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2002

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Articles 1 - 30 of 262

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

On Computing Condensed Frequent Pattern Bases, Jian Pei, Guozhu Dong, Wei Zou, Jiawei Han Dec 2002

On Computing Condensed Frequent Pattern Bases, Jian Pei, Guozhu Dong, Wei Zou, Jiawei Han

Kno.e.sis Publications

Frequent pattern mining has been studied extensively. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of this mining is often limited, since the number of frequent patterns generated is often too large. In many applications it is sufficient to generate and examine only frequent patterns with support frequency in close-enough approximation instead of in full precision. Such a compact but close-enough frequent pattern base is called a condensed frequent patterns-base.

In this paper, we propose and examine several alternatives at the design, representation, and implementation of such condensed frequent pattern-bases. A few algorithms for computing such pattern-bases are proposed. Their effectiveness at pattern ...


Web Service Technologies And Their Synergy With Simulation, Senthilanand Chandrasekaran, Gregory S. Silver, John A. Miller, Jorge Cardoso, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2002

Web Service Technologies And Their Synergy With Simulation, Senthilanand Chandrasekaran, Gregory S. Silver, John A. Miller, Jorge Cardoso, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

The World Wide Web has had a huge influence on the computing field in general as well as simulation in particular (e.g., Web-Based Simulation). A new wave of development based upon XML has started. Two of the most interesting aspects of this development are the Semantic Web and Web Services. This paper examines the synergy between Web service technology and simulation. In one direction, Web service processes can be simulated for the purpose of correcting/improving the design. In the other direction, simulation models/components can be built out of Web services. Work on seamlessly using simulation as a ...


The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Measures Of Cost-Effectiveness, Hongli Feng Dec 2002

The Dynamics Of Carbon Sequestration And Measures Of Cost-Effectiveness, Hongli Feng

CARD Working Papers

The cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration alternatives has often been discussed in the economics literature on sequestration. Average or marginal costs and annual carbon supply curves are often used as measures of cost-effectiveness. Sequestration is inherently a temporal process and how time is accounted for in the various measures of cost-effectiveness is critical for appropriate cross-study comparisons. I examine three factors that affect the magnitude of measured cost-effectiveness: the study period, the sequestration path, and the discount rate if discounting is used. The extent to which these factors affect the consistency of cross-study comparisons is empirically illustrated.


Introduction To Special Issue On Radiation Effects, P. Andrew Karam Dec 2002

Introduction To Special Issue On Radiation Effects, P. Andrew Karam

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "How dangerous is radiation? How much radiation does it take to give us cancer? Are we wasting money on overly restrictive regulations, or are we not being sufficiently protective of our radiation workers and the public? How much clean-up is necessary on our Department of Energy facilities? What about Yucca Mountain and nuclear reactor plants – can they be made safe?

These are only a few of the questions that have been asked, and will continue to be asked, about radiation. Unfortunately, these all come down, in part or in whole, to the question “What is the shape of the ...


Effects Of The Shape Of The Radiation Dose-Response Curve On Public Acceptance Of Radiation And Nuclear Energy, Audeen W. Fentiman Dec 2002

Effects Of The Shape Of The Radiation Dose-Response Curve On Public Acceptance Of Radiation And Nuclear Energy, Audeen W. Fentiman

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “The public generally accepts the premise that exposure to radiation can have an undesirable effect. Furthermore, it believes that as the radiation dose increases, the magnitude of the effect will increase. On the other hand, while the background radiation dose varies from a few hundred millirem/year (a few millisieverts/yr) in some places to a few thousand millirem/yr (tens of millisieverts/yr) in others, researchers have been unable to find a correlation between the level of background radiation and incidence of cancer or other maladies attributable to radiation.

Because there is considerable controversy about the relationship between ...


News From Cart, Michael A. Krol, Julia Stakhnevich Dec 2002

News From Cart, Michael A. Krol, Julia Stakhnevich

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Conflicts In The Use And Development Of Geographic Information Systems, Amber Bethell Dec 2002

Evaluating Conflicts In The Use And Development Of Geographic Information Systems, Amber Bethell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Use of geographic information systems is increasing in governments, commercial companies, and by individual users. With such pervasive use of GIs there has been surprisingly little investigation of the values that various parties would support in the development of geographic technologies. There are many parties involved in the use of GIs each with opinions of what are good goals for developing and using such systems. This research seeks to determine differences and similarities among parties in the importance placed on supporting specific societal goals germane to the use of geographic technologies and databases. Previous research determined six areas where the ...


Modeling Boundaries Of Influence Among Positional Uncertainty Fields, Joshua P. King Dec 2002

Modeling Boundaries Of Influence Among Positional Uncertainty Fields, Joshua P. King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Within a CIS environment, the proper use of information requires the identification of the uncertainty associated with it. As such, there has been a substantial amount of research dedicated to describing and quantifying spatial data uncertainty. Recent advances in sensor technology and image analysis techniques are making image-derived geospatial data increasingly popular. Along with development in sensor and image analysis technologies have come departures from conventional point-by-point measurements. Current advancements support the transition from traditional point measures to novel techniques that allow the extraction of complex objects as single entities (e.g., road outlines, buildings). As the methods of data ...


Applications Of Underground Structures For The Protection Of Critical Infrastructure, George H. Baker, Richard G. Little, Don A. Linger Nov 2002

Applications Of Underground Structures For The Protection Of Critical Infrastructure, George H. Baker, Richard G. Little, Don A. Linger

George H Baker

The U.S. President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), convened in the wake of the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, concluded that the nation’s physical security and economic security depend on our critical energy, communications, and computer infrastructures. While a primary motivating event for the establishment of the commission was the catastrophic physical attack of the Murrah Building, it is ironic that the commission focused its attention primarily on cyber threats. Their rationale was that cyber vulnerabilities posed a new, unaddressed challenge to infrastructure security. This approach was further questioned by the events ...


Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (Scada) Systems, George H. Baker, Allan Berg Nov 2002

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (Scada) Systems, George H. Baker, Allan Berg

George H Baker

Our critical national infrastructure systems have become almost universally dependent upon computer-based control systems technically referred to as supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. SCADA systems evolved from the telemetry and event-alarm systems developed in the early days of utilities. With the widespread use of SCADA systems, computers have become the "basis element" for much of our critical infrastructure. Thus, the disruption of controlling computer terminals and networks due to natural disasters, electric power failure, accidents or malicious activity can have catastrophic consequences.


On Adaptive Emergence Of Trust Behavior In The Game Of Stag Hunt, Christina H Fang, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Stefano Pace, Annapurna Valluri, Zhiqiang Zheng Nov 2002

On Adaptive Emergence Of Trust Behavior In The Game Of Stag Hunt, Christina H Fang, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Stefano Pace, Annapurna Valluri, Zhiqiang Zheng

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We study the emergence of trust behavior at both the individual and the population levels. At the individual level, in contrast to prior research that views trust as fixed traits, we model the emergence of trust or cooperation as a result of trial and error learning by a computer algorithm borrowed from the field of artificial intelligence (Watkins 1989). We show that trust can indeed arise as a result of trial and error learning. Emergence of trust at the population level is modeled by a grid-world consisting of cells of individual agents, a technique known as spatialization in evolutionary game ...


Alternative Intertemporal Permit Trading Regimes With Stochastic Abatement Costs, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao Nov 2002

Alternative Intertemporal Permit Trading Regimes With Stochastic Abatement Costs, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao

CARD Working Papers

We examine the social efficiency of alternative intertemporal permit trading regimes. Banking with a 1-to-1 ratio and with a non-unitary intertemporal trading ratio (ITR) are compared with each other and with the no-banking permit trading regime. The more industry-wide shocks vary, and/or the more they are negatively correlated across time, the more efficient is a bankable permit regime. When the slope of the benefit function is greater than the slope of the damage function, banking with ITR=1+r is more efficient than a no-banking regime. Banking with ITR=1 can be more efficient than a no-banking regime. However ...


The Value Of Accurate, Field-Scale, Soil Carbon Assessment Technology: Conservation Tillage In Iowa, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Catherine L. Kling, J. Zhao Nov 2002

The Value Of Accurate, Field-Scale, Soil Carbon Assessment Technology: Conservation Tillage In Iowa, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Catherine L. Kling, J. Zhao

CARD Presentations

No abstract provided.


Constructive Criticism, Ronald C. Serlin Nov 2002

Constructive Criticism, Ronald C. Serlin

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Attempts to attain knowledge as certified true belief have failed to circumvent Hume’s injunction against induction. Theories must be viewed as unprovable, improbable, and undisprovable. The empirical basis is fallible, and yet the method of conjectures and refutations is untouched by Hume’s insights. The implications for statistical methodology is that the requisite severity of testing is achieved through the use of robust procedures, whose assumptions have not been shown to be substantially violated, to test predesignated range null hypotheses. Nonparametric range null hypothesis tests need to be developed to examine whether or not effect sizes or measures of ...


Extensions Of The Concept Of Exchangeability And Their Applications, Phillip I. Good Nov 2002

Extensions Of The Concept Of Exchangeability And Their Applications, Phillip I. Good

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Permutation tests provide exact p-values in a wide variety of practical testing situations. But permutation tests rely on the assumption of exchangeability, that is, under the hypothesis, the joint distribution of the observations is invariant under permutations of the subscripts. Observations are exchangeable if they are independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.), or if they are jointly normal with identical covariances. The range of applications of these exact, powerful, distribution-free tests can be enlarged through exchangeability- preserving transforms, asymptotic exchangeability, partial exchangeability, and weak exchangeability. Original exact tests for comparing the slopes of two regression lines and for the analysis ...


Twenty Nonparametric Statistics And Their Large Sample Approximations, Gail F. Fahoome Nov 2002

Twenty Nonparametric Statistics And Their Large Sample Approximations, Gail F. Fahoome

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Nonparametric procedures are often more powerful than classical tests for real world data which are rarely normally distributed. However, there are difficulties in using these tests. Computational formulas are scattered throughout the literature, and there is a lack of availability of tables and critical values. The computational formulas for twenty commonly employed nonparametric tests that have large-sample approximations for the critical value are brought together. Because there is no generally agreed upon lower limit for the sample size, Monte Carlo methods were used to determine the smallest sample size that can be used with the respective large-sample approximation. The statistics ...


Adaptive Tests For Ordered Categorical Data, Vance W. Berger, Anastasia Ivanova Nov 2002

Adaptive Tests For Ordered Categorical Data, Vance W. Berger, Anastasia Ivanova

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Consider testing for independence against stochastic order in an ordered 2xJ contingency table, under product multinomial sampling. In applications one may wish to exploit prior information concerning the direction of the treatment effect, yet ultimately end up with a testing procedure with good frequentist properties. As such, a reasonable objective may be to simultaneously maximize power at a specified alternative and ensure reasonable power for all other alternatives of interest. For this objective, none of the available testing approaches are completely satisfactory. A new class of admissible adaptive tests is derived. Each test in this class strictly preserves the Type ...


A Test Of Symmetry, Abdul R. Othman, H. J. Keselman, Rand R. Wilcox, Katherine Fradette, A. R. Padmanabhan Nov 2002

A Test Of Symmetry, Abdul R. Othman, H. J. Keselman, Rand R. Wilcox, Katherine Fradette, A. R. Padmanabhan

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

When data are nonnormal in form classical procedures for assessing treatment group equality are prone to distortions in rates of Type I error and power to detect effects. Replacing the usual means with trimmed means reduces rates of Type I error and increases sensitivity to detect effects. If data are skewed, say to the right, then it has been postulated that asymmetric trimming, to the right, should be better at controlling rates of Type I error and power to detect effects than symmetric trimming from both tails of the data distribution. Keselman, Wilcox, Othman and Fradette (2002) found that Babu ...


A Comparison Of The D’Agostino S_U Test To The Triples Test For Testing Of Symmetry Versus Asymmetry As A Preliminary Test To Testing The Equality Of Means, Kimberly T. Perry, Michael R. Stoline Nov 2002

A Comparison Of The D’Agostino S_U Test To The Triples Test For Testing Of Symmetry Versus Asymmetry As A Preliminary Test To Testing The Equality Of Means, Kimberly T. Perry, Michael R. Stoline

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

This paper evaluates the D’Agostino SU test and the Triples test for testing symmetry versus asymmetry. These procedures are evaluated as preliminary tests in the selection of the most appropriate procedure for testing the equality of means with two independent samples under a variety of symmetric and asymmetric sampling situations. Key words: symmetry; asymmetry; preliminary testing.


On The Estimation Of Binomial Success Probability With Zero Occurrence In Sample, Mehdi Razzaghi Nov 2002

On The Estimation Of Binomial Success Probability With Zero Occurrence In Sample, Mehdi Razzaghi

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The problem of estimating the probability of a rare event when the sample shows no incidence of the event is considered. Several methodologies based on various statistical techniques are described and their relative performances are investigated. A decision theoretic approach for estimation of response probability when the sample contains zero responses is examined in depth. The properties of each method are discussed and an example from teratology is used to provide illustration and to demonstrate the results.


Null Distribution Of The Likelihood Ratio Statistic For Feed-Forward Neural Networks, Douglas Landsittel, Harshinder Singh, Vincent C. Arena, Stewart J. Anderson Nov 2002

Null Distribution Of The Likelihood Ratio Statistic For Feed-Forward Neural Networks, Douglas Landsittel, Harshinder Singh, Vincent C. Arena, Stewart J. Anderson

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Despite recent publications exploring model complexity with modern regression methods, their dimensionality is rarely quantified in practice and the distributions of related test statistics are not well characterized. Through a simulation study, we describe the null distribution of the likelihood ratio statistic for several different feed-forward neural network models.


A Simulation Study Of The Impact Of Forecast Recovery For Control Charts Applied To Arma Processes, John N. Dyer, B. Michael Adams, Michael D. Conerly Nov 2002

A Simulation Study Of The Impact Of Forecast Recovery For Control Charts Applied To Arma Processes, John N. Dyer, B. Michael Adams, Michael D. Conerly

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Forecast-based schemes are often used to monitor autocorrelated processes, but the resulting forecast recovery has a significant effect on the performance of control charts. This article describes forecast recovery for autocorrelated processes, and the resulting simulation study is used to explain the performance of control charts applied to forecast errors.


Determining Predictor Importance In Multiple Regression Under Varied Correlational And Distributional Conditions, Tiffany A. Whittaker, Rachel T. Fouladi, Natasha J. Williams Nov 2002

Determining Predictor Importance In Multiple Regression Under Varied Correlational And Distributional Conditions, Tiffany A. Whittaker, Rachel T. Fouladi, Natasha J. Williams

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

This study examines the performance of eight methods of predictor importance under varied correlational and distributional conditions. The proportion of times a method correctly identified the dominant predictor was recorded. Results indicated that the new methods of importance proposed by Budescu (1993) and Johnson (2000) outperformed commonly used importance methods.


Robust Estimation Of Multivariate Failure Data With Time-Modulated Frailty, Pingfu Fu, J. Sunil Rao, Jiming Jiang Nov 2002

Robust Estimation Of Multivariate Failure Data With Time-Modulated Frailty, Pingfu Fu, J. Sunil Rao, Jiming Jiang

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

A time-modulated frailty model is proposed for analyzing multivariate failure data. The effect of frailties, which may not be constant over time, is discussed. We assume a parametric model for the baseline hazard, but avoid the parametric assumption for the frailty distribution. The well-known connection between survival times and Poisson regression model is used. The parameters of interest are estimated by generalized estimating equations (GEE) or by penalized GEE. Simulation studies show that the procedure is successful to detect the effect of time-modulated frailty. The method is also applied to a placebo controlled randomized clinical trial of gamma interferon, a ...


Accounting For Non-Independent Observations In 2×2 Tables, With Application To Correcting For Family Clustering In Exposure-Risk Relationship Studies, Leslie A. Kalsih, Katherine A. Riester, Stuart J. Pocock Nov 2002

Accounting For Non-Independent Observations In 2×2 Tables, With Application To Correcting For Family Clustering In Exposure-Risk Relationship Studies, Leslie A. Kalsih, Katherine A. Riester, Stuart J. Pocock

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Participants in epidemiologic studies may not represent statistically independent observations. We consider modifications to conventional analyses of 2×2 tables, including Fisher’s exact test and confidence intervals, to account for correlated observations in this setting. An example is provided, assessing the robustness of conclusions from a published analysis.


The Statistical Modeling Of The Fertility Of Chinese Women, Dudley L. Poston Jr. Nov 2002

The Statistical Modeling Of The Fertility Of Chinese Women, Dudley L. Poston Jr.

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

This article is concerned with the statistical modeling of children ever born (CEB) fertility data. It is shown that in a low fertility population, such as China, the use of linear regression approaches to model CEB is statistically inappropriate because the distribution of the CEB variable is often heavily skewed with a long right tail. For five sub-groups of Chinese women, their fertility is modeled using Poisson, negative binomial, and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. It is shown that in almost all instances there would have been major errors of statistical inference had the interpretations of the results been ...


Combining Quantum Mechanical Calculations And A Χ^2 Fit In A Potential Energy Function For The Co_2 + O^+ Reaction, Ellen F. Sawilowsky Nov 2002

Combining Quantum Mechanical Calculations And A Χ^2 Fit In A Potential Energy Function For The Co_2 + O^+ Reaction, Ellen F. Sawilowsky

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

In order to compute a highly accurate statistical rate constant for the CO2 + O+ reaction, it is necessary to first calculate the potential energy of the system at many different geometric configurations. Quantum mechanical calculations are very time-consuming, making it difficult to obtain a sufficient number to allow for accurate interpolation. The number of quantum mechanical calculations required can be significantly reduced by using known relations in classical physics to calculate energy for configurations where the oxygen is relatively far from the CO2. A chi-squared fit to quantum mechanical points is obtained for these configurations, and the resulting parameters are ...


A Longitudinal Follow-Up Of Discrete Mass At Zero With Gap, Joseph L. Musial, Patrick D. Bridge, Nicol R. Shamey Nov 2002

A Longitudinal Follow-Up Of Discrete Mass At Zero With Gap, Joseph L. Musial, Patrick D. Bridge, Nicol R. Shamey

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The first part of this paper discusses a five-year systematic review of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology following the landmark power study conducted by Sawilowsky and Hillman (1992). The second part discusses a five-year longitudinal follow-up of a radically nonnormal population distribution: discrete mass at zero with gap. This distribution was based upon a real dataset.


Exploration Of Distributions Of Ratio Of Partial Sum Of Sample Eigenvalues When All Population Eigenvalues Are The Same, Moonseong Heo Nov 2002

Exploration Of Distributions Of Ratio Of Partial Sum Of Sample Eigenvalues When All Population Eigenvalues Are The Same, Moonseong Heo

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

This paper explores empirically the first two moments of ratio of the partial sum of the first two sample eigenvalues to the sum of all eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues of a covariance matrix are all the same. Estimation of the first two moments can be practically crucial in assessing non-randomness of observed patterns on planar graphical displays based on lower rank approximations of data matrices. For derivation of the moments, exact and large sample asymptotic distributions of the sample ratios are reviewed but neither can be applicable to derivation of the moments. Therefore, I rely on simulations, where data ...


Double Median Ranked Set Sample: Comparing To Other Double Ranked Samples For Mean And Ratio Estimators, Hani M. Samawi, Eman M. Tawalbeh Nov 2002

Double Median Ranked Set Sample: Comparing To Other Double Ranked Samples For Mean And Ratio Estimators, Hani M. Samawi, Eman M. Tawalbeh

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Double median ranked set sample (DMRSS) and its properties for estimating the population mean, when the underlying distribution is assumed to be symmetric about its mean, are introduced. Also, the performance of DMRSS with respect to other ranked set samples and double ranked set samples, for estimating the population mean and ratio, is considered. Real data that consist of heights and diameters of 399 trees are used to illustrate the procedure. The analysis and simulation indicate that using DMRSS for estimating the population mean is more efficient than using the other ranked samples and double ranked samples schemes except in ...