Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 83

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Toward An Integrated, Whole Community Model Of Dropout Prevention, Michael Baizerman, Donald Compton Jul 1997

Toward An Integrated, Whole Community Model Of Dropout Prevention, Michael Baizerman, Donald Compton

Partnerships/Community

As part of a statewide evaluation of dropout prevention programs in Virginia, survey data were collected statewide from school district dropout prevention coordinators. Ninety-four of the 103 school divisions (91 %) receiving state funds for dropout prevention responded to the survey. In addition, school staff were interviewed as part of a case study of seven schools to identify approaches to improving parent and community involvement, and focus groups were conducted with community agency representatives and parents. The interview data were analyzed using Joyce Epstein's model (see Table I) which organizes practical actions and likely outcomes for five types of parent ...


Empowerment In Student Teaching Through Community Service Learning, Rahima C. Wade Jul 1997

Empowerment In Student Teaching Through Community Service Learning, Rahima C. Wade

Higher Education

The student teaching experience is probably the most influential phase of preservice teachers' development within a teacher education program (Burstein, 1992; Griffin, 1989). In particular, the relationship between the cooperating teacher and student teacher plays a critical role in student teachers' success. Preservice teachers are generally instructed to "do as I do" by their cooperating teachers. Thus, student teachers often find little opportunity to try out strategies they have learned in their university methods courses unless the practices are already in place in cooperating teachers' classrooms. In addition, few researchers have attempted to discern how to enhance preservice teachers' abilities ...


Everyday Democracy: A Study Of Two Teachers' Perspectives On Social Education, Elaine Metherall Brenneman Jul 1997

Everyday Democracy: A Study Of Two Teachers' Perspectives On Social Education, Elaine Metherall Brenneman

Dissertation and Thesis

As a nation, we are concerned about the values our children learn in school. Opinions regarding the appropriate educational content and strategies to sustain and improve our democratic country span the political spectrum. The social studies, a field dedicated to the development of good citizens, is especially concerned with values issues in education. Research on citizenship education has primarily focused its interest in the development and assessment of appropriate content and teaching strategies. An important, though often neglected, aspect of social education research is the investigation of teacher perspectives. This study suggests that who a teacher is, what she knows ...


Educational Policy Through Service Learning: Preparation For Citizenship And Civic Participation, Susan G. Forman, Louise C. Wilkinson Jul 1997

Educational Policy Through Service Learning: Preparation For Citizenship And Civic Participation, Susan G. Forman, Louise C. Wilkinson

Civic Engagement

This article describes a course designed to prepare undergraduate students to participate effectively in civic life and in public decisions about education and schooling. The course includes an examination of the theoretical and conceptual basics of civic responsibility and service learning, and a review of the process of educational policy making, and an in·depth exploration of a number of current educational policy issues. The course is taught with service learning pedagogy. Experiences in a service placement yield personal knowledge that has the potential to inform students' critical analysis of theoretical, research, and policy literature and to make students more ...


Beyond 4-H Community Service... To Community Service Learning, Allan T. Smith Jun 1997

Beyond 4-H Community Service... To Community Service Learning, Allan T. Smith

Service Learning, General

For more than 70 years Community Service has been an important part of 4-H. So has hands-on, learning-by-doing, that we now call experiential learning. When you put those two ideas together appropriately, the result goes beyond a "feel good" experience: service activities tied closely to what youth are learning positively impact learning, and genuinely help the community.


Individuals With Disabilities Performing Service Topic Bibliography, Robin Vue Benson, Robert D. Shumer, Madeleine S. Hengel, Craig Hollander Jun 1997

Individuals With Disabilities Performing Service Topic Bibliography, Robin Vue Benson, Robert D. Shumer, Madeleine S. Hengel, Craig Hollander

Bibliographies

Disabled and special needs populations have frequently been the beneficiaries of service-learning programs. In this revised version of an earlier introduction to service-learning and special needs individuals we add new studies that illustrate the use of service for disabled individuals as both recipients and deliverers of program activity. Our goal is to provide information on the value of service for special needs populations and programs.

The items in this bibliography were obtained through searches of the ERIC database, our own collection of material, and selected websites dealing with special needs programs. These searches have significantly expanded the number of items ...


Civic Works, Inc. The Environmental And Pal After School Mentoring Teams - Final Evaluation Report, Allison H. Fine, Jim Baird May 1997

Civic Works, Inc. The Environmental And Pal After School Mentoring Teams - Final Evaluation Report, Allison H. Fine, Jim Baird

Project Summaries

Civic Works is a youth service corps program based in Baltimore, Maryland. The program operates a number of activities in which teams of corps members perform community service work in urban neighborhoods. Several of its teams are funded by AmeriCorps. Civic Works commissioned Innovation Network, Inc. (InnoNet) to design and conduct participatory assessment activities with two of its AmeriCorps service teams: the Environmental Team and PAL After School Mentoring Team.


Peer Tutoring And Mentoring Services For Disadvantaged Secondary School Students, M. Anne Powell May 1997

Peer Tutoring And Mentoring Services For Disadvantaged Secondary School Students, M. Anne Powell

Project Summaries

In 1988, the Congress enacted a one year demonstration program, the Secondary Schools Basic Skills Demonstration Assistance Program, aimed at improving the academic achievement of disadvantaged children with mentoring and peer tutoring services (Pringle, et. al., 1990). The evaluation report prepared upon the completion of this demonstration offers one of the most significant studies of school-based peer tutoring and mentoring in the nation.


Individuals With Disabilities Performing Service Topic Bibliography, Madeleine S. Hengel, Robert D. Shumer May 1997

Individuals With Disabilities Performing Service Topic Bibliography, Madeleine S. Hengel, Robert D. Shumer

Bibliographies

The following document is organized for a quick review of Citizen Participation, and not intended as an endorsement of the programs or organizations listed here. Resources and readings are intended as a starting point for researchers, practitioners and others who are interested in beginning to look for information on Citizen Participation.

To get more information, look in the resources sections and to read about civic and citizen participation, look in the readings section.

In general, the easiest and least expensive way to have access to the readings and documents is through your local library. Even if you are not near ...


Service As A Bridge To Higher Education: Developing Service Learning In Developmental Studies, Elizabeth Bryer, Carol Gish May 1997

Service As A Bridge To Higher Education: Developing Service Learning In Developmental Studies, Elizabeth Bryer, Carol Gish

Higher Education

Though the new and exciting field of service learning has rapidly expanded to kindergarten through college, very little has been said about the appropriateness of service learning for developmental studies (pre-college) level students. Since developmental studies courses have in the past been labeled "remedial," perhaps it has been assumed that these students are not yet ready for the rigors and challenges of service learning. This is the story of one developmental studies department that has found that, on the contrary, service learning is precisely what our students need to help them smooth the sometimes intimidating transition into higher education.


Service-Learning And Evaluation: A Brief Review Of Issues And The Literature, Madeleine S. Hengel, Robert D. Shumer May 1997

Service-Learning And Evaluation: A Brief Review Of Issues And The Literature, Madeleine S. Hengel, Robert D. Shumer

Bibliographies

One of the most frequently requested topics for information at the National Service-Learning Cooperative Clearinghouse is evaluation. Practitioners want to know what to do and how to do it. Graduate students want to know what has been done and how they can do evaluation. Program administrators want to know how evaluation can assist them in making the case for and expanding service programs.

The good news is there is more than enough information available to answer all these requests. There are literally volumes of work on almost every conceivable aspect of evaluation. The bad news: There is too much information ...


Experiential Education - Ex 196, Eileen M. Lewandowski Apr 1997

Experiential Education - Ex 196, Eileen M. Lewandowski

Syllabi

A planned and evaluated work experience for which the student receives academic credit (and may receive financial remuneration). The work experience may be related to the student's major or be exploratory in nature. One credit may be awarded for each 40 hours of work experience. The course may be repeated for a maximum of six (6) credits and is available on a Pass/Fail basis only.


International Service Learning, Harry C. Silcox, Torun E. Leek Apr 1997

International Service Learning, Harry C. Silcox, Torun E. Leek

International Service Learning & Community Engagement

It is clear that a network of international service learning is in its formative stage, the authors point out. We must not allow the politics of service programs in the U.S. to blind us to the opportunities in other parts of the world that will enable us to advance the theory and ideology of service learning.


Student Participation In Community Service Activity, National Center For Education Apr 1997

Student Participation In Community Service Activity, National Center For Education

School K-12

Increasing community service participation has long been a goal in the United States. Some examples of how this goal has played out in national policy are President Kennedy’s creation of the Peace Corps, President Bush’s creation of the Points of Light Foundation, President Clinton’s creation of AmeriCorps, and Congress’ adoption of the National Education Goals, which include the objective that all students will be involved in activities that promote and demonstrate good citizenship and community service. In part, the push for volunteer service reflects the idea that the act of volunteering would be beneficial to those who ...


The Use Of Grand Assessments In K-12 Service-Learning Research, Andrew Furco Apr 1997

The Use Of Grand Assessments In K-12 Service-Learning Research, Andrew Furco

Evaluation/Reflection

Findings from most studies on the impacts of service-learning on K-12 students tend to be based on one assessment too/focusing on one construct (e.g., self-esteem, civic participation, etc.). While conventional research wisdom tells us that this approach is more statistically stable, it does not seem to be adequate for studying service-learning programs. Both service-learning and experiential education researchers face several dilemmas in determining the effects of service-learning activities on students' educational development. The idiosyncratic nature of the program activities, the lack of well-tested assessment instruments, the confounding influences on students learning, etc., make service-learning research a challenging and ...


School-Sponsored Service Programs And The Educational Development Of High School Students, Andrew Furco Apr 1997

School-Sponsored Service Programs And The Educational Development Of High School Students, Andrew Furco

Dissertation and Thesis

Currently, a growing number of our nation's school districts are encouraging students to perform community service. Vermont, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania, for example, all include community service activities as part of their K-12 education plans. Maryland requires all high school students to complete 60 hours of community service prior to graduation. And as part of California's Challenge Initiative, it is expected that by the Year 2004, every student in California will engage in at least one community service or service-learning experience prior to graduation (1996, California Department of Education).


Service Learning And Teacher Education: Mapping The Territory, Carole Cook Freeman Mar 1997

Service Learning And Teacher Education: Mapping The Territory, Carole Cook Freeman

Service Learning, General

Since the mid-1980's there has been a renewed interest in progressive approaches to the education of intending teachers1. In the context of this progressive teacher education activity, several distinct, but related, ideas converge and become the theoretical base for teacher education practices involving (community) service learning.2 Among these ideas are renewed interest in authentic field experiences, multicultural education, child advocacy, democratic education, social justice, school reform efforts, autobiography and teacher thinking, and an emphasis on community service in K-12 education. In addition, teacher educators increasingly recognize the gap between the backgrounds of those who intend to teach ...


Research Paper Youth Service, Douglas H. Stubbe Mar 1997

Research Paper Youth Service, Douglas H. Stubbe

Special Topics, General

An assumption that most people would probably agree on is that service to community, on a voluntary basis, builds character, self esteem, pride toward one's self and his/her community, develops personal growth and respect or compassion for others. I don't think many people look beyond that. Does the service need to be voluntary? Is service a responsibility that goes with being a part of a community? Why is service a positive aspect of community life? What are the characteristics of service that make it a fulfilling experience? Should youth be required to serve their community? If so ...


Learning Science Beyond The Classroom, Linda Ramey-Gassert Mar 1997

Learning Science Beyond The Classroom, Linda Ramey-Gassert

Special Topics, General

Science education reform documents call for science to be taught in the manner that students learn best, by conducting hands-on, engaging investigations using simple everyday materials. Often overlooked in the redesign of science education, informal science learning environments such as science centers, museums, and zoos provide students with captivating science experiences that can be related closely to curricular objectives. In this article I examine a cross-section of craft knowledge and research-based literature on science learning beyond the classroom, describe informal science education programs, and discuss implications for enhanced science teaching. The article focuses on the importance of informal science learning ...


National Service: Expectation Versus Reality, Robert D. Shumer, Jane Maland Cady Mar 1997

National Service: Expectation Versus Reality, Robert D. Shumer, Jane Maland Cady

Service Learning, General

National service has a long history in America. From the early colonies with their citizen soldiers, to religious organizations and social service, to modern day members of conservation corps and AmeriCorps, individuals have contributed important work for the benefit of their community and country. A more recent focus in the 20th century, initiated by William James' "Moral Equivalent of War" and carried out in the 1993 National Service Trust Act, has accelerated an interest in the concepts and practice of national service.


What We Know About Engendering Civic Identity, James Youniss, Jeffrey A. Mclellan, Miranda Yates Mar 1997

What We Know About Engendering Civic Identity, James Youniss, Jeffrey A. Mclellan, Miranda Yates

Civic Engagement

Taking the position that there is a developmental process in the formation of citizenship, the authors reviewed studies that reported a link between youth's participation in organized activities and civic behaviors 15 or more years later in adulthood. Data uniformly showed that students who participated in high school government or community service projects, meant in the broad sense, are more likely to vote and to join community organizations than are adults who were nonparticipants during high school. Results support the authors' view that participation during the youth era can be seminal in the construction of civic identity that includes ...


Teaching General Biology For Nonmajors Through Community Service Projects, Mary Wells Phillips Feb 1997

Teaching General Biology For Nonmajors Through Community Service Projects, Mary Wells Phillips

Higher Education

For many students, especially for the biology nonmajors, science is often one of the last courses they take before completing their degree. Often, these students enter my course with a previous "bad" experience from courses in high school or have developed anxieties regarding what science is all about. They are reluctant learners who frequently shy from questions and classroom discussions. Their own insecurities and presumed lack of knowledge frequently !eaves them floundering and confused. The message is, "I am here because I need 'x' number of science units before completing my degree."


Animal Tracks Urban Communities Action Pack, Sara Bradley, Cathy Mcfarlane Nolan, Cheryl Dixon, Elenor Hodges, Charles Wilkinson Jan 1997

Animal Tracks Urban Communities Action Pack, Sara Bradley, Cathy Mcfarlane Nolan, Cheryl Dixon, Elenor Hodges, Charles Wilkinson

Curriculum

This guide includes Discovery, Awareness, Action and Appendices.


Building Character, Trust, And Leadership: Service Learning Offers Positive Pathways To Adulthood, Kathy Checkley Jan 1997

Building Character, Trust, And Leadership: Service Learning Offers Positive Pathways To Adulthood, Kathy Checkley

School K-12

Ebony Sandusky admits it was sheer peer pressure that initially led her to participate in her school's service learning programs. Now, she says, "community service is in my blood." Sandusky, a senior at Romulus High School in Romulus, Mich., has worked on a myriad of service projects throughout her high school years. She helped organize educational symposiums on such topics as domestic violence and multiculturalism and, most recently, led the effort to provide education about safe sex to a community concerned about the growing number of teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. "When I see something that needs changing ...


A Study Of The Effects Of A Service-Learning Experience On Student Success At An Urban Community College, Judith Sheryl Berson Jan 1997

A Study Of The Effects Of A Service-Learning Experience On Student Success At An Urban Community College, Judith Sheryl Berson

Dissertation and Thesis

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a service-learning experience on student success as measured by class attendance course completion, final course grades, and end-of-term evaluation data.

Though many outcomes of service-learning experiences have been studied. including ethical values, self-esteem, student personal development, and career preparation, relatively few studies have been conducted on the effects of such experiences on academic achievement, and the studies that have been done have primarily studied students at traditional, four-year, residential universities.


Service Learning: What Is It? Can We Use It?, Terri Feldman Barr Jan 1997

Service Learning: What Is It? Can We Use It?, Terri Feldman Barr

Service Learning, General

I used to work for a Big Eight (now Big Six) Accounting firm. In addition to a tremendous amount of pro bono work that we did, the firm required all of its staff accountants, managers, and partners to become involved with one of the many not-for-profit organizations in the Cincinnati area.

The rationale was that each employee had an obligation to the greater community, to give something of himself or herself to others. And while I also heard that the "real" purpose of this requirement was "practice development" (translate marketing), there were certainly more likely places to network for "paying ...


An Ethnographic Study Of The Qualities And Characteristics Of Democratic Elementary Classrooms Which Motivate Students To Civically Participate, Kathryn M. Obenchain Jan 1997

An Ethnographic Study Of The Qualities And Characteristics Of Democratic Elementary Classrooms Which Motivate Students To Civically Participate, Kathryn M. Obenchain

Dissertation and Thesis

This study described two self-contained, upper elementary, democratic classrooms in order to determine if there were specific qualities and characteristics in these classrooms which would motivate students to be more participatory citizens. The two classrooms were ethnically and geographically diverse, one in Southern California and the other in the Midwest. The participating teachers expressed a commitment to citizenship education and it had been determined that democratic elements were present in their classrooms. The study was based in the theoretical frameworks of constructivism and interpretivism, and an ethnographic methodology was utilized to describe the classroom environment. Analyses of the data were ...


Service-Learning In South Carolina, Kathy Gibson Carter Jan 1997

Service-Learning In South Carolina, Kathy Gibson Carter

Service Learning, General

Thousands of students across South Carolina have helped improve their communities by participating in service-learning programs while strengthening their classroom learning experiences. Service-learning is one of the work-site components of the SC School-to-Work Transition Act of 1994. This Act provides all students with opportunities to connect what they learn in school with the real world through learning experiences at a work-site. Through service-learning, students combine classroom instruction with work-based activities in a non-profit organization or community agency. Students learn valuable interpersonal skills and a strong work ethic by participating as a member of a work team with specific goals.


Shared Consequences: Recent Experiences With Outreach And Community-Based Learning, Judith A. Ramaley Jan 1997

Shared Consequences: Recent Experiences With Outreach And Community-Based Learning, Judith A. Ramaley

Higher Education

Recently, William M. Sullivan asked "whether [higher education] has the ability and the will to respond through leadership, institutional design, teaching, and research, in creating a new form of intellectual life for the public good" (Sullivan 1996). A call has been issued for our nation's research universities to embrace public engagement (Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities 1996), and to acknowledge that "higher education should be about values - the values of informed citizenship, the values expressed in a sense of responsibility ... "(Atwell 1996).


Trends In Volunteerism, Georgean C. Johnson-Coffey Jan 1997

Trends In Volunteerism, Georgean C. Johnson-Coffey

Service Learning, General

Discusses four national trends affecting volunteerism: service learning, family volunteering, influence of corporations, and welfare reform. Discusses the impact of these trends on volunteer programs within libraries. Offers examples of how library staff can utilize the skills of volunteers who are allied with these trends in order to provide high levels of quality service to library patrons.