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1997

Theses/Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 587

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Intentions Of Engaged To Be Married And Recently Married Individuals To Seek Professional Help, Michael Robert Borowiak Dec 1997

The Intentions Of Engaged To Be Married And Recently Married Individuals To Seek Professional Help, Michael Robert Borowiak

Theses and Graduate Projects

Many individuals in early marriage do not experience a traditional honeymoon period. These distressed couples may resort to ineffective coping mechanisms that can cause greater marital dissatisfaction and instability. One effective coping method engaged or recently married individuals can use is professional help. This study assessed the intentions of engaged to be married and recently married individuals to seek professional help when faced with different types of marital problem areas. The study used a quasi-experimental design with volunteer participants from a suburban Catholic community who answered anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The results found that engaged and recently married individuals were not ...


The Impact Of In-Home Parenting Skills Training On Parenting Effectiveness For Parents With Developmental Disabilities, Suzanne Flolid Dec 1997

The Impact Of In-Home Parenting Skills Training On Parenting Effectiveness For Parents With Developmental Disabilities, Suzanne Flolid

Theses and Graduate Projects

This study examines the success of Children's Service Society of Wisconsin's (CSSW's) in-home parenting skills training program for parents with developmental disabilities or considered low-functioning the referring county social service agency. The purpose of this program is to improve parenting effectiveness in an effort to maintain a safe and nurturing home environment for children in their parental home. Data were collected by administering a parenting effectiveness questionnaire to Children's Service Society of Wisconsin parenting skills trainers on a pre-test-post-test basis. The parenting skills trainers’ evaluated a parent's progress in the parent education program and reported ...


Mr, S. And The Robert Greenleaf Servant Leadership Theory And The Effectiveness Of Mr. S.'S Leadership Skills With Volunteer Groups, Anita C. Walters Dec 1997

Mr, S. And The Robert Greenleaf Servant Leadership Theory And The Effectiveness Of Mr. S.'S Leadership Skills With Volunteer Groups, Anita C. Walters

Theses and Graduate Projects

The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the Servant Leadership Theory of Robert Greenleaf and to compare it to the leadership skills of Mr. S.

Mr. S. is a licensed minister who will be ordained in the near future. He volunteers as a lay counselor for at least four organizations including a chemical dependency program for young men and a program for juvenile offenders. He teaches bible classes and counsels young adults involved in these programs.

The research methodology used in this study included a personal interview and questionnaire for Mr. S. and a survey and questionnaire ...


Western Michigan University Teaching Style Survey: A Nonevaluative Scale Of Teaching Style As Reported By Students, Christopher A. Lewis Dec 1997

Western Michigan University Teaching Style Survey: A Nonevaluative Scale Of Teaching Style As Reported By Students, Christopher A. Lewis

Honors Theses

Students know little about the differences between professors that they may at some point come in contact. Students rely heavily on hearsay of others to learn about the teaching style of professors. This hearsay is non-scientific, relying on mainly opinions instead of fact. The Teaching Style Survey (TSS) looks at a professors' teaching style and how it relates to the students' learning style. With this information, students will be able to find professors that complement their learning style, not blindly picking the professor just to fill a time slot. This becomes particularly important when looking at multiple sections and elective ...


Public Participation Program Development: An Analysis Of Public Participation In The Water Industry, Marcia Lynne Holmberg Dec 1997

Public Participation Program Development: An Analysis Of Public Participation In The Water Industry, Marcia Lynne Holmberg

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The field of public participation is a distinct, but yet unpolished facet within the public relations industry. While the purpose of and need for public participation are becoming increasingly clear, many remain unaware or unconvinced of its advantages. Likewise, even among those who endorse the necessity of public participation, its methods and strategies continue to be a mystery to most.

One industry, in particular, that has recognized and embraced the benefits of conducting public participation is the water utility industry. The purpose of this thesis is to 1) crystallize the understanding of why public participation is a necessary and advantageous ...


Examination Of Students Engagement In A Block-Schedule Innovation Program, Isaac Kwa Kyemenu-Sarsa Dec 1997

Examination Of Students Engagement In A Block-Schedule Innovation Program, Isaac Kwa Kyemenu-Sarsa

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Master’s Theses

Innovations in education occur in an attempt to bring about improvement in the educational process. But not all innovations tum out to have positive effect on the educational process. Kirk (1988) noted that it is possible to present an innovation that embodies some new idea without it ever bringing about any genuine change in what people think or do. Block-scheduling developed about five ago is one innovation that has attracted attention in recent years and is gaining ground with an increasing number of schools block-scheduling. The schedule has as its aim, a reduced number of periods per day, (usually four ...


Personal Characteristics Of Beginning, Intermediate, And Advanced Sport Performers, Danielle R. Chiesi Dec 1997

Personal Characteristics Of Beginning, Intermediate, And Advanced Sport Performers, Danielle R. Chiesi

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Master’s Theses

This study investigated differences in six sport specific personal characteristics as a function of skill level. The characteristics included competitive trait anxiety, trait self-confidence, concentration, mental preparation skills, achievement motivation, and leadership. A self-evaluation questionnaire was administered to students in beginning, intermediate, and advanced physical education activity classes at the State University of New York, College at Brockport. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison test statistics were used to analyze differences for each of the six personal characteristics and a mental toughness composite score across the three groups of performers.

The results revealed significant differences in achievement motivation in ...


The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo Dec 1997

The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo

Nursing Master’s Theses

Due to the increasing number of women who are diagnosed with heart disease and who are undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, it is important to explore the psychosocial aspects involved in the recovery process of these women. This study examined the relationship between locus of control and health behaviors of women who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.


The Political Economy Of International Trade In Hazardous And Toxic Wastes In West Africa: Theoretical And Case Analysis, Ini George Inyang Dec 1997

The Political Economy Of International Trade In Hazardous And Toxic Wastes In West Africa: Theoretical And Case Analysis, Ini George Inyang

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

This dissertation examines international dumping trade in hazardous and toxic wastes and its impact on the trading countries in West Africa, relying on available and fairly limited information on transboundary movement of “unwanted wastes” shipped more often illegally for dumping from industrialized to poor West African countries between 1980- 1988. The drive for this trade in “unwanted wastes” from West African countries has been the seeming attraction for easy cash, while the drive from the industrialized countries has been the huge profit margin for the unsavory waste brokers, and the desperate need for cheap source of disposal. Given these motivations ...


Maximum Likelihood And Bayesian Estimation Of Skeletal Age-At-Death From The Human Pubic Symphysis, B. S. L. Hurst Dec 1997

Maximum Likelihood And Bayesian Estimation Of Skeletal Age-At-Death From The Human Pubic Symphysis, B. S. L. Hurst

Doctoral Dissertations

A number of methodological problems have recently plagued studies of adult skeletal age-at-death estimation. Over the last two decades, researchers have extended considerable effort to place age estimation studies on a firmer statistical ground. However, many of the current methods can still be criticized because they make unjustifiable assumptions or use inappropriate statistical models. Much of the controversy surrounding age-at-death estimation has focused specifically on the question of applying age standards from a reference collection of known-age individuals to a target group of unknown age.

The current study, involving a large sample (n=739) of adult male pubic symphysis data ...


Dental Microwear Analysis Of Averbuch: A Dietary Reconstruction Of A Mississippian Culture, Melissa G. Muendel Dec 1997

Dental Microwear Analysis Of Averbuch: A Dietary Reconstruction Of A Mississippian Culture, Melissa G. Muendel

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation reconstructs subsistence patterns of the inhabitants of Averbuch, a prehistoric late Mississippian culture, using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) to quantitatively assess the dental microwear of the permanent adult second mandibular molar of a selected skeletal sample from the Averbuch archaeological site. A comparison among the patterns of the Averbuch and those reported from other prehistoric sites in the United States is presented. The study uses the mesiolingual cusp (metaconid) tip facet (Kay and Hiiemae, 1974) of the mandibular permanent second molar to measure dental microwear features. Every cusp in the human mouth has an occlusal relationship to the ...


Leadership In School-Agency Collaboration: Parent Empowerment For Educational Involvement, Kathleen A. Backberg Dec 1997

Leadership In School-Agency Collaboration: Parent Empowerment For Educational Involvement, Kathleen A. Backberg

Theses and Graduate Projects

No abstract provided.


Theoretical And Conceptual Lacunae In Sociological Theories Of Development: The Puerto Rican Anomaly, Dennis Malaret Dec 1997

Theoretical And Conceptual Lacunae In Sociological Theories Of Development: The Puerto Rican Anomaly, Dennis Malaret

Dissertations

Puerto Rico is presently facing serious economic and social problems which are characteristic of a neocolony. Many of these problems are associated with Puerto Rico's historical path of industrial development adopted in 1940s. This study, therefore, focuses on economic and development policies implemented in Puerto Rico since the early 1900s and the political and economic role the U.S. has played in such policies.

To understand Puerto Rico's structural problems, a theoretical framework has been developed. This framework combines developmentalist theories such as modernization, dependency, capitalist world economy and indigenous Puerto Rican theorizing. These theories have been critically ...


Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger Dec 1997

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship between two affective measures, affective orientation and alexithymia, and five empathy measures in 67 master’s degree level counselor trainees. It was hypothesized that affective orientation would be predictive and alexithymia inversely predictive of five distinct dimensions of empathy: communicated, observed, emotional, cognitive, and relational. Communicated empathy was measured by trainees’ audio-taped responses to a client stimulus which were assessed by “blind” raters. Observed empathy was measured by practicum supervisors based on their observations of trainees with clients. Emotional, cognitive, and relational empathy were assessed by trainees’ self-reported responses ...


Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller Dec 1997

Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller

Dissertations

Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials: those requiring overt construction responses, overt discrimination responses, covert reading of text with highlighted key words, and covert reading of standard text. The material requiring overt responding produced greater learning than did the covert reading materials, with or without highlighting. There was no difference found between the two types of overt responding; nor were there differences between ...


Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer Dec 1997

Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer

Dissertations

This research began as an exploratory investigation into body image differences between individuals who were weight cyclers and those who were noncyclers. Participants were fem ale and m ale graduate students (n= 444) who completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 1990a), the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (M.A. Thompson & Gray, 1995), and the Weight History Questionnaire (W H Q ), a researcher developed self-report survey of weight, dieting, and demographic information. Data gathered from the WHQ were used to identify pairs of individuals who were matched on cycling status, gender, age, and body mass index. Fifteen such pairs were identified and matched among the females; however, due to lower numbers of males in the sample and also lower levels of weight cycling and dieting among these males, the matching process was not able to be accomplished for the males. Therefore, the study was completed only with the female portion of the sample. Data gathered from ...


Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul Dec 1997

Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul

Student Work

The present study examined the effects of different aged models (adult vs. peer) on infants' memory and imitative behaviors. Thirty infants between the age of 14- to 18-months were included in the study. Fifteen of the infants watched an adult model demonstrate two familiar three-step event sequences and two novel three-step event sequences on simple objects. The other fifteen infants observed a peer model perform the same event sequences on the same objects. Three questions were addressed: (a) Do infants learn to imitate three-step event sequences better from an adult or a peer model? (b) Do infants better recall familiar ...


Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle Dec 1997

Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle

Student Work

Adolescents in grades 8, 10, 12, and college (13-22 year olds) completed the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI) (Berscheid, Snyder, & Omoto, 1989), a written relationship development narrative, and a graph of major relationship events for a designated friend in a same-sex and cross-sex relationship. Data collection was done in separate sessions for each relationship type, with order of com pletion randomly assigned.

Age and relationship differences were found for total score on the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), indicating that closeness in same-sex relationships increases gradually with age, whereas closeness in cross-sex relationships does not increase until later adolescence. When asked to ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Harm That Russian And Chinese Organized Crime Groups Can Inflict On American Society, Bryce L. Hoekenga Dec 1997

A Comparative Analysis Of The Harm That Russian And Chinese Organized Crime Groups Can Inflict On American Society, Bryce L. Hoekenga

Master's Theses

Determining which of the two main ethnic organized crime groups emerging in America poses a greater threat to society was the focus of this study. One group is from or is closely linked to Russia and the other group is from or is closely linked to China.

The aspects of each group that were discussed include their origins, their spread to America, how they structured, their membership sizes, the types of crimes they commit, and how law enforcement has responded to each group. The aspects that were compared between the two groups include their levels of sophistication, the seriousness and ...


Latvians In Southwest Michigan: A Transnational Perspective, Andrew K. Dove Dec 1997

Latvians In Southwest Michigan: A Transnational Perspective, Andrew K. Dove

Master's Theses

The focus of this study was to look at the Latvian population in Southwest Michigan utilizing the transnational theoretical framework. Transnationalism examines the three-way relationship between the migrant, home community (Latvia), and host community (United States). First and second generation Latvian-Americans were interviewed to assess the nature of their transnational activities with regard to economics, politics, family ties, communication, and organizational membership.

The data were collected through the use of in-depth interviewing. Both an interview protocol and demographic survey were utilized. A total of 16 adult Latvian-Americans (N = 16) were interviewed. Eight were first generation Latvian-Americans (N = 8), and 8 ...


Defining American Dreams: An Ideological Analysis Of The Michigan Militia, Pamela Labelle Dec 1997

Defining American Dreams: An Ideological Analysis Of The Michigan Militia, Pamela Labelle

Master's Theses

The primary goal of this thesis is to explicate the system of beliefs underlying the militia movement in order to better understand how their particular ideology helps them make sense of the complexities and contradictions in the world in which we live. By delineating and analyzing their ideology, I demonstrate how it is rooted in the Constitution and the Bible, as well as how that rootedness can alternately support and work against their system of beliefs. I then examine the ideology of the mainstream American Dream to understand how militia ideology works in tandem with some of the principal tenets ...


Professional Football Players Attitudes Toward Women And Violence, Shannon Marie O'Toole Dec 1997

Professional Football Players Attitudes Toward Women And Violence, Shannon Marie O'Toole

Master's Theses

This study examined whether or not professional football players, because of the violence and aggression associated with their sport, tended to have attitudes that condoned or were conducive to violence against women. The forty-six subjects in this study were active members on teams in the National Football League and/or the National Football League sponsored World League. Information was gathered through the sue of self-reporting, non-random, questionnaires and interviews.

The study also explored the dynamics of domestic violence, the linking of aggression with professional sports and the characteristics of sport in United States society, especially as it relates to masculinity ...


Cultural Patterning In The Use Of Herbal Medicines (Jamu) And Health Seeking Behavior In A Javanese City, Brook Williams Weisman-Ross Dec 1997

Cultural Patterning In The Use Of Herbal Medicines (Jamu) And Health Seeking Behavior In A Javanese City, Brook Williams Weisman-Ross

Masters Theses

This thesis examines the social patterning in the use of traditional Javanese plant medicines, collectively called jamu, within the primarily ethnic Javanese city of Yogyakarta, in central Java, Indonesia. Using both qualitative and quantitative ethnographic research methods, forty-eight common and uncommon types of jamu are discussed, and five predictions are evaluated: 1. Jamu sold daily by door to door vendors (jamu gendong) will most often be preventatives, rather than curatives; 2. Jamu sold by sedentary vendors will more often be used for specific illnesses (curatives) than those sold by door to door vendors (jamu gendong); 3. Seasonal differences (rainy versus ...


Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum Dec 1997

Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In a square asymmetric matrix, the relationships among objects in the lower triangular half-matrix, differ from the relationships among the same objects in the upper triangular half. Square, asymmetric matrices can arise in similarity and preference data, when the direction of comparison is important. An asymmetric matrix can be rendered symmetric by averaging corresponding entries above and below the main diagonal. The difference between the original and the symmetric matrix is purely asymmetric, or skew-symmetric. The symmetric and skew-symmetric pans are orthogonal. An eigenvector-eigenvalue decomposition analyses the asymmetries into rank 2 skew-symmetric matrices, having an optimum least squares fit to ...


An Analysis Of Police Perceptions Of Community Policing And Female Officers, Rhonda Kaye Delong Dec 1997

An Analysis Of Police Perceptions Of Community Policing And Female Officers, Rhonda Kaye Delong

Dissertations

Traditional and community policing differ in their approach to crime and other social concerns. Traditional policing emphasizes reactive response and enforcement while community policing emphasizes proactive response and community partnership. Often, these two types of departments select officers with specific characteristics which fit well with the philosophy of the department. Characteristics such as age, education, years of military experience, rank, years of police experience, type of department, and family members in the military and the police are examined in this study to determine perceptual differences among officers regarding the community policing philosophy and the role of women in policing. A ...


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since many referrals occur when problem behaviors are exhibited at school (Al-Issa, 1982 ...


Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson Dec 1997

Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson

Dissertations

Individual productivity of high performers was compared under an individual monetary incentive system and a 10-member group monetary incentive system. Subjects were 4 college students, each assigned to a simulated 10-person group. Subjects individually performed four computerized work tasks (SYNWORK) simultaneously, and the total number of points earned on the tasks was the main dependent variable. A within-subject reversal design was used, with hourly pay (A), individual (B) and group (C) monetary incentives implemented in an ABCB pattern. Subjects, when working under the group incentive pay condition, were told that the number of points they earned during each session would ...


Drug Use Among Female High School Senior Students In Michigan: An Application Of Social Bond Theory, Halime Unal Dec 1997

Drug Use Among Female High School Senior Students In Michigan: An Application Of Social Bond Theory, Halime Unal

Master's Theses

Drug use is a serious problem affecting the American adolescents today. The focus of this study was the relationship between the elements of social bond and drug use among female high school senior students. The elements of social bond were peer pressure, commitment to school, and the importance of religious belief. Drugs investigated in this study were cigarette, alcohol and marijuana. This study included the total population of female senior students during the 1994-95 academic year in Michigan who participated in the Michigan Alcohol and'Other Drugs School Survey (MAOD).

In order to test the relationship between the elements of ...


Analysis Of The Skeletal Remains From The Knobloch Site, 20ae633, Allegan County, Michigan, Alexandra D. Bybee Dec 1997

Analysis Of The Skeletal Remains From The Knobloch Site, 20ae633, Allegan County, Michigan, Alexandra D. Bybee

Master's Theses

The skeletal remains of at least thirty individuals were recovered from the Knobloch site, 20AE633, Allegan County, Michigan. The site is from the Late Woodland period, a time which saw a variety of strategies for food procurement, including hunting, gathering, fishing, and agriculture. It is not known to what extent these strategies were practiced. The results of trace element analysis of skeletal samples from the Knobloch site assemblage indicate a diet reliant on hunting and gathering.


An Assessment Of Relationships Between Actual And Perceived Caregiving Demand And Negative Impact Measures, Michele L. Mandrich Nov 1997

An Assessment Of Relationships Between Actual And Perceived Caregiving Demand And Negative Impact Measures, Michele L. Mandrich

Theses and Graduate Projects

Previous research has focused on the time spent and the tasks involved in caregiving and on care recipient characteristics in measuring caregiving demand and predicting negative impacts (Aneshensel, Pearlin, & Schuler, 1993; McKinlay, Crawford, & Tennstedt, 1995; Stull, Bowman, & Smerglia, 1994). However, the nature of the relationship between objectively measured caregiving demand and negative impacts for caregivers remains unclear. Researchers now note that assessing caregivers' perceptions of demand may be key in understanding negative impacts (Coverman, 1989; Litvin, Albert, Brody, & Hoffman, 1995; Loomis & Booth, 1995). This study assessed relationships between objective and subjective reports of caregiving demand and negative impact measures. Information about subgroups of caregivers and caregiving demand and negative impacts was also made available. The design involved a cross-sectional survey methodology that utilized means tests and correlation statistics for analysis. The findings indicate that caregiver's subjective reports of demand are positively associated with ...