenbach

Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Data from college admissions tests can provide a valuable measure of student achievement, but the non-representativeness of test-takers is an important concern. We examine selectivity bias in both state-level and school-level SAT and ACT averages. The degree of selectivity may differ importantly across and within schools, and across and within states. To identify within-state selectivity, we use a control function approach that conditions on scores from a representative test. Estimates indicate strong selectivity of test-takers in "ACT states," where most college- bound students take the ACT, and much less selectivity in SAT states. To identify within- and between-school selectivity, we ...


What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis Oct 2011

What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis

Ewelina Barski, PhD

There has been a growing interest in the examination of the steady state of simultaneous bilinguals. An understanding of what leads to the possible weaknesses in the grammar of early bilinguals can contribute to our understanding of the possible causes of the apparent characteristic ‘failures’ in second language acquisition (Montrul 2008). Spanish has a gender feature for nouns (Carroll 1989) and gender agreement for determiners and adjectives. Problems with the acquisition of gender marking on the noun and/or with gender agreement are well-known in the L2 literature (Hawkins 1998; Fernández–Garcia 1999; Franceschina 2001; Bruhn de Garavito and White ...


What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis Jun 2010

What Code-Mixed Dps Can Tell Us About Gender, Elena Valenzuela, Joyce Bruhn De Garavito, Ewelina Barski, Maria De Luna Villalón, Ana Faure, Yolanda Pangtay, Alma Ramírez Trujillo, Sonia Reis

Joyce Bruhn de Garavito

There has been a growing interest in the examination of the steady state of simultaneous bilinguals. An understanding of what leads to the possible weaknesses in the grammar of early bilinguals can contribute to our understanding of the possible causes of the apparent characteristic ‘failures’ in second language acquisition (Montrul 2008). Spanish has a gender feature for nouns (Carroll 1989) and gender agreement for determiners and adjectives. Problems with the acquisition of gender marking on the noun and/or with gender agreement are well-known in the L2 literature (Hawkins 1998; Fernández–Garcia 1999; Franceschina 2001; Bruhn de Garavito and White ...


Prediction Markets To Forecast Electricity Demand, Peter Cramton, Luciano De Castro Mar 2010

Prediction Markets To Forecast Electricity Demand, Peter Cramton, Luciano De Castro

Luciano I. de Castro

Forecasting electricity demand for future years is an essential step in resource planning. A common approach is for the system operator to predict future demand from the estimates of individual distribution companies. However, the predictions thus obtained may be of poor quality, since the reporting incentives are unclear. We propose a prediction market as a form of forecasting future demand for electricity. We describe how to implement a simple prediction market for continuous variables, using only contracts based on binary variables. We also discuss specific issues concerning the implementation of such a market.


The Impact Of Targeting Technology On Advertising Markets And Media Competition, Susan Athey, Joshua S. Gans Dec 2009

The Impact Of Targeting Technology On Advertising Markets And Media Competition, Susan Athey, Joshua S. Gans

Joshua S Gans

This paper examines the impact of geographic targeting technology on local advertising markets when local and general media outlets compete for readers. In a base case, it is demonstrated that when the general outlet adopts such technologies, this does not impact on advertising prices or profits as that outlet expands ad space to meet demand. When wasted impressions are costly or there are advertiser capacity constraints that create competition between outlets for advertisers, this conclusion changes and there is a positive return to targeting. This adoption is likely to adversely impact on local outlet profits.


Labor Productivity In The Informal Sector: Necessity Vs. Opportunity Firms, Mohammad Amin Dec 2009

Labor Productivity In The Informal Sector: Necessity Vs. Opportunity Firms, Mohammad Amin

Mohammad Amin

Differences between opportunity and necessity firms within the informal sector have long been debated. This paper revisits this debate using a new dataset of informal firms in three African countries. Focusing on average productivity of labor, a measure of firm efficiency, we find that it is much higher for opportunity compared with necessity firms. However, this difference between necessity and opportunity firms holds only within the sample of manufacturing firms. For firms in the service sector, there is no such difference.

[Data and Stata do files included]


Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria., Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria., Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Structure And Behavior: Experiments In Social Sciences, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Default Penalty As A Disciplinary And Selection Mechanism In Presence Of Multiple Equilibria, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Stem Cell Matching For Patients Of Mixed Race, Ted C. Bergstrom Dec 2009

Stem Cell Matching For Patients Of Mixed Race, Ted C. Bergstrom

Ted C Bergstrom

Patients with leukemia and other blood diseases stand a good chance of recovery and a return to normal life if they receive a stem cell transplant from a living donor. In the absence of a transplant, their survival prospects are grim. For a transplant to be successful, the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of the donor and recipient must be a close genetic match. To facilitate non-sibling matches, the developed nations of the world have set up national volunteer registries. The larges such registry is the NMDP (National Marrow Donor Program). We estimate the distribution of HLA types for individuals of ...


Freakonomics: Steven Levitt, Alfredo Bateman Dec 2009

Freakonomics: Steven Levitt, Alfredo Bateman

Alfredo Bateman

No abstract provided.


Felicidad Nacional Bruta (Fnb), Guillermo Arosemena Dec 2009

Felicidad Nacional Bruta (Fnb), Guillermo Arosemena

Guillermo Arosemena

No abstract provided.


Estimating The Impact Of The Death Penalty On Murder, John Donohue, Justin Wolfers Dec 2009

Estimating The Impact Of The Death Penalty On Murder, John Donohue, Justin Wolfers

John Donohue

No abstract provided.


Towards Extending The Equilibrium Of Discrimination In The Internet To Its Fringes, Matthias Bärwolff Dec 2009

Towards Extending The Equilibrium Of Discrimination In The Internet To Its Fringes, Matthias Bärwolff

Matthias Bärwolff

The core insight to the history of the dynamics of limitations, restrictions, and discriminations on the Internet is that they are largely a corollary to the futility of obtaining an entirely 'neutral' design of the Internet that is both robust and scalable. The question then is how to arrange the necessary volume of discriminations so as to obtain a design as value free as possible, for only such a design can be in line with the premise of stipulating no values other than (1) good order at large, and (2) the appreciation of the pursuit of local purposes by individuals ...


Separate And Unequal: The Effect Of Unequal Access To Employment-Based Health Insurance On Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual People, Michael A. Ash, Lee Badgett Dec 2009

Separate And Unequal: The Effect Of Unequal Access To Employment-Based Health Insurance On Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual People, Michael A. Ash, Lee Badgett

Lee Badgett

Employers’ standard practice of including legal spouses in health insurance is likely to place people in unmarried couples at a significant disadvantage for obtaining coverage. Data from married and unmarried couples in the Current Population Survey confirm that people with unmarried partners are two to three times more likely to lack health insurance than are people in married couples, even after controlling for factors that influence coverage. A requirement to provide the same benefits for partners as are provided to spouses would reduce the proportion of uninsured people in same-sex couples and different-sex couples by as much as 50%. We ...


Green Economics And Employment: Possibilities For Massachusetts, Robert Pollin Dec 2009

Green Economics And Employment: Possibilities For Massachusetts, Robert Pollin

Robert N Pollin

No abstract provided.


Green Recovery Since The American Recovery And Reinvestment Act (Arra), Robert Pollin Dec 2009

Green Recovery Since The American Recovery And Reinvestment Act (Arra), Robert Pollin

Robert N Pollin

No abstract provided.


Volatility Risk, Zhiguang Wang Dec 2009

Volatility Risk, Zhiguang Wang

Economics Commentator

No abstract provided.


Executive Incentives And Corporate Decisions: The Risk Management Channel, Jeremy O. Skog Dec 2009

Executive Incentives And Corporate Decisions: The Risk Management Channel, Jeremy O. Skog

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This paper provides evidence that insurance executives respond to their compensation incentives by adjusting observable risk-management policy variables – the reinsurance purchase decision, type of business conducted, and firm leverage. Executive incentives are modeled by the executive sensitivity of wealth to stock price (Delta) and stock volatility (Vega). Firms respond to increased executive incentives to bear risk by purchasing less reinsurance, but also conducting less business in long-tailed lines – a change which rewards the executive through increased market volatility. The cost of altering executive incentives to effect firm policy is much less than a similar change in firm structural variables.


Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow Dec 2009

Spillover Effects Of The Uninsured, Stacey Mcmorrow

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study seeks to determine the effects of the local uninsurance rate on the quality of care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries. While a great deal of research exists on the negative consequences of uninsurance for the uninsured, few studies have attempted to address the spillover effects of this population to the health care system in a local market. Theory suggests that a high local uninsurance rate in a market has the potential to cause a decrease in the shared quality of care provided to Medicare beneficiaries. It also suggests however that a higher uninsurance rate may result in increases in ...


Entre Chile Y Venezuela, Guillermo Arosemena Dec 2009

Entre Chile Y Venezuela, Guillermo Arosemena

Guillermo Arosemena

No abstract provided.


Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part I: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams, Barbara Constable, Helena Farrell, Brian C. Giggey, Chris Jennett, Zhujun Kong, Megan Plante, Ben Eli Webb, Deborah A. Zervas Dec 2009

Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part I: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams, Barbara Constable, Helena Farrell, Brian C. Giggey, Chris Jennett, Zhujun Kong, Megan Plante, Ben Eli Webb, Deborah A. Zervas

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

The Master Plan Committee for the town of Ludlow contracted with the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission (PVPC) to prepare a new Master Plan. PVPC engaged the Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning (LARP) at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to assist with a portion of the Master Plan work. This work included: executing analysis and assessment of existing community conditions, conducting a weekend visioning workshop, and developing land use scenarios for the purpose of providing concrete visualization of possible futures for the Town of Ludlow in 2030.


Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part Ii: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams Dec 2009

Town Of Ludlow Master Plan. Part Ii: Envisioning 2030, Rachael Cain, Euripedes De Oliveria, Paul W. Gagnon, Peter Gillo, Meredith Hill, Mark Kresge, Alyssa Larose, Walter Ramsey, Joshua Rickman, Sonya C. Smith, Ryan Wallace, Rebecca Williams

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

The Master Plan Committee for the town of Ludlow contracted with the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission (PVPC) to prepare a new Master Plan. PVPC engaged the Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning (LARP) at the University of Massachusetts Amherst to assist with a portion of the Master Plan work. This work included: executing analysis and assessment of existing community conditions, conducting a weekend visioning workshop, and developing land use scenarios for the purpose of providing concrete visualization of possible futures for the Town of Ludlow in 2030.


Who Is Responsible For The C-N-T Equation, Shyam Sunder Dec 2009

Who Is Responsible For The C-N-T Equation, Shyam Sunder

Shyam Sunder

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2009

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Index To Volume 20, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2009

Index To Volume 20, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Are Adjustment Clauses In Disclaimers Void As Against Public Policy?, Neil E. Harl Dec 2009

Are Adjustment Clauses In Disclaimers Void As Against Public Policy?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In a 2009 Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals case, Estate of Christiansen v. Commissioner,1 the issue of fractional or formula disclaimers was raised, with the Eighth Circuit confronted with the assertion by the Internal Revenue Service that “. . . such disclaimers should be categorically disqualified as against public policy.”2 The case involved the estate of a South Dakota rancher who had implemented a rather novel estate plan prior to her death.3 The appellate court upheld a bequest of property to a charitable foundation as a result of the daughter’s disclaimer in an amount that reflected the increased valuation ...


Legal Regimes And Political Particularism: An Assessment Of The "Legal Families" Theory From The Perspectives Of Comparative Law And Political Economy, John W. Cioffi, D. Gordon Smith Dec 2009

Legal Regimes And Political Particularism: An Assessment Of The "Legal Families" Theory From The Perspectives Of Comparative Law And Political Economy, John W. Cioffi, D. Gordon Smith

BYU Law Review

The “legal families” theory of corporate law and ownership structures pioneered by Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-deSilanes, Andrei Shleifer, and Robert Vishny provides one of the most influential accounts of why “law matters” in shaping economic organization and outcomes. However, the empirical bases and theoretical logic of the theory contain serious flaws and limitations. First, as has been pointed out by a number of critics engaged in this revision, the legal origins literature contains numerous problematic characterizations of substantive law that expose the serious problems of quantitative operationalization of legal rules as a mode of comparative legal analysis. Second, the ...