Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2002

Dissertations

Discipline
Institution
Keyword

Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Have Charter Schools Materialized Their Promise A Contrast Between Rhetoric And Reality, Mary Kay Kempker-Vandriel Dec 2002

Have Charter Schools Materialized Their Promise A Contrast Between Rhetoric And Reality, Mary Kay Kempker-Vandriel

Dissertations

Charter schools are a growing force in American education. Parents are demanding a choice in their child's public education. Are charter schools better than traditional public schools? Have charter schools kept their promise?

In the study regular public schools and charter schools were compared along five dimensions: (a) opportunity for learning and access to quality education, (b) innovative teaching methods and participative management, (c) teacher job satisfaction, (d) parent involvement, and (e) school accountability. Existing data from the 1999/2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) were analyzed with primarily chi-square tests and one t-test. These analyses provided results in ...


The Cultural Script Of Special Needs Adoption, George Grant, Jr. Dec 2002

The Cultural Script Of Special Needs Adoption, George Grant, Jr.

Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to examine special needs adoption from the perspective of the adoptive parents. Using the general guidelines of grounded theory, the study analyzed secondary data from a post-adoption program providing services to families who adopted special needs children. The data revealed that adoptive parents function under a cultural script of special needs adoption. The cultural script influences how families view themselves, the environment around them and how they decide to function as adoptive families. The study explains the cultural script, ways that professionals working in adoption can use that cultural script to support adoptive families ...


The Effects Of Group Size On Incentive Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis, Angelica C. Grindle Dec 2002

The Effects Of Group Size On Incentive Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis, Angelica C. Grindle

Dissertations

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of group size on incentive effectiveness using data obtained from incentive systems implemented in 13 companies. Other predictor variables included the organizational level targeted for improvement, long/short-term profitability type, company number, and length of exposure to the incentive system. The main dependent variable was the monthly score for each measure of performance. Three types of meaningful comparisons were defined for these data: (1) Between-Group - Within-Company comparisons in which a performance measure was in place in two or more units of an organization; (2) Between-Group - Across-Company comparisons in which a performance measure ...


Examining The Experiences Of Nontraditional Undergraduate Women: Pedagogy Versus Andragogy, Beverly Ann Hair Dec 2002

Examining The Experiences Of Nontraditional Undergraduate Women: Pedagogy Versus Andragogy, Beverly Ann Hair

Dissertations

Increasing numbers of nontraditional students, of whom many are women, are enrolling in two-year and four-year colleges and universities. The purpose ofthis study is to critically examine the experiences of nontraditional undergraduate women and their preferred learning environment--pedagogy vs. andragogy. Students were asked to respond to a variety of questions in order to reflect upon their preferred learning environment. The researcher looked for differences inthe experiences of 20 (ten Black and ten White) nontraditional female undergraduate college students within their respective institutions based on their race, socioeconomic background, age, and religious background. Also, the researcher focused on why these nontraditional ...


A Study Of The Leadership Preparedness Of U.S. Public University Chief Business Officers, Daniel J. Hurley Dec 2002

A Study Of The Leadership Preparedness Of U.S. Public University Chief Business Officers, Daniel J. Hurley

Dissertations

Despite the enormous role that Chief Business Officers (CBOs) play in administering the business and financial affairs of American public universities, little research has been conducted on their leadership preparedness. The primary objectives of this study were to assess the self-perceived preparedness of U.S. public university CBOs at the time they assumed their first position in the role, and to determine if specific factors could be associated with their overall preparedness.

With support from the National Association of College and University Business Officers, a survey was developed and mailed to the entire population of CBOs at four-year public universities ...


Perceptions Of A Prejudiced Campus: Institutional Antecedents And Personal Consequences For African-American Students, Brenda Taylor King Dec 2002

Perceptions Of A Prejudiced Campus: Institutional Antecedents And Personal Consequences For African-American Students, Brenda Taylor King

Dissertations

The present research consists of two studies designed to (a) identify those institutional characteristics that African-American students, themselves, consider to evaluate the campus environment of predominately White colleges and universities (PW'CUs). and (b) examine the relationship between African-American students' perceptions o f the campus environment at a PWCU (based on institutional characteristics) and their expectations of quality of life and academic achievement In Study One. African-American and White students at Western Michigan University and high school seniors at two public high schools completed the Campus Climate Survey, designed to identify the institutional characteristics to which African- American students spontaneously ...


Testing The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Therapy In The Treatment Of Acute Unipolar Depression, Jenifer M. Cullen Dec 2002

Testing The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Therapy In The Treatment Of Acute Unipolar Depression, Jenifer M. Cullen

Dissertations

The present study sought to investigate the clinical effectiveness of Behavioral Activation (BA) Therapy, the behavioral activation component of Beck's Cognitive Therapy (CT; Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). Seventeen adults seeking mental health services for Unipolar Depression were recruited from the Kalamazoo and Southwestern Michigan regions. All participants were randomly assigned to either (a) an Immediate Treatment Group, or (b) a waitlist control group, while both received 10 weeks o f BA therapy. Depressive symptomatology for both conditions were assessed at pretreatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, Ball, & Ranieri, 1996), the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV-Non-Patient Version (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997), and the Revised Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (RHRSD; Warren, 1996). It was hypothesized that at the completion of treatment, participants in both the immediate treatment and waitlist conditions would be significantly less depressed both on a self-report measure and on clinician ratings of severity of depression. It was further hypothesized that the waitlist participants would show no significant change during the waitlist period.


Economic Development And Social Diversity: The Origin And Composition Of A Systemic Growth Regime In Louisville, Kentucky, 1897-1933, John W. Mctighe Dec 2002

Economic Development And Social Diversity: The Origin And Composition Of A Systemic Growth Regime In Louisville, Kentucky, 1897-1933, John W. Mctighe

Dissertations

Between the years 1897 and 1933, a systemic growth regime controlled the urban development of Louisville, Kentucky. The city’s growth regime was created in response to changing national patterns of production resulting from industrialization, and was dedicated to both urban economic expansion, as well as internal political and social control. The growth regime functioned in an informal manner through the formal organizations of the city by co-opting selective representatives from the various economic, ethnic, and racial leadership pools of the city. As an informal entity, the growth regime achieved a high degree of urban hegemony and was a structural ...


Perspectives On Power: John F. Kennedy And U.S.-Middle East Relations, April R. Summitt Dec 2002

Perspectives On Power: John F. Kennedy And U.S.-Middle East Relations, April R. Summitt

Dissertations

A study of President John F. Kennedy's policy toward the Middle East illustrates the agency and unexpected power wielded by so-called "third world" countries during the Cold War era. In spite of careful planning in Washington, Middle East leaders often manipulated and directed Kennedy's approach to the region. Regional actors used American fears of Communism to gain increased financial aid, military support, and influence in the United Nations. Although seeming to submit to Western pressures in exchange for such support, these leaders played both superpowers against each other and shaped policy according to local needs. While this relationship ...


Teaching My Son To Be A Father: The Plight Of Unmarried Adolescent African American Fathers, Michael George Till Dec 2002

Teaching My Son To Be A Father: The Plight Of Unmarried Adolescent African American Fathers, Michael George Till

Dissertations

A quantitative research design was utilized to examine and understand the perceptions of fatherhood and manhood held by unmarried African American adolescent fathers. In face-to-face 60-90 minute interviews using a semistructured interview guide developed by the researcher, participants were asked open-ended questions to provide these young men with a voice and an opportunity to express their needs, support, neglect, understanding, and perception of how society views them and its impact on the functioning of the family unit. Using purposeful sampling, 10 unmarried African American adolescent fathers, located in the southwestern area of Michigan, were interviewed for data collection.

Interviews were ...


The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Group Therapy: Treating Comorbid Depression On A Specialized Inpatient Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Unit For Combat Veterans, Theodore P. Wright Dec 2002

The Effectiveness Of Behavioral Activation Group Therapy: Treating Comorbid Depression On A Specialized Inpatient Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Unit For Combat Veterans, Theodore P. Wright

Dissertations

The comorbidity of depression and PTSD has been shown to be relatively prevalent. Researchers have found a 70% lifetime prevalence o f comorbid PTSD and depression among combat veterans. This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral activation (BA) group treatment when administered to combat veterans with comorbid depression and PTSD in the residential treatment program at the Battle Creek Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Forty-five veterans participated in the study. Twenty-four veterans participated in a BA treatment group while in the treatment program. Twenty-one veterans attended the treatment program, but did not participate in the BA treatment group and served ...


Three Essays On Economic Reform: Effects On Human Development, Fertility, And Factor Shares, Khaled Ibrahim Abdel-Kader Dec 2002

Three Essays On Economic Reform: Effects On Human Development, Fertility, And Factor Shares, Khaled Ibrahim Abdel-Kader

Dissertations

This dissertation contains three essays on economic reform programs supported by the IMF and World Bank. Using appropriate theoretical and empirical models, we investigate the impact of reform on three aspects of economic development: (1) human development, (2) fertility, and (3) income shares of factors of production. In the first essay, we examine the long-run impact of reform on different measures o f human development and income. Empirical results show that reform has long-run positive impact on GDP per capita and measures of human development. However, worse initial macroeconomic conditions offset this impact. In the second essay, we examine the ...


The Relationship Between Insurance Type And Health Care Costs, Use And Choice Of Outpatient Provider, Dan-Alexandru Balan Dec 2002

The Relationship Between Insurance Type And Health Care Costs, Use And Choice Of Outpatient Provider, Dan-Alexandru Balan

Dissertations

The impact of insurance type on health care is a very important topic in health economics. This dissertation examines the relationship between insurance type and health care cost, use and outpatient provider choice using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. I examine separately three types of services: emergency, nonemergency hospital care and outpatient because the effect of insurance type on use may depend on the type of health care service provided. The insurance types analyzed are Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), private fee-for-service employer insurance, private fee-for-service non-employer insurance, government insurance and self insurance. For each service, individuals paying for health ...


A Comparison Of One-To-One And Small Group Instruction For Young Children With Autism: Focus On Effective Teaching And Behavior Management, Kathy Marie Bertsch Dec 2002

A Comparison Of One-To-One And Small Group Instruction For Young Children With Autism: Focus On Effective Teaching And Behavior Management, Kathy Marie Bertsch

Dissertations

Over the past two decades, research has focused on identifying successful instructional methods and appropriate programming for young children with autism. Much of this early research focused on the effectiveness of intensive one-to-one behavioral programs. Support for intensive one-to-one instruction for children with autism began a long-term debate over the effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of one-to-one instructional strategies for young children with autism. In response, researchers and educators began considering and studying small group instruction, a less restrictive alternative to intensive one-to-one instruction. While support is mounting for the use of small group instructional strategies, there continues to be limited ...


Substance Abuse Treatment: Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems And How These Beliefs Impact Treatment, Ann Crabb Aug 2002

Substance Abuse Treatment: Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems And How These Beliefs Impact Treatment, Ann Crabb

Dissertations

The treatment of substance abuse is an anomaly within the mental health field. Historically, the treatment of addicted people has relied more on the personal experiences of those who have recovered than empirical findings (Shaffer, 1987). The founding of Alcoholics Anonymous sparked the creation of a belief system regarding substance abuse and recovery that, despite contradictory research findings, remains strong today (McElrath, 1997). This study was conducted to explore the belief systems of both recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors today to determine what their beliefs are, how these beliefs were formed, and whether their belief system has changed over ...


Teachers' Perceptions Of School Safety, Safety-Based Changes, And Their Resultant Impact On School Climate: A Case Study, Laura L. Finley Aug 2002

Teachers' Perceptions Of School Safety, Safety-Based Changes, And Their Resultant Impact On School Climate: A Case Study, Laura L. Finley

Dissertations

In the last decade, several high-profile shootings in suburban school districts have drawn attention to the issue of school-based violence. Consequently, schools all over have responded in many ways. The literature reveals that many suburban and rural schools have adopted the same measures as have urban districts, despite the fact that their discipline and violence problems are qualitatively different. These responses have generally been punitive and technological in nature, rather than curricular or structural reforms. This has included institution of metal detectors, more restrictive student dress codes, zero tolerance laws and others. Some, though, have suggested that these responses may ...


Education, Social Security, And The Welfare State: Alternative Policy Choices In The United States And Germany, Karl G. Hokenmaier Aug 2002

Education, Social Security, And The Welfare State: Alternative Policy Choices In The United States And Germany, Karl G. Hokenmaier

Dissertations

Western welfare states have not all followed the same path in their social policy development. Still, certain similarities have been identified in the types and combinations of social insurance supported by specific groupings of these states. Titmuss (1974) described "three contrasting models or functions of social policy." Heclo (1985) argued "three broad groups of nations can be distinguished” with different models of social welfare policy. Esping-Andersen (1990) identified "three worlds of welfare capitalism," each with a unique social policy agenda and distinctive social insurance system. Education is typically not included with other social programs in depicting the policy profiles of ...


Social Anxiety: Attentional Bias In Reaction To Emotional Faces Before And After Participation In A College Level Public Speaking Course, Scott Walter Maieritsch Aug 2002

Social Anxiety: Attentional Bias In Reaction To Emotional Faces Before And After Participation In A College Level Public Speaking Course, Scott Walter Maieritsch

Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of a semester-long public speaking course in reducing the self-reported levels of communication anxiety and social anxiety among college students enrolled in such a course. The current study also sought to replicate and extend a recent line of research that has demonstrated that highly socially anxious individuals show an attentional bias away from emotional faces under conditions of social-evaluative threat. The current study extended this line of research by conducting the same reaction time procedure with participants in a pretest/post-test design. The project was designed to determine if groups (rating high ...


A Foundation For Democratic Transition: The Evolution Of Korean Civil Society 1972-1987, Sukhee Lee Aug 2002

A Foundation For Democratic Transition: The Evolution Of Korean Civil Society 1972-1987, Sukhee Lee

Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to explain the evolutionary process of Korean civil society throughout the 1970s and 1980s as a foundation for democratization. I argue that the changing character of civil society in the mid-1980s was a necessary condition for democratic transition in 1987. Thus, this study focuses on how an ineffective civil society became sufficiently effective to be a deciding factor in Korea’s democratic transition, and seeks to define what factors led to the change. In the process of development of civil society, several factors, such as political culture, economic development, political opportunity structure, and the external environment, affected ...


Ideology Or Insanity? Media Presentation Of Ted Kaczynski And Tim Mcveigh, Matthew P. Sheptoski Aug 2002

Ideology Or Insanity? Media Presentation Of Ted Kaczynski And Tim Mcveigh, Matthew P. Sheptoski

Dissertations

This dissertation explores mainstream media presentation of two convicted murderers: Theodore J. Kaczynski, otherwise known as "The Unabomber," and Timothy J. McVeigh, found guilty of the 1995 destruction of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. More specifically, I analyze The New York Times's and Time's presentation of these two actors in order to assess whether their acts were attributed to political and ideological motivation or psychological abnormality and mental illness. Quantitative and qualitative findings indicate that Kaczynski's crimes were more likely to be attributed to psychological abnormality and mental illness, while McVeigh's crimes were ...


Why Religious People Believe What They Shouldn't: Explaining Theological Incorrectness In South Asia And America, D. Jason Slone Aug 2002

Why Religious People Believe What They Shouldn't: Explaining Theological Incorrectness In South Asia And America, D. Jason Slone

Dissertations

Cross-cultural descriptions of religious thought and behavior in South Asia and America show that people commonly hold ideas and perform actions that seem to be not only conceptually incoherent but also “theologically incorrect” by the standards of their own traditions. For example. South Asian Theravada Buddhists are taught that the historical Buddha is unavailable because he attained enlightenment and achieved parinirvana (“complete extinction”) and yet conceptually and ritually represent him as if he is present and available for petition. Similarly, American Protestants represent the Christian God as having absolute divine sovereignty and yet reveal confidence in an inner locus of ...


Family Structure And Attachment And Their Role In Reducing Delinquency In The African American Family, Kiesha Warren Aug 2002

Family Structure And Attachment And Their Role In Reducing Delinquency In The African American Family, Kiesha Warren

Dissertations

The study uses data from the over sampling of African American youth (4,808) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore the relationship between family structure, attachment and their role in reducing delinquency. Using theelement of attachment from Hirschi’s (1969) social control theory, this study examines the historical development of the various family structures and the role attachment plays in reducing delinquency in those family structures. The study uses structural equation modeling to test this hypothesis. This study shows that when attachment is present regardless of the family structure delinquency will be reduced.


What Have They Told Us About Gangs? A Content Analysis Of Twentieth Century Texts On U.S. Gangs, Douglas Lee Gilbertson Jun 2002

What Have They Told Us About Gangs? A Content Analysis Of Twentieth Century Texts On U.S. Gangs, Douglas Lee Gilbertson

Dissertations

Inspired by a scholarly desire to understand and explain things, formal theoretical explanations for the social problem of gangs have been around just about as long as gangs themselves. This is an inductive content analysis of the texts within twentieth century works explaining gangs. This study explores those explanations as social artifacts and analyzes the text within them in order to identify textual similarities. This is accomplished by consolidating codified text or words until typologies of abstract theoretical concepts are revealed. The purpose of this study is to identify probable causal factors for gang formation and gang joining behavior that ...


Assessment N>E Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Mdma, "Ecstasy") And (+Lysergic Add Diethylamide (Lsd) In A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Procedure, Amy K. Goodwin Jun 2002

Assessment N>E Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Mdma, "Ecstasy") And (+Lysergic Add Diethylamide (Lsd) In A Three-Lever Drug Discrimination Procedure, Amy K. Goodwin

Dissertations

(±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a common drug of abuse known as "ecstasy." Currently, MDMA is classified into the traditional drug classes as both a "stimulant" and a "hallucinogen" because it is reported to share both subjective and physiological properties of both classes. MDMA is thought to produce its psychoactive effects by acting as both a serotonin and a dopamine agonist. However, the relative importance of the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems in mediating the stimulus properties of MDMA remains unclear.

The drug discrimination assay is used to classify drugs as "similar" or "dissimilar," as well as to examine underlying neurochemical ...


Factors Predicting Distress At Marital Therapy Onset, Joseph J.H. Horak Jun 2002

Factors Predicting Distress At Marital Therapy Onset, Joseph J.H. Horak

Dissertations

Higher levels of distress at marital therapy onset predict poorer treatment outcomes in several studies. This study selected nine variables to determine their ability to predict distress at marital therapy onset. The first two predictor variables, shame (measured by the Internalized Shame Scale; Cook, 2000) and expressive atmosphere in the family of origin (measured by the Family of Origin Expressive Atmosphere Scale; Yelsma, Hovestadt, Anderson, & Nilsson, 2000), were chosen from the literature and studies that considered these variables to be related to marital distress. The remaining seven sociodemographic predictor variables—(1) parental divorce as a child, (2) pregnancy before marriage, (3) number of children, (4) combined gross income, (5) premarital cohabitation, (6) length of courtship, and (7) length of marriage—were selected from studies that identified their ability to predict divorce. The dependent variable was marital distress (measured by levels of dyadic adjustment on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale; Spanier, 1989). The sample consisted of 38 subjects, 18 males and 20 females, that were beginning marital therapy. A multiple regression analysis utilizing a stepwise forward decision model was conducted, which resulted in four variables ...


Self-Control Training In Young Children, Laura Kay Murray Jun 2002

Self-Control Training In Young Children, Laura Kay Murray

Dissertations

The incidence of conduct and behavioral disorders is steadily on the rise. Externalizing problems in the preschool years are considerable predictors of problems in later childhood, and even adulthood. There is a growing need for effective prevention programs for young children that can be implemented in school environments. Prevention efforts with young children often focus on self-control training for the reduction of impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity is an early presenting behavior pattern that can lead to a variety of disorders. The present study had two goals: (1) to measure the effects of a package intervention containing cognitive and behavioral treatment techniques ...


A Study Of The Counseling Practices Of Wesleyan Pastors, Kurt A. Stevens Jun 2002

A Study Of The Counseling Practices Of Wesleyan Pastors, Kurt A. Stevens

Dissertations

Little is known about the counseling practices of Wesleyan ministers. The primary goal of this study was to provide a detailed description of what pastoral counseling consists of for Wesleyan pastors. The study examined the most common and most troubling counseling issues, the extent to which pastors felt qualified and comfortable providing pastoral counseling, the ability of pastors to counsel parishioners presenting with various issues (e.g., divorce, death, abuse, parenting), the timing of referrals and to whom referred, the number of parishioners currently counseling, the location and time of counseling sessions, and the number of counseling courses taken and ...


The Link Between Smoking And Body Weight Among Adolescents, Tracey Barnett Jun 2002

The Link Between Smoking And Body Weight Among Adolescents, Tracey Barnett

Dissertations

Trends in smoking rates among adolescents indicate that white females generally smoke more than their adolescent counterparts, the only substance in which this occurs. Another trend in which white females far outnumber any other adolescent group is eating disorders. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and perception of weight among adolescents. A logistic regression model was constructed to test the relationship using the Adolescent Health Public Dataset. For females, there was a link between cigarette smoking and perception of overweight which was not found among the males. Similarly, white females had a significantly higher rate ...


Organizational Alignment: A Tool For Obtaining Greater Organizational Efficiency And Effectiveness In A State Government Agency, Patricia A. Collins Apr 2002

Organizational Alignment: A Tool For Obtaining Greater Organizational Efficiency And Effectiveness In A State Government Agency, Patricia A. Collins

Dissertations

This study focuses on the modem day use of TQM, reengineering and privatization initiatives to gain efficiency and effectiveness in government operations, and the impact of alignment on the successful implementation of these three initiatives. A large state government agency which is currently using TQM, reengineering and privatization was used as a case study. Two-hundred-and-twenty-four employees were voluntary participants. This study examined three research questions: 1. Could the level of alignment, as hypothesized by Labovitz and Rosansky, be replicated with a sample of public agency employees? 2. Is the agency aligned, based on the Labovitz and Rosansky model, to successfully ...


Demographic Factors Predictive Of Medicaid Enrollment In Michigan Counties, Dale Kennedy Howe Apr 2002

Demographic Factors Predictive Of Medicaid Enrollment In Michigan Counties, Dale Kennedy Howe

Dissertations

Recent changes in administration of the Medicaid program make it imperative that local agencies improve their ability to forecast demand for Medicaid services. In October of 1998 the State of Michigan redesigned the Medicaid specialty care in Michigan from a fee-for-service system to a capitated system. In a capitated healthcare system, financial risk is a result of unanticipated changes in the population size and mix. Numerous demographic factors, such as crime, population, unemployment, median age, income, and ethnicity may be used to improve the accuracy of predicted changes in enrollment for Medicaid. Using naive ordinary least squares models as the ...