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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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1997

Psychology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo Dec 1997

The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo

Nursing Master’s Theses

Due to the increasing number of women who are diagnosed with heart disease and who are undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, it is important to explore the psychosocial aspects involved in the recovery process of these women. This study examined the relationship between locus of control and health behaviors of women who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.


Trends. Political Psychologies Of Welfare, Editor Oct 1997

Trends. Political Psychologies Of Welfare, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the pros and cons of government welfare programs.


Trends. Globalization As A Projective Stimulus Sep 1997

Trends. Globalization As A Projective Stimulus

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses how the political psychology of individuals, groups, organizations, and other entities change in an era of globalization.


Kenya: The Psychology Of Collateral Damage, Editor Jul 1997

Kenya: The Psychology Of Collateral Damage, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the Kenyan government's use of violence when dealing with demonstrators.


The Relationship Between Social Support And Professional Burnout Among Public Secondary School Teachers In Northeast Tennessee, Jackie C. Walker May 1997

The Relationship Between Social Support And Professional Burnout Among Public Secondary School Teachers In Northeast Tennessee, Jackie C. Walker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teaching is reported to be a stressful occupation and social support is thought to mediate stress. The purpose of the study was to identify relationships between the level of professional burnout and social support of high school teachers in Northeast Tennessee. In this correlational study, a sample of 228 secondary school teachers in Northeast Tennessee completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Teacher Support Network Inventory (TSNI). Respondents' satisfaction with support and amount of support were ascertained from the TSNI. Data presentation included a demographic description of the sample and a description of teachers' work support, personal support, and recreational ...


Assessment Of Discrepancies Between Residential Employees' Work Values And Program Directors Perceptions Of Residential Employees' Work Values, Trinetia L. Respress May 1997

Assessment Of Discrepancies Between Residential Employees' Work Values And Program Directors Perceptions Of Residential Employees' Work Values, Trinetia L. Respress

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study assessed discrepancies between residential employees' work values and program directors' perceptions of the residential employees' work values. Additionally, work values of residential employees were analyzed to identify variations when considering gender, age, educational level, length of service, job classification, and current position. The study was undertaken to assist in developing a clearer understanding of the work values of residential employees for the purpose of enhancing administrator-associate relationships and to determine factors in the work setting that might contribute to longevity and more productive, satisfied, motivated employees. Data for the study were gathered from 172 program directors and residential ...


The Relationship Between Personality Traits And Transformational Leadership Among North Carolina Elementary Public School Principals, Robert J. Mcgrattan May 1997

The Relationship Between Personality Traits And Transformational Leadership Among North Carolina Elementary Public School Principals, Robert J. Mcgrattan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the relationship between personality traits as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and transformational leadership as measured by The Nature of School Leadership. The subjects were 74 North Carolina public school elementary principals. The principals completed the MBTI. Principals also provided pertinent demographic information. Selected teachers in each school were asked to give their perception of the principal as a transformational leader by completing The Nature of School Leadership. Data were analyzed to look for significant relationships between personality and demographics as they related to transformational leadership. The analysis of demographic information yielded gender as a significant ...


Older Lesbian Perspectives On “Marriage” And “Same-Sex Marriage”, Jean Powell Jan 1997

Older Lesbian Perspectives On “Marriage” And “Same-Sex Marriage”, Jean Powell

Academic History

No abstract provided.


Coping, Adjustment, And Self-Concept Among Siblings Of The Chronically Mentally Ill , Marcy Beth Jensen Halvorson Jan 1997

Coping, Adjustment, And Self-Concept Among Siblings Of The Chronically Mentally Ill , Marcy Beth Jensen Halvorson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Seventy-four adult siblings of individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were interviewed by telephone regarding the effects that having a sibling with a chronic mental illness has had on them. Specifically, this study examined the effects that problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, perceived social support, premorbid interpersonal closeness with the mentally ill sibling, subjective burden, time since onset of the illness, frequency of contact with the mentally ill sibling, perceived controllability of the consequences of events related to the mentally ill sibling, and perceived severity of the illness had on well siblings' depression, self-concept, relationships and functioning in daily roles. Use ...


Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter Jan 1997

Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recent efforts examining the educational and vocational development needs of intellectually gifted students have focused on the possibility of early intervention. There is considerable anecdotal evidence that the gifted begin to think earlier about careers than their peers and that their general vocational preferences may crystallize at an earlier age. Empirical research has produced some support for these assertions, as well as the notion that tests and questionnaires devised for use with older students might be applied in early adolescence with intellectually gifted individuals. Instruments measuring abilities and preferences, factors critical to the development of educational and vocational choice, competence ...


Women In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering College Majors: A Model Predicting Career Aspirations Based On Ability, Self-Efficacy, Role Model Influence, And Role Conflict , Margaret Mary Nauta Jan 1997

Women In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering College Majors: A Model Predicting Career Aspirations Based On Ability, Self-Efficacy, Role Model Influence, And Role Conflict , Margaret Mary Nauta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a model of predictors of career aspirations among two groups of women: students in mathematics, physical science, and engineering majors and students in biological science majors. Based on theories of women's career development and social-cognitive theories, it was hypothesized that ability, self-efficacy, positivity of role model influence, and role conflict would influence the career aspirations of these women. It was further hypothesized that the students' year in school would contribute to this model as a predictor variable. Five hundred forty-six students (representing a 71% response rate) from Iowa State University were surveyed by mail to evaluate ...


Treatment Acceptability Of Paradoxical Interventions: The Role Of Dissonance , Michael Christopher March Jan 1997

Treatment Acceptability Of Paradoxical Interventions: The Role Of Dissonance , Michael Christopher March

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Paradoxical interventions are psychotherapeutic directives that appear counterintuitive in comparison to more conventional treatment approaches. Concerns regarding the potential manipulative nature and ethical viability of these interventions have been expressed in the literature. This survey study was designed to test the impact of two experimentally manipulated variables (reactance potential of the client, presence or absence of a therapeutic rationale), presented as components of written therapy vignettes, on psychologists' ratings of treatment acceptability of a paradoxical intervention. It was hypothesized that cognitive dissonance would mediate this relationship. The paradoxical strategy was predicted to be perceived as contradictory to psychologists' usual treatment ...


Front Matter Jan 1997

Front Matter

Modern Psychological Studies

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Orientation And Meaning On Mental Rotation, Peter D. Elgin, Susan T. Davis Jan 1997

Effects Of Orientation And Meaning On Mental Rotation, Peter D. Elgin, Susan T. Davis

Modern Psychological Studies

Reading is a complex ability, for the most part, and performed automatically, especially when the visual stimulus is upright. The present study examined the contribution of mental rotation to reading; participants were timed as they read lists of consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams (CVCs) of varying orientations and meaning. An ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between orientation and meaning, F(3,126)=8.41, MSE=8238 77.99. CVCs misoriented by 180 required the longest response time in the low-meaning condition. However, in the high-meaning condition, CVCs misoriented by 270 ° required a longer response time than those misoriented by 180 o. These paradoxical ...


Influence Of Postevent Information In The Recall Of Central And Peripheral Details Of An Eyewitnessed Event, Kathi Kaeler, Yvonne Larson, Gloria Marmolejo Jan 1997

Influence Of Postevent Information In The Recall Of Central And Peripheral Details Of An Eyewitnessed Event, Kathi Kaeler, Yvonne Larson, Gloria Marmolejo

Modern Psychological Studies

Previous research has shown that misleading postevent information can alter the report of a previously witnessed event. The present experiment extends on this research by investigating whether central and peripheral details are affected differentially by misleading postevent information. Sixty-four undergraduate students were shown a series of slides depicting a theft from a convenience store. They were then exposed to a taped narrative which contained some misinformation and some neutral information about two central and two peripheral critical details. Finally, the subjects ' memory for the original event was tested using recognition and source questions. The accuracy data replicated the misinformation effect ...


Racial Identity In Biracial Adolescents From One African-American And One Caucasian-American Parent, Lanice Stanley Jan 1997

Racial Identity In Biracial Adolescents From One African-American And One Caucasian-American Parent, Lanice Stanley

Modern Psychological Studies

Racial identity development in biracial children within American society is essential for the discovery of selfconcept. Identity development in adolescents with one African American and one Caucasian-American parent is a complex process deriving from social influences and individual self-conceptualization. Three approaches of identity preference are found to be the most common in biracial youth. The first is the denial of one race, the second is over-identification of the favored culture, and lastly the incorporation of both racial backgrounds as a separate identity.


The Relationship Between Parenting Style And Chilren's Anger, Aggressive Behavior, And Perception Of Intention, Patricia Bardina, Michelle Wilson Jan 1997

The Relationship Between Parenting Style And Chilren's Anger, Aggressive Behavior, And Perception Of Intention, Patricia Bardina, Michelle Wilson

Modern Psychological Studies

This study examined the relationship between parenting style and preschoolers' perceptions of intention, their anger, and their aggressive behavior. Each child was told eight variations of the same story and then was asked to rate the characters' intentions and anger. The parents were given the Modified PARI (Emmerich, 1969) and the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) to measure parenting style and the child's aggressive behavior. A regression analysis resulted in a significant Beta score of .41 (p<. 02) between hostility rejection parenting style and the child's perception of intention. Previous research shows a relationship between perception of intention and anger or aggressive behavior (Rotenberg, 1985; Fine, 1980); thus, the results of this study suggest that perception of intention could serve as a mediator between hostile parenting and anger or aggressive behavior.


Sexual Harassment Perception As Influenced By A Harasser's Physical Attractiveness And Job Level, Mark E. Savery Jan 1997

Sexual Harassment Perception As Influenced By A Harasser's Physical Attractiveness And Job Level, Mark E. Savery

Modern Psychological Studies

Seventy-two women participated in a study that compared factors that influenced the perception of sexual harassment Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 66 years (M = 24.03, SD = 8.12). The variables studied were the physical attractiveness of the harasser (low or high), the job level of the harasser relative to the target (equal or superior), and the level of sexual harassment in the stories read by the participants (low or moderate). The Sexual Harassment Perception Scale (SHPS) was used to measure the perception of sexual harassment Analysis of variance indicated that physically attractive males were perceived as less harassing ...


What Does The Client See? A Review Of Psychotherapists' Nonverbal Behavior, Iris Taber Jan 1997

What Does The Client See? A Review Of Psychotherapists' Nonverbal Behavior, Iris Taber

Modern Psychological Studies

Nonverbal communication between a psychotherapist and a mental health consumer is an extremely powerful tool in the course of psychotherapy. Clients generally assume therapists attend to their nonverbals but therapists may be unaware of the extent to which their nonverbals influence therapy. This paper examines the influence of the therapist's nonverbals on the therapeutic relationship. In research conducted by Davis & Hadiks (1994) using the Nonverbal Interaction and States Analysis (NISA), client and therapist movements were compared and rated on the same scale. These data indicated that body position patterns facilitated the development of rapport and self-disclosure in a therapy ...


Front Matter Jan 1997

Front Matter

Modern Psychological Studies

No abstract provided.


A Historical Review Of Disgust, Amanda Burlington, Chad Mcdaniel, David O. Wilson Jan 1997

A Historical Review Of Disgust, Amanda Burlington, Chad Mcdaniel, David O. Wilson

Modern Psychological Studies

Although disgust was identified as a basic emotion 125 years ago (Darwin, 1965), no psychological theory has focused on disgust as a key concept. Although many prominent scientists such as Freud, Darwin, and Ma/son have addressed the topic of disgust in their research, none have focused solely on the causes and consequences of disgust. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the literature concerning disgust and to demonstrate how disgust is a meaningful concept worthy of major focus in psychological research, theories, and application.


An "Authentic Wholeness" Synthesis Of Jungian And Existential Analysis, Samuel Minier Jan 1997

An "Authentic Wholeness" Synthesis Of Jungian And Existential Analysis, Samuel Minier

Modern Psychological Studies

Eclectic approaches to psychotherapy often lack cohesion due to the focus on technique and procedure rather than theory and wholeness of both the person and of the therapy. A synthesis of Jungian and existential therapies overcomes this trend by demonstrating how two theories may be meaningfully integrated The consolidation of the shared ideas among these theories reveals a notion of "authentic wholeness' that may be able to stand on its own as a therapeutic objective. Reviews of both analytical and existential psychology are given. Differences between the two are discussed, and possible reconciliation are offered. After noting common elements in ...


Effects Of Levels Of Pleasantness And Vividness On Mood And Recall, Ibolya Yolas, Melissa Pelkey, Tiffany Porter Jan 1997

Effects Of Levels Of Pleasantness And Vividness On Mood And Recall, Ibolya Yolas, Melissa Pelkey, Tiffany Porter

Modern Psychological Studies

Undergraduate university students (N=118) participated in the experiment examining the effects of pleasantness level and vividness level on mood and recall. A pleasant and an unpleasant story were manipulated to construct the subdued and vivid version of the story. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions: (a) pleasant-subdued (b) pleasant-vivid, (c) unpleasant-subdued or (d) unpleasant-vivid A mood scale was administered before and after the presentation of the text. An additional test was used to measure recall. The results indicated significant main effect for level of vividness on mood F (1,111) = 558, p <.05. Mood was found to be a significant predictor variable of recall R = .25 R2= .066, F (1,111) = 786 These findings might be applicable to any area concerned with mood alteration.


The Presence Of A Dog Increases Greetings: A Study In Social Intervention, Emily Dunlap, Lori Graham, April Burton, Chassity Roberts Jan 1997

The Presence Of A Dog Increases Greetings: A Study In Social Intervention, Emily Dunlap, Lori Graham, April Burton, Chassity Roberts

Modern Psychological Studies

Pet dogs served many useful purposes, especially by provoking social interaction in the lives of their owners. The purpose of this study was to show that a person accompanied by a dog received more greetings from passersby than a person without a dog. This was a field study using a female confederate, a dog, and three observers. Subjects passing in front of the confederate were recorded as a greeter or a non-greeter. Results formulated by the Chi Square showed that when the confederate was with the dog, they were greeted significantly more than when they were not accompanied by the ...


Educational And Vocational Choices Of Gifted Individuals: Guidance Counseling And Research For Adolescents Into Adulthood , Teresa Anne Argo Boatman Jan 1997

Educational And Vocational Choices Of Gifted Individuals: Guidance Counseling And Research For Adolescents Into Adulthood , Teresa Anne Argo Boatman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The two papers presented herein focused on guidance and research surrounding educational and vocational development of gifted adolescents. The first paper presented educational interventions to optimize talent development through formulating an individualized educational plan to provide the best match of intellectual ability and preferences with educational opportunities. The paper highlights the school psychologist's role as consultant for serving the needs of the gifted learner;The second paper examined the educational and vocational choices, as well as preference profiles, of intellectually talented individuals with dominant mathematical abilities or dominant verbal abilities at age 13 based upon Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT ...


Perinatal Behavioral And Immunological Effects Of Prenatal Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate Exposure In Domestic Fowl , Michael Raymond Baker Jan 1997

Perinatal Behavioral And Immunological Effects Of Prenatal Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate Exposure In Domestic Fowl , Michael Raymond Baker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Experiment 1. Chick embryos received a single DFP exposure (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 [mu]g/kg) on embryogenesis day (E) 11. DFP was fatal to all embryos at 400 [mu]g/kg and above, but did not affect hatch success at lower doses. Prenatal DFP reduced hatch weight and increased weight by posthatch day (PHD) 14. Prenatal DFP produced sex- and dose-dependent changes in distress vocalizations (DVs), but not activity on PHD 1. DFP increased tonic immobility duration (TI) on PHD 14. DFP increased lipopolysaccharide-induced lymphocyte proliferation in blood harvested on PHD 16 in females;Experiment ...


The Functional Organization Of The Brain For Mental Imagery And Image Rotation: An Electroencephalographic Investigation , Harwant Singh Gill Jan 1997

The Functional Organization Of The Brain For Mental Imagery And Image Rotation: An Electroencephalographic Investigation , Harwant Singh Gill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The intent of this dissertation was to reveal (by utilizing a set of cognitive tasks that are visuospatial in nature) how complex mental tasks are performed in the brain. Particular attention was devoted to the functional systems subserving the processes comprising the complex internal generation of mental images and their rotation;Utilizing Electroencephalography (more specifically, alpha power reduction), the functional system subserving the processes of mental rotation and mental image generation was identified. In this functional system, the occipital lobes are bilaterally involved in the initial encoding of visual information into a neural representation. These representations are then shunted to ...


An Analysis Of Request-Centered Relational Communication Within Behavioral Consultation Using A Sample Of Practicing School Psychologists , Tracey Lynn Johnson Jan 1997

An Analysis Of Request-Centered Relational Communication Within Behavioral Consultation Using A Sample Of Practicing School Psychologists , Tracey Lynn Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Folger and Puck (1976) request-centered relational communication coding system was used to examine the relationship between measures of consultant and consultee control in behavioral consultation and (a) consultee satisfaction; (b) client behavior change; (c) perceived treatment integrity; and (d) perceptions of client behavior change. School psychologists from across Iowa served as consultants to one consultee each across three problem-solving interviews. The Problem Identification Interview was audiotaped and request-response transactions were coded. Requests were coded as either: dominant, dominant-affiliative, or submissive and served as measures of consultant and consultee control. Measures of consultant and consultee control and the outcome measures ...


Coping With Pediatric Cancer: The Importance Of Family Member Coping On The Outcomes Of Other Members , Kenneth L. Dodge Jan 1997

Coping With Pediatric Cancer: The Importance Of Family Member Coping On The Outcomes Of Other Members , Kenneth L. Dodge

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the relations across time between stressful life events, coping, and mental and physical health symptoms among families of pediatric cancer patients. Coping was measured both in the form of self report and through assessing the perceptions each family member held regarding the coping of other family members. The results of this study showed that the relations between predictor and outcome measures differed significantly across the four groups of participants: Cancer patients, siblings, mothers, and fathers. In general, the coping of parents was a better predictor of child outcomes than was the self reported coping of the children ...


Toward A Model Relating Empathy, Charisma, And Telepathy, James M. Donovan Jan 1997

Toward A Model Relating Empathy, Charisma, And Telepathy, James M. Donovan

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Telepathy is often dismissed because it is judged to be so weird as to be counterintuitive. This article argues that telepathy may be interpreted as phenomenologically impressive events of a social psychological process which in less dramatic instances would be termed empathy and charisma. Such an equation, however, herein called the "possible world model," would perhaps normalize telepathy, and lessen the opprobrium attached to its study. A first step is taken to validate the model when a comparative literature search finds that telepathy and empathy relate very similarly to other experimental variables.