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1997

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 85

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Backgrounds In L1 Literacy And Attitudes Toward Text In An Esol Writing Classroom , Lia Margaret Plakans Jan 1997

Backgrounds In L1 Literacy And Attitudes Toward Text In An Esol Writing Classroom , Lia Margaret Plakans

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Autocorrelation Techniques For Soft Photogrammetry , Wu Yao Jan 1997

Autocorrelation Techniques For Soft Photogrammetry , Wu Yao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis research is carried out on image processing, image matching searching strategies, feature type and image matching, and optimal window size in image matching. To make comparisons, the soft photogrammetry package SoftPlotter is used. Two aerial photographs from the Iowa State University campus high flight 94 are scanned into digital format. In order to create a stereo model from them, interior orientation, single photograph rectification and stereo rectification are done;Two new image matching methods, multi-method image matching (MMIM) and unsquare window image matching are developed and compared. MMIM is used to determine the optimal window size in ...


Self-Reported Measures Of Work Satisfaction, Receptivity Towards Organizational Change, And Ratings Of Quality Management Initiatives Of Campus Facilities' Workers In The State Universities Of Iowa , Radhakrishnan Balamuralikrishna Jan 1997

Self-Reported Measures Of Work Satisfaction, Receptivity Towards Organizational Change, And Ratings Of Quality Management Initiatives Of Campus Facilities' Workers In The State Universities Of Iowa , Radhakrishnan Balamuralikrishna

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Faced with increasing budgetary constraints, higher educational institutions across the United States are attempting to transform their organizational systems and processes. Quality management initiatives have become increasingly popular in several functions of universities and four-year colleges. In particular, campus facilities' departments have adopted total quality management (TQM) as the new Philosophy;;The major purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure job satisfaction, receptivity towards organizational change, and ratings of quality management initiatives as perceived by custodial workers employed in university campus facilities. A secondary purpose was to determine existing perceptions of custodial workers employed by the ...


Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera Jan 1997

Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the population in the United States. Consequently, that growth will have a dramatic effect on this country.. The high number of Latino youth that drop out of school is exceedingly critical in light of the fact that by the turn of the century less than 14 percent of jobs will require less than a high school diploma. There is divergence among researchers as to the cause of the high drop out rates. Some attribute it directly to socioeconomic factors while others argue that those factors should be viewed as distal influences and that ...


Socio-Economic Analysis Of An Agroforestry System With The Winnebago Tribe Of Nebraska , Marcella Brian Szymanski Jan 1997

Socio-Economic Analysis Of An Agroforestry System With The Winnebago Tribe Of Nebraska , Marcella Brian Szymanski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The results from an economic analysis of an agroforestry system and a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) for community land-use decision-making with the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska are presented as a series of three papers. The dissertation will emphasize different parts of the study with an overall focus on the community development aspects of the agroforestry system. Chapter 1 emphasizes the use of PRA to obtain an emic or "insiders" perspective on the land-use needs of the Winnebago Tribe and community. As a rapid, low-cost method of data collection, PRA techniques have been used as a means of incorporating indigenous knowledge ...


An Attributional Analysis Of Saudi Male Students' Reactions Toward A Friend With Aids , Abdallah Mohammed Badahdah Jan 1997

An Attributional Analysis Of Saudi Male Students' Reactions Toward A Friend With Aids , Abdallah Mohammed Badahdah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The reactions of people toward persons living with AIDS have been studied from different theoretical perspectives. Most of these studies have been conducted in the United States and Western Europe. A small number of studies, however, have been conducted in developing countries. Review of the literature reveals the absence of studies on people's reactions toward AIDS patients in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the present study was to examine Saudi students' emotional reactions and willingness to help a friend with AIDS using Weiner's theory of attribution. Structural equation modeling was used to test several hypotheses. Paths from assignment ...


Evaluation Of Main Street Iowa's Rural Main Street Program, Donovan Gene Olson Jan 1997

Evaluation Of Main Street Iowa's Rural Main Street Program, Donovan Gene Olson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Human-Animal Bond's Role With The Abused Child , Linda Jean Nebbe Jan 1997

The Human-Animal Bond's Role With The Abused Child , Linda Jean Nebbe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate adults who were abused as children and the mediative impact of human and animal supportive relationships on the self-esteem, nurturant behavior, and anger/aggression of the abused child as both a child and an adult;One hundred and one adult subjects completed the inventory. The inventory was a compilation of specifically designed questions by the researcher including continuum rating scales of the subject's perception of his/her childhood levels of self-esteem, nurturant behavior, and anger; and assessment instruments for self-esteem, nurturant behavior, and anger as an adult. In addition, questions concerning ...


A Study To Determine Student-Athletes' Motivational Climate Influencing Their Athletic And Academic Performance At A Midwestern University , Percy Lee Caldwell Jan 1997

A Study To Determine Student-Athletes' Motivational Climate Influencing Their Athletic And Academic Performance At A Midwestern University , Percy Lee Caldwell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to describe and analyze the perceptions and experiences of six selected student athletes at a Midwestern university. The general research objects of the study were to describe and analyze the perceptions, expectations, and experiences of student athletes regarding: (a) school climate; (b) personal attitude; (c) teachers' interaction; (d) coaches' interaction; and (e) parental impact;The emerging themes elicited from the primary data were summarized for each of the five constructs. Two themes for school climate were: (a) some students adapt to the conditions of their school environment with differential behaviors and attitudes of teachers ...


Effects Of A Videodisc Problem Solving Approach Embedded In Constructivist-Based Instruction In Mathematics Methods Course On Preservice Teachers' Decisions About Teaching Mathematics Strategies And Attitudes Toward Mathematics And Technologies , Min Kyeong Kim Jan 1997

Effects Of A Videodisc Problem Solving Approach Embedded In Constructivist-Based Instruction In Mathematics Methods Course On Preservice Teachers' Decisions About Teaching Mathematics Strategies And Attitudes Toward Mathematics And Technologies , Min Kyeong Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research on teaching and learning mathematics indicates that offering an appropriate constructivist-based teaching model of mathematics instruction to preservice teachers enhances their teaching abilities and confidence in their future teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary teachers' decisions about teaching strategies and their attitudes toward mathematics and computer-related technologies in a constructivist-centered methods course which included the use of problem-solving multimedia;This study involved 73 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in an elementary education methods course at Iowa State University. Twenty-eight participants were involved in the treatment group, eighteen students participated in the comparison 1 group and ...


Individual And Aggregate Demand For Higher Education: The Role Of Strategic Scholarships , Darin Ray Wohlgemuth Jan 1997

Individual And Aggregate Demand For Higher Education: The Role Of Strategic Scholarships , Darin Ray Wohlgemuth

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Undergraduate enrollment increased over 50 percent nationally from 1973 to 1994. The proportion of high school graduates enrolling in college increased from 46.6 to 61.9 percent. These increases occurred despite increases in real tuition prices since 1985, constant (nominal) levels of federal Pell grants per recipient, and declining numbers of high school graduates. This dissertation examines the admitted applicant's decision to enroll and aggregate (state/county) enrollment at a large public institution;The aggregate enrollment model investigates the extent to which national trends in enrollment can be captured within the context of a model of enrollment demand ...


A Prospective Longitudinal Study Of Consistency And Change In Parental Influence On Children's Academic Achievement , Hui-Jane Yang Jan 1997

A Prospective Longitudinal Study Of Consistency And Change In Parental Influence On Children's Academic Achievement , Hui-Jane Yang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate issues of consistency and change in parenting behaviors and children's outcomes over time, and, prospectively, the nature of the relationship between parents and children's academic achievement. Both family status and family processes were included in the conceptual model. The model investigated how these factors affected parenting behaviors, and how, in turn, these behaviors influence children's attributes and their academic achievement. Pearson correlations and MANOVAs were used to explore consistency and change in parenting behaviors and children's outcomes over time. Structural equation modeling was utilized to elucidate the effect ...


Coping, Adjustment, And Self-Concept Among Siblings Of The Chronically Mentally Ill , Marcy Beth Jensen Halvorson Jan 1997

Coping, Adjustment, And Self-Concept Among Siblings Of The Chronically Mentally Ill , Marcy Beth Jensen Halvorson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Seventy-four adult siblings of individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder were interviewed by telephone regarding the effects that having a sibling with a chronic mental illness has had on them. Specifically, this study examined the effects that problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, perceived social support, premorbid interpersonal closeness with the mentally ill sibling, subjective burden, time since onset of the illness, frequency of contact with the mentally ill sibling, perceived controllability of the consequences of events related to the mentally ill sibling, and perceived severity of the illness had on well siblings' depression, self-concept, relationships and functioning in daily roles. Use ...


Later-Life Marriage, Chronic Illness, And Spouse-Caregiver Functioning , Jennifer Lee Harkness Jan 1997

Later-Life Marriage, Chronic Illness, And Spouse-Caregiver Functioning , Jennifer Lee Harkness

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to understand the relationship between spouse-caregiver attachment style and couple's communication on spouse-caregiver depression and marital satisfaction. Fifty-two couples participated in the study with one spouse having been diagnosed with either cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, or stroke. Attachment Theory and the Epigenetic Relational Model were used as the theoretical basis for this research. The Consensus Rorschach Task was used to examine couples' communication. Lag sequential analyses and sequence repetition analyses were conducted on observational data to determine the effects of spouse-caregiver attachment style and couple's communication on spouse-caregiver depression and marital satisfaction. The findings ...


Differences In Perceived Technological Problem-Solving Ability Of University Technology And Humanities Students , Farhad Jadali Jan 1997

Differences In Perceived Technological Problem-Solving Ability Of University Technology And Humanities Students , Farhad Jadali

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Technology is one of the most dominant factors impinging on our lives. Of critical importance is that some citizens have specific knowledge of how to solve selected problems and make intelligent and informed decisions about technology. The purpose of this study was to determine if university students' perspectives of their technological problem-solving skills improve as they progress through their degree programs. The study was designed to look at selected student criteria to determine the results;A Perceived Technological Problem Solving Ability Instrument (PTPSAI) was developed to address the following research questions: (1) Is there a significant difference in the perceptions ...


Distance Education, Innovativeness, And Teacher Education: Status In Iowa Independent, Four-Year Colleges And Universities , Nancy Jean Pollock Maushak Jan 1997

Distance Education, Innovativeness, And Teacher Education: Status In Iowa Independent, Four-Year Colleges And Universities , Nancy Jean Pollock Maushak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between organizational characteristics and the organizational innovativeness of teacher education programs in institutions of higher education in the state of Iowa in reference to the integration of the innovation, distance education. A second purpose was to determine the relationship between organizational characteristics and identified barriers to the integration of distance education throughout teacher education programs in institutions of higher education in the state of Iowa;Participants were 45 education faculty members from Iowa, independent, 4-year colleges and universities with teacher education programs who attended site visits conducted by the Teacher ...


Personality, Relationship Closeness And Loneliness Of The Oldest Old And Their Children , M. Valora Raiser Jan 1997

Personality, Relationship Closeness And Loneliness Of The Oldest Old And Their Children , M. Valora Raiser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child relationships in late life. The design of the first part of the study was quantitative. The sample consisted of 100 parent-child dyads. Personality, attachment, and dimensions of solidarity were hypothesized to predict loneliness for oldest old adults (i.e., 85 years of age and older) and their adult children. The design of the second part of the study was qualitative. Members of four intergenerational family units (i.e., parents and all children) were interviewed in order to explore factors that influenced relationship closeness over the life span;Results from the quantitative ...


Learning Styles And Attitude Toward Hypermedia , Charles Andrews Schlosser Jan 1997

Learning Styles And Attitude Toward Hypermedia , Charles Andrews Schlosser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined learning style and attitude toward hypermedia among sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students working with the hypermedia program Loess Hills Interactive. Three hundred fifteen science students from four Iowa middle schools participated in the month-long study. Students worked in groups of four with five gender compositions; all male, all female, mostly male, mostly female, and equal. The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) was used to identify four learning styles: extraverted sensor, extraverted intuitive, introverted sensor, and introverted intuitive. The Attitude Toward Hypermedia Index (ATHI), developed by the author, was used to measure students' attitudes toward hypermedia ...


Determinants Of Educational Attainment For Children In Oaxaca De Juárez, Mexico, And Its Long Term Implications For Families: A Longitudinal Study 1987, 1992, And 1997 , Elizabeth Ann Wieling Jan 1997

Determinants Of Educational Attainment For Children In Oaxaca De Juárez, Mexico, And Its Long Term Implications For Families: A Longitudinal Study 1987, 1992, And 1997 , Elizabeth Ann Wieling

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate issues related to the attainment of formal education among children in Oaxaca de Juarez, Mexico, in two studies conducted with Oaxacan families. The first study is a quantitative analysis of children born between the years of 1966 and 1977. Two cross-sectional parallel analyses were conducted to assess family and child characteristics that predict school enrollment and educational attainment of 271 children. Logistic regression equations were used to ascertain the family and child characteristics that predict the child's presence or absence of school enrollment in 1987 and 1992. Linear regressions analyze the ...


Women In Lower-Level Nontraditional Roles At Two Midwestern Durable Goods Manufacturing Corporations: A Case Study On The Perspectives Of Success , Teresa Joanne Keys Hall Jan 1997

Women In Lower-Level Nontraditional Roles At Two Midwestern Durable Goods Manufacturing Corporations: A Case Study On The Perspectives Of Success , Teresa Joanne Keys Hall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to understand the dimensions of successful outcomes for women in nontraditional roles in lower levels of the manufacturing hierarchy. The study was conducted at two large, durable goods manufacturers in the Midwest. The participants were eight women in nontraditional roles, two women in traditional roles, and five men in traditional roles using qualitative methods to collect, analyze, and present the results;The findings indicated that perceptions of success for the women in nontraditional roles incorporated the themes of competence, satisfaction, mentoring and peer support, and interpersonal style. Barriers to achieving success were related to the themes of ...


Support Given By Women To Their Mothers And Mothers-In-Law And Relationship Quality Over Time , Naomi Jean Larsen Jan 1997

Support Given By Women To Their Mothers And Mothers-In-Law And Relationship Quality Over Time , Naomi Jean Larsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates relationship quality of women with their mothers and mothers-in-law and how relationship quality is affected by providing instrumental support. This longitudinal study extends the research by exploring the effects of support giving over time on the daughter/mother relationship and on the daughter-in-law/mother-in-law relationship;Based upon social exchange theory and role theory, the central hypothesis for this study is instrumental support given and perceived demands will erode relationship quality over time. As support giving increases, social exchange theory suggests that the support giver feels an imbalance in rewards verses costs and this perception negatively affects the ...


Family Financial Strain And Family Relationship Perceptions: Predictors Of Adolescent Depressed Mood , Kathryn Prosser Mayhew Jan 1997

Family Financial Strain And Family Relationship Perceptions: Predictors Of Adolescent Depressed Mood , Kathryn Prosser Mayhew

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Economic hardship, in the form of family financial strain has been associated with distress in both parents and children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of family financial strain on family relationship perceptions and adolescent depressed mood both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Structural equation modeling was utilized to elucidate family processes that were predictive of adolescent depressive mood. The cross-sectional results showed that family financial strain led to an increase in adolescents' depressive mood through an increase in parental depression and a decrease in nurturant parenting for father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads. For father-son dyads, fathers' depressed ...


The Impact Of Birth-Timing On Long-Term Economic Outcomes , Margaret Ann Fitzgerald Jan 1997

The Impact Of Birth-Timing On Long-Term Economic Outcomes , Margaret Ann Fitzgerald

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the age of a parent at the time of the birth of his or her first child on the household when he or she is 60 to 70 years of age. Parallel analyses of 519 women and 352 men in the 1989 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were conducted. Family development theory and human capital theory informed hypothesis development. Two-stage least squares regression analysis is used in the prediction of economic well-being, measured by permanent income and wealth;The results indicate that there are bivariate relationships ...


Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter Jan 1997

Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recent efforts examining the educational and vocational development needs of intellectually gifted students have focused on the possibility of early intervention. There is considerable anecdotal evidence that the gifted begin to think earlier about careers than their peers and that their general vocational preferences may crystallize at an earlier age. Empirical research has produced some support for these assertions, as well as the notion that tests and questionnaires devised for use with older students might be applied in early adolescence with intellectually gifted individuals. Instruments measuring abilities and preferences, factors critical to the development of educational and vocational choice, competence ...


Status, Behavior, And Appearance Among African Americans In A Midwestern Coal Mining Town, 1900-1923 , Marlena Thomas Beavers Jan 1997

Status, Behavior, And Appearance Among African Americans In A Midwestern Coal Mining Town, 1900-1923 , Marlena Thomas Beavers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The distinction of status groups and classes is one that is important, though often confused and overlooked in studies of the African American community. This research focuses on social status in a predominantly black coal mining community from 1900 to 1923. The first objective of the study was to examine social structure in predominantly African American, industry-based community. The second objective was to determine the criteria used in African American communities to establish levels of status. The third objective was to investigate whether standards of appearance were used in making status distinctions in an African American coal mining community. The ...


Family Structure, Economic Pressure, And Community Disorganization As Determinants Of Adolescent Adjustment Problems , Wei Chao Jan 1997

Family Structure, Economic Pressure, And Community Disorganization As Determinants Of Adolescent Adjustment Problems , Wei Chao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research in the area of family studies in the last decade has found a relationship between divorce and negative child outcomes. What is uncertain about this relationship is by what mechanisms does divorce exert its impact on children development. The present study integrates literature on family issues, divorce, and community disorganization and proposes a research model which identifies two mediating variables, parental psychological distress and parenting behavior, by which family structure influences child outcomes. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling technique are used to test various study hypotheses. Results show that divorce has adverse consequences for adolescent development indirectly through ...


Women In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering College Majors: A Model Predicting Career Aspirations Based On Ability, Self-Efficacy, Role Model Influence, And Role Conflict , Margaret Mary Nauta Jan 1997

Women In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering College Majors: A Model Predicting Career Aspirations Based On Ability, Self-Efficacy, Role Model Influence, And Role Conflict , Margaret Mary Nauta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a model of predictors of career aspirations among two groups of women: students in mathematics, physical science, and engineering majors and students in biological science majors. Based on theories of women's career development and social-cognitive theories, it was hypothesized that ability, self-efficacy, positivity of role model influence, and role conflict would influence the career aspirations of these women. It was further hypothesized that the students' year in school would contribute to this model as a predictor variable. Five hundred forty-six students (representing a 71% response rate) from Iowa State University were surveyed by mail to evaluate ...


The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich Jan 1997

The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the influence of educational psychology on contemporary art education. The century-old debate in art education between those wanting more scientific methods of teaching and assessment and those wanting a more child-centered education appears in contemporary version in the work of Howard Gardner and Elliot Eisner. In this contemporary setting it is the educator, Eisner, who wants more discipline-oriented curricula, while the cognitive scientist, Gardner, calls for more child-centered education. By examining the writings of Howard Gardner, a cognitive scientist, and Elliot Eisner, an art educator, and comparing the art education programs overseen by them, i.e., Arts ...


Design And Training For Implementation Of Constructivist-Based Distance Learning Environments , Mary Corwin Herring Jan 1997

Design And Training For Implementation Of Constructivist-Based Distance Learning Environments , Mary Corwin Herring

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In response to societal shifts, K-12 teachers are attempting to design responsive, effective learning environments. A body of theory titled Constructivism has become increasingly important as a foundation for the design of learning environments that prepare students for the future demands of adulthood;When knowledge is being constructed, the tools to support that construction become important. Societal demands, new visions about learning, emerging technology, and connectivity to the information superhighway are offering educators the opportunity and the challenge to rethink and restructure the way they go about designing effective learning environments;This project identified a design guiding framework for constructivist-based ...


Corn And Soybean Basis Behavior And Forecasting: Fundamental And Alternative Approaches , Bingrong Jiang Jan 1997

Corn And Soybean Basis Behavior And Forecasting: Fundamental And Alternative Approaches , Bingrong Jiang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A model is developed to analyze the nearby basis behavior of corn and soybeans in several markets across the U.S. Results suggest that basis behavior has a seasonal pattern, and that different variables affect nearby corn and soybean basis at various periods. The most important factors affecting basis are storage cost (opportunity cost), transportation cost (barge rates), and supply (regional production relative to regional storage capacity). Nine conventional (naive three-year-average forecasts, econometric, ARIMA and composite forecast models) and less conventional forecasting techniques (State Space and Neural Networks models) are utilized to forecast out-of-sample basis for one-month up to 12-month ...