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1997

Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Theoretical And Conceptual Lacunae In Sociological Theories Of Development: The Puerto Rican Anomaly, Dennis Malaret Dec 1997

Theoretical And Conceptual Lacunae In Sociological Theories Of Development: The Puerto Rican Anomaly, Dennis Malaret

Dissertations

Puerto Rico is presently facing serious economic and social problems which are characteristic of a neocolony. Many of these problems are associated with Puerto Rico's historical path of industrial development adopted in 1940s. This study, therefore, focuses on economic and development policies implemented in Puerto Rico since the early 1900s and the political and economic role the U.S. has played in such policies.

To understand Puerto Rico's structural problems, a theoretical framework has been developed. This framework combines developmentalist theories such as modernization, dependency, capitalist world economy and indigenous Puerto Rican theorizing. These theories have been critically ...


Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger Dec 1997

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship between two affective measures, affective orientation and alexithymia, and five empathy measures in 67 master’s degree level counselor trainees. It was hypothesized that affective orientation would be predictive and alexithymia inversely predictive of five distinct dimensions of empathy: communicated, observed, emotional, cognitive, and relational. Communicated empathy was measured by trainees’ audio-taped responses to a client stimulus which were assessed by “blind” raters. Observed empathy was measured by practicum supervisors based on their observations of trainees with clients. Emotional, cognitive, and relational empathy were assessed by trainees’ self-reported responses ...


Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller Dec 1997

Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller

Dissertations

Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials: those requiring overt construction responses, overt discrimination responses, covert reading of text with highlighted key words, and covert reading of standard text. The material requiring overt responding produced greater learning than did the covert reading materials, with or without highlighting. There was no difference found between the two types of overt responding; nor were there differences between ...


Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer Dec 1997

Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer

Dissertations

This research began as an exploratory investigation into body image differences between individuals who were weight cyclers and those who were noncyclers. Participants were fem ale and m ale graduate students (n= 444) who completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 1990a), the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (M.A. Thompson & Gray, 1995), and the Weight History Questionnaire (W H Q ), a researcher developed self-report survey of weight, dieting, and demographic information. Data gathered from the WHQ were used to identify pairs of individuals who were matched on cycling status, gender, age, and body mass index. Fifteen such pairs were identified and matched among the females; however, due to lower numbers of males in the sample and also lower levels of weight cycling and dieting among these males, the matching process was not able to be accomplished for the males. Therefore, the study was completed only with the female portion of the sample. Data gathered from ...


An Analysis Of Police Perceptions Of Community Policing And Female Officers, Rhonda Kaye Delong Dec 1997

An Analysis Of Police Perceptions Of Community Policing And Female Officers, Rhonda Kaye Delong

Dissertations

Traditional and community policing differ in their approach to crime and other social concerns. Traditional policing emphasizes reactive response and enforcement while community policing emphasizes proactive response and community partnership. Often, these two types of departments select officers with specific characteristics which fit well with the philosophy of the department. Characteristics such as age, education, years of military experience, rank, years of police experience, type of department, and family members in the military and the police are examined in this study to determine perceptual differences among officers regarding the community policing philosophy and the role of women in policing. A ...


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since many referrals occur when problem behaviors are exhibited at school (Al-Issa, 1982 ...


Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson Dec 1997

Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson

Dissertations

Individual productivity of high performers was compared under an individual monetary incentive system and a 10-member group monetary incentive system. Subjects were 4 college students, each assigned to a simulated 10-person group. Subjects individually performed four computerized work tasks (SYNWORK) simultaneously, and the total number of points earned on the tasks was the main dependent variable. A within-subject reversal design was used, with hourly pay (A), individual (B) and group (C) monetary incentives implemented in an ABCB pattern. Subjects, when working under the group incentive pay condition, were told that the number of points they earned during each session would ...


What’S Good For Gm… : Deindustrialization, And Crime In Four Michigan Cities, 1975-1993, Rick Matthews Aug 1997

What’S Good For Gm… : Deindustrialization, And Crime In Four Michigan Cities, 1975-1993, Rick Matthews

Dissertations

This study examines the effects of deteriorated economic conditions caused by General Motor's deindustrialization efforts between 1975 and 1993 on crime rates in four Michigan cities. The Michigan cities ofFlint and Saginaw are used as examples of cities that were highly dependent on General Motors for their economic well-being, and are compared with Lansing and Grand Rapids which had more diversified economies and experienced less social disorganization. It is hypothesized that General Motor's deindustrialization efforts in Flint and Saginaw caused social disorganization to increase, which, in turn, caused crime rates to increase. Lansing and Grand Rapids, on the ...


Underdevelopment As Meta-Axiological Dilemma: The Socioeconomic Implications Of African Axiology For Rational Choice Determinants Of Microeconomic Agency, Sundiata Keita Ibn-Hyman Aug 1997

Underdevelopment As Meta-Axiological Dilemma: The Socioeconomic Implications Of African Axiology For Rational Choice Determinants Of Microeconomic Agency, Sundiata Keita Ibn-Hyman

Dissertations

The intergenerational problems of indigence, poverty and social dysfunction that plague African societies are inextricably grounded in the broader issue of ethnocentrism in neoclassical microeconomics. Economic anthropology provides a methodological critique of the conceptual limitations of neoclassical micro-behavioral assumptions narrowly imposed on non-westem economic organization. While recognizing non-westem economic praxes, the sociological implications of strict neoclassical microeconomic agency for non-westem socioeconomic development is conspicuously ignored. The critique fails to specifically consider the impact of neoclassical ethnocentrism to non-westem sociocultural organization and improvement.

This research utilizes an African-centered, social psychological approach to examine the paradigmatic implications of rational choice criteria for ...


Discrimination Against Female Graduate Teaching Assistants, Joanne Ardovini-Brooker Aug 1997

Discrimination Against Female Graduate Teaching Assistants, Joanne Ardovini-Brooker

Dissertations

Many studies have been done concerning the classroom climate, particularly in the university setting. It has been found that the classroom climate for women is one that is cold, unreceptive, unwelcoming, and even hostile to women. This chilly reception is endured by female undergraduate students, graduate students, and professors. This researcher believes that the chilly classroom climate also extends to female graduate teaching assistants/instructors. I also believe that this chilly climate may be chillier and more hostile for them, since graduate teaching assistants/instructors do not have the status associated with a doctoral degree. This concept is the basis ...


The Impact Of Sex And Gender-Role Orientation On Student Evaluations Of Professor Competence In Counselor Education And Counseling Psychology, Suzanne M. Hobson Aug 1997

The Impact Of Sex And Gender-Role Orientation On Student Evaluations Of Professor Competence In Counselor Education And Counseling Psychology, Suzanne M. Hobson

Dissertations

The focus of this study was on the potential impact of sex and gender-role orientation on one form of evaluation within higher education. Specifically, this study investigated sex and gender-role orientation as they relate to graduate student end-of-course evaluations of professors in the Counselor Education and the Counseling Psychology fields.

Students enrolled in graduate courses in counselor education or counseling psychology at a large university in the Midwest completed the Instructional Development and Effectiveness Assessment (IDEA) end-of-course rating form, a modified version the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) short form, and a student questionnaire. Professors also participated by completing the IDEA ...


Human Impulsivity: Effects Of Reinforcement Procedure, Catherine A. Karas Aug 1997

Human Impulsivity: Effects Of Reinforcement Procedure, Catherine A. Karas

Dissertations

In this study, positive and negative reinforcement procedures were directly compared across subjects to determine whether more impulsive responding would occur with one reinforcement procedure when compared to the other, under a discrete-trial choice procedure. For both reinforcement procedures, taped music served as the reinforcer. For the positive reinforcer, subjects brought in their own music, from which tapes were made for use in the study. Subjects then ranked the tapes according to their preferences. For the negative reinforcers, the investigators made tapes of various types of music, and all subjects ranked their preferences for these tapes. Subjects were then presented ...


Effects Of Linear And Non-Linear Incentive Pay Systems With Individual And Group Payouts On The Social Psychology Phenomenon Of Social Loafing, Delores A. Tinley Smoot Aug 1997

Effects Of Linear And Non-Linear Incentive Pay Systems With Individual And Group Payouts On The Social Psychology Phenomenon Of Social Loafing, Delores A. Tinley Smoot

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the experiment investigated the occurrence of social loafing behavior when individuals are engaged in a production task. Social loafing is defined as a decrement in individual performance when working co-actively with a group. Second, the experiment compared the effectiveness of three incentive pay systems (linear, positively and negatively accelerating) in eliminating social loafing behavior and in generating performance levels higher than those generated by a flat or hourly pay system.

Sixteen undergraduate students, all female, participated in twenty-five 15- minute work sessions in which they made widgets from pop beads. Subjects ...


Effects Of Alternative Activities On Productivity Under Different Percentages Of Incentive Pay, Grainne A. Matthews Jun 1997

Effects Of Alternative Activities On Productivity Under Different Percentages Of Incentive Pay, Grainne A. Matthews

Dissertations

This study examined whether low percentages of incentive pay would be as effective as high percentages in maintaining work performance in the presence of competitive alternative activities. Incentives may increase performance primarily by decreasing time spent performing alternative activities. Although the link between performance and pay is tighter when the percentage of incentive pay is higher, laboratory studies have not found the expected difference. It is possible that previous simulations of work settings have not offered realistic competing contingencies. This study used a computer simulation of a quality inspection task and provided computer games as alternative activities to participants who ...


The Efficacy Of Pediatric Pain Management Techniques For Infants During Inoculation Procedures, Kimberly K. Wisdorf-Houtkooper Jun 1997

The Efficacy Of Pediatric Pain Management Techniques For Infants During Inoculation Procedures, Kimberly K. Wisdorf-Houtkooper

Dissertations

In this study four different pre-immunization interventions were compared with respect to their effects on modifying arousal level before an immunization and their effects on the level and duration of distress after the immunization. In addition, the study evaluated whether the infants’ pre-inoculation behavioral state affected their response to a painful stimulus. Data consisting of facial expression, presence or absence of cry, cry duration, and behavioral state were collected prior to, during, and after the inoculation. Forty-two subjects were randomly assigned to one of four soothing conditions. These included: rocking, swaddling, sucking on a pacifier, and a control group.

An ...


Do Reinforcer Surveys Enhance A Brief Parenting Skills Program For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered Children?, Maria A. Channell Jun 1997

Do Reinforcer Surveys Enhance A Brief Parenting Skills Program For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered Children?, Maria A. Channell

Dissertations

Several clinical researchers have documented the benefits of evaluating reinforcer preference prior to the implementation of behavioral parent training programs. However, this has not been specifically tested with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered (ADHD) population in relation to parent training. This between groups study investigated whether systematically altering parent delivered reinforcers to match children’s preferred reinforcers would result in an even greater increased compliance and decreased noncompliance.

One group received a brief (4-6 session) parenting program based on Patterson’s (1974) model. A second group received the same program with an added component wherein the child completed a reinforcer survey ...


Caroline Bartlett Crane And Progressive Era Reform: A Socio-Historical Analysis Of Ideology In Action, Linda J. Rynbrandt Apr 1997

Caroline Bartlett Crane And Progressive Era Reform: A Socio-Historical Analysis Of Ideology In Action, Linda J. Rynbrandt

Dissertations

This dissertation is a sociohistorical analysis of women and social reform in the Progressive Era. Until recently, the role of women has been virtually invisible in accounts of Progressive social reform. While this is no longer the case, considerable questions remain. Using the archival records of one woman, Caroline Bartlett Crane (1858-1935), which document her professional, intellectual and personal life, I describe her contribution to social reform and early sociology. I analyze how her life and work reveals a greater understanding of current feminist debates and other social, historical and political questions.


A Systems Approach To Performance Quality: An Application To Higher Education, Tobias Lafleur Apr 1997

A Systems Approach To Performance Quality: An Application To Higher Education, Tobias Lafleur

Dissertations

Graduate-student teaching apprentices (TAs) in the psychology department at a university in Michigan conducted seminars in an advanced undergraduate-level psychology course. All were members of the department’s behavior analysis training system (BATS). BATS was an integrated series of courses and practicum experiences designed to achieve three main goals: recruiting, training, and maintaining the skills of competent behavior analysts. Twenty-five different tasks performed by the TAs were analyzed and measured prior to an intervention aimed at their improvement. Informal observation suggested that failure to complete these tasks reduced BATS’ ability to meet its larger goals. Three well-known systems analysis models ...


The Military-Bureaucracy Relationship In Nigeria: A Study Of Public Policy Making And Implementation, Robert Aziakpono Dibie Apr 1997

The Military-Bureaucracy Relationship In Nigeria: A Study Of Public Policy Making And Implementation, Robert Aziakpono Dibie

Dissertations

The Federal Government of Nigeria’s Structural Adjustment/Make-or-Buy policy was introduced in July 1986 to accelerate the development of Nigerian industrial capacity by contracting government R & D out to the private sector. This study expands the empirical and theoretical analyses of development policy and its implementation that have traditionally relied on motives of "rationality" (costs/benefits) to explain bureaucratic behavior. It examines and juxtaposes the military-dominated policy making apparatus with the traditional bureaucracy, which has the responsibility for the execution of public policy. It also attempts to make some contribution to Nigerian and comparative literature in the field of ...


Outcomes Related To The Quality Of Life Of Oncology Patients Aged 65 And Older Following Initial Cancer Treatment, Rosemary Clare Zivic Apr 1997

Outcomes Related To The Quality Of Life Of Oncology Patients Aged 65 And Older Following Initial Cancer Treatment, Rosemary Clare Zivic

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in the quality of life of cancer patients aged 65 and older (N>488) following initial treatment for cancer. A Quality of Life conceptual model was developed. Quality of Life refers specifically to physical, social, and functional status. The study analyzed data from a larger longitudinal data set and compared data for patient’s with prostate, breast, lung, and colon cancer at three observation points: (1) three month Recall, (2) after surgery and prior to chemotherapy or radiation (Wave I), and (3) fourteen weeks following surgery, during chemotherapy ...


Decision Making And The Felony Offender: A Cognitive Approach, Marlene O’Hara Apr 1997

Decision Making And The Felony Offender: A Cognitive Approach, Marlene O’Hara

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the theory of cognitive self-change as it applies to increasing the successful completion rate of felony offenders sentenced to a probation half-way house. Subjects used were young, males who had been convicted of non-violent crimes and who were ordered to complete the Alternative Directors Residential Probation program as part of their probation order.

The group of residents who entered Alternative Directions in October, 1994 was given an intensive ten hour course using cognitive decision making techniques during their first two weeks in residence. The groups of residents entering the ...


The Empirical Development Of An Instructional Product Designed To Enhance The Cognitive Awareness Of And The Modification Of Affect Toward The Disability Condition, Rikard Ashmore Bailey Jan 1997

The Empirical Development Of An Instructional Product Designed To Enhance The Cognitive Awareness Of And The Modification Of Affect Toward The Disability Condition, Rikard Ashmore Bailey

Dissertations

Problem. The Seventh-day Adventist church had no empirically developed instructional product in the form of an educational curriculum designed to enhance the cognitive awareness of and the modification of affect toward the disability condition. The purpose of this project was to develop empirically an instructional product in disability awarenesstraining for Seventh-day Adventist church members and their guests so to better build aninteractive, empowered, and inclusive sense of community.

Method. The developmental process of Baker and Schutz (1971) was used to produce and validate the instructional product. First, the content of the curriculum to train Seventh-day Adventist church members and their ...


The Development Of A Church-Based Seminar On The Impact Of Historicist Eschatology Upon Seventh-Day Adventist Marital Life, Etzer Obas Jan 1997

The Development Of A Church-Based Seminar On The Impact Of Historicist Eschatology Upon Seventh-Day Adventist Marital Life, Etzer Obas

Dissertations

Problem. The reading of Eph 5:25-27 shows that Christ will marry the church in a state of holiness and blamelessness. Family life on earth must follow the model of the love of Jesus for the church. But there are no guides, seminars, or studies that combine marital life and preparation for Christ's second coming.

Method. This dissertation developed a seminar that emphasized the belief in the soon coming of our Lord Jesus Christ as accepted by the Apostolic Church. Such belief affects all aspects of the Christian life and particularly the family lifestyle. The seminar tied together eschatology ...


An Assessment Of Marital Satisfaction In Stepfamilies Toward An Integration Of Three Conceptual Models Of Relationship Satisfaction, Lorie Ann Hamel Jan 1997

An Assessment Of Marital Satisfaction In Stepfamilies Toward An Integration Of Three Conceptual Models Of Relationship Satisfaction, Lorie Ann Hamel

Dissertations

Problem. Much more is known about determinants of marital satisfaction in first marriages than remarriages. Although the stepfamily is a dominant and unique family type, it lacks its own theoretical framework from which to investigate factors that contribute to marital satisfaction and stepfamily success.

Method. This study evaluated marital satisfaction in stepfamilies in light of the contextual, problem-solving, and investment models of relationship satisfaction. A questionnaire developed to assess marital satisfaction in stepfamilies using variables from the three conceptual models with the Kansas Marital Scale as a global measure of assessment was sent to 660 stepfamilies selected from the mailing ...


Teenage Pregnancy In St. Kitts-Nevis: Psychosocial And Familial Factors, Ermine T. Leader Jan 1997

Teenage Pregnancy In St. Kitts-Nevis: Psychosocial And Familial Factors, Ermine T. Leader

Dissertations

Problem. This study was conducted to examine some of the factors that are related to teenage pregnancy in St. Kitts-Nevis. It focused on the relationship between teenage pregnancy and father absence/presence, intergenerational teenage pregnancy, childhood sexual abuse, and domestic violence. A young girl's view of her relationship with both parents, the self-esteem of respondents, and their level of attendance and participation in church-related activities were also studied.

Method. Two instruments were incorporated into the questionnaire administered to females in St. Kitts and Nevis between the ages of 12 and 21, some of whom had experienced a pregnancy, and ...


Predictors Of Divorce Adjustment Among Members Of Three Conservative Protestant Denominations, Andreas Erben Jan 1997

Predictors Of Divorce Adjustment Among Members Of Three Conservative Protestant Denominations, Andreas Erben

Dissertations

Problem. Only a few attempts have been made thus far to explore the situation of Christian divorced men and women in a scholarly manner. The basic question for this research was to find out what social factors, religious factors, and coping strategies are related to the divorce adjustment of divorced Christians who are members of predominately conservative Protestant denominations and how well these Christians adjust to divorce.

Method. The population for this research project was composed of all currently divorced men and women residing in the United States of America who are members of The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod, the Church ...


Negative Consequences Of Undergraduate Alcohol Usage : A Multivariate Gender Comparison, Leonald Dean Robinson Jan 1997

Negative Consequences Of Undergraduate Alcohol Usage : A Multivariate Gender Comparison, Leonald Dean Robinson

Dissertations

Problem. While the literature indicates that many male undergraduates suffer numerous negative consequences from alcohol usage, little is known about what, if any, consequences female undergraduates experience. Therefore, this study empirically tested if female undergraduates, ages 17-24, who share similar demographics, perceptions, and alcohol use locations as male undergraduates, also share similar alcohol usage patterns, negative consequences, and predictors for both.

Method. Secondary analysis was conducted on 1992 and 1993 United States Department of Education CORE Survey data collected from 345 male and 584 female undergraduates at two Midwestern private liberal arts colleges. Frequency, chi-square (p <.01), and correlational analysis (p<.01) data were used to compare gender usage patterns and negative consequences. Male and female multiple regression predictor models for alcohol usage and negative consequences were created and compared.

Results. Both genders' demographics ...


The Effects Of A Pre-Therapy Information Audiotape On Client Satisfaction, Anxiety Level, Expectations, And Symptom Reduction, Mark A. Davison Jan 1997

The Effects Of A Pre-Therapy Information Audiotape On Client Satisfaction, Anxiety Level, Expectations, And Symptom Reduction, Mark A. Davison

Dissertations

Problem. The effectiveness of pre-therapy information techniques on clients' satisfaction at termination of therapy, increased accuracy of clients' knowledge and expectations, reduction of anxiety, and total symptom reduction remains unclear. No single pre-therapy information preparatory technique has demonstrated positive universal effects.

This research was an attempt to determine the effectiveness of a pre-therapy information audiotape on client satisfaction, accurate knowledge/expectations, reduction of anxiety, and symptom reduction.

Method. The population included 52 voluntary clients who were utilizing the Andrews University Counseling and Testing Center. The clients in the experimental group listened to the pre-therapy information audiotape and were then asked ...


A Comparative Study Of Stressors Among Undergraduate Students At Grand Valley State University, Lennox Forrest Jan 1997

A Comparative Study Of Stressors Among Undergraduate Students At Grand Valley State University, Lennox Forrest

Dissertations

Problem. Past research provides limited information on stress among college students. A significant number of undergraduate students find their college experience very stressful. This present study was to investigate the frequency and severity of stressors among undergraduate students according to class, gender, race, major, living status, student status, work status, and religion.

Method. The subjects for this study were 420 undergraduate students attending Grand Valley State University.A brief demographic questionnaire was utilized, followed by the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire (USQ). Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and t-test analyses were used to analyze the relationship of class, gender, race, major, living status, student ...