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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Maternal Beliefs And Management Strategies Of Peer Interactions As Correlates Of Social Competence In Korean Children, Sunhee Ahn May 1997

Maternal Beliefs And Management Strategies Of Peer Interactions As Correlates Of Social Competence In Korean Children, Sunhee Ahn

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the links between the family and peer systems by examining whether mothers ' beliefs about social skills and management practices of peer interactions were related to their children ' s social relations with peers . The sample was comprised of 185 mothers of preschool children , ranging in age from 44 to 81 months , who resided in Seoul , Korea. Children of the participating mothers were enrolled in center- based preschool programs. Mothers were asked to complete the Maternal Beliefs Scale, the Mothers ' Management Strategies Scale, and demographic measures. Using the Child Behavior Scale, teachers rated the social competence of each child ...


An Examination Of Cognitive And Behavioral Characteristics Of Kainaiwa Children Diagnosed With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Deborah Faith Pace May 1997

An Examination Of Cognitive And Behavioral Characteristics Of Kainaiwa Children Diagnosed With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Deborah Faith Pace

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the scores of 450 Kainaiwa children from Kindergarten to grade 3 on social, behavioral, cognitive and cultural measures. The subjects consisted of children in three different classification groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Special Education, and Regular Education. The purpose of the study was to examine group membership to determine whether or not children who were diagnosed as FAS presented unique intellectual, behavioral, social and cultural characteristics from those of their regular and special education peers.

These results support the conclusion of previous research that FAS children differ significantly from their special and regular education peers. No ...


An Assessment Of The Reliability And Validity Of Scores Obtained By Six Popular Learning Styles Instruments, Renee Snyder May 1997

An Assessment Of The Reliability And Validity Of Scores Obtained By Six Popular Learning Styles Instruments, Renee Snyder

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Learning style refers to the cognitive, physiological, emotional, environmental, sociological, and perceptual manner in which people learn. In order to provide students with an optimal learning environment, it is necessary to match instruction with students' learning style. To do this, student learning style must be assessed by a learning style instrument.

Of the learning style instruments that are currently available, most do not have much evidence of reliability and validity. Additionally, evidence that does exist is weak. Therefore, more psychometric data are needed regarding these instruments. This study provided psychometric evidence for six popular learning styles instruments, including the Learning ...


Attachment, Identity Development, And Sexual Behavior Among College Students, Diana D. Coyl May 1997

Attachment, Identity Development, And Sexual Behavior Among College Students, Diana D. Coyl

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of nonmarital sexual behavior among adolescents continues to rise, as does the number of sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and unwanted pregnancies. College-age adolescents appear to be even more susceptible to these problems. Sound theoretical knowledge would seem useful in designing more effective prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to identity theoretical factors that contribute to or decrease such behaviors.

Two hundred fifty-two single college students completed measures designed to examine relations among identity development, attachment patterns, gender, and sexual behavior in older adolescents. Attachment and identity measures were used to explore variations in sexual behavior relating ...


Frequency And Perception Of Mathematics Activities In Family Child Care And Parent-Child Routines, Annette Kari Eddy May 1997

Frequency And Perception Of Mathematics Activities In Family Child Care And Parent-Child Routines, Annette Kari Eddy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study examined the frequency of preschool mathematics activities at home and in the family child care setting. Provider perception and parent perception of the activities were also surveyed. Twenty-one family child care providers, 38 parents, and 42 preschool children participated in the study. Providers and parents participated in a telephone interview in which they completed either the Day Care Activities Checklist (DAC) or the Parent/Child Activities Checklist (PCAC). Research assistants administered the TEMA-2, a mathematical assessment suitable for preschool children, to the children in the study.

Family child care providers in this study reported engaging in mathematics activities ...


Trainee Perspectives Of Basic Family Therapy Skills, Nancy Webb May 1997

Trainee Perspectives Of Basic Family Therapy Skills, Nancy Webb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Much has been written about family therapy training and supervision from the perspective of teachers and supervisors. However, the perspective of family therapy trainees is not well represented in the literature. Research employing student responses is common, but results are offered from the perspective of the trainers of family therapy and the subjective experience of students is frequent ly left untapped . One area of training and supervision, basic therapy skills, offers no perspectives from family therapy trainees.

This research examined trainee perspectives concerning basic family therapy skills and made comparisons to trainer perspectives regarding the same skills. The findings indicate ...


Predictors Of Employment For Women In A Life Transition, Kathryn Higley May 1997

Predictors Of Employment For Women In A Life Transition, Kathryn Higley

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research explored the association between positive employment outcome (getting a job above poverty wage) and several intake variables for women in transition. The variables (self-esteem, anxiety and/or depression, pretreatment change, family functioning, community/social support, and counseling and assertiveness classes) were identified from the literature for their probable association with positive employment outcome. The intervention of taking an assertiveness class was statistically associated with positive employment outcome. The other variables appear to be linked to positive employment outcome in the direction hypothesized, although none of them reached statistical significance.

The demographic variables of family size and employment status ...


An Implementation Study Of Nonsecure Residential Juvenile Sex Offender Programs In Utah, Katrina Holgate Miller May 1997

An Implementation Study Of Nonsecure Residential Juvenile Sex Offender Programs In Utah, Katrina Holgate Miller

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An inventory, the Juvenile Sex Offender Program Provider Implementation Tool (JSSOPIT), was constructed from guidelines stipulated by the Network on Juveniles Offending Sexually (NOJOS), Medicaid, and the Utah Department of Human Services. Seven nonsecure residential programs for juvenile sex offenders in Utah were evaluated with the JSSOPPIT for implementation in six areas: (a) target population, (b) intake criteria and procedures, (c) treatment constellation, (d) supervision, (e) aftercare, and (f) staff qualifications and training. Favorable implementation was found in several areas, including an appropriate risk level in the target population ; youths' understanding of treatment goals, treatment regimen, and physical environment; and ...


The Relationship Between Weather And Children's Behavior: A Study Of Teacher Perceptions, Carrie Dabb May 1997

The Relationship Between Weather And Children's Behavior: A Study Of Teacher Perceptions, Carrie Dabb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The weather is an ever present and uncontrollable element in our lives. Only a handful of studies has addressed the relationship between weather and the behavior of children, although anecdotal and intuitive evidence of this relationship abounds. The purpose of this study was to observe the behavior of groups of elementary school-aged children in their classroom ecology during different phases of the weather cycle as observed by their teachers, observe any behavioral differences between girls and boys, and observe if any weather -related differences exist between the behavior of younger and older children. A model of the direct and indirect ...


Demographic Influences On Attitudes Toward Adolescent Sexuality In A Rural Wyoming County, Michael J. Dalton May 1997

Demographic Influences On Attitudes Toward Adolescent Sexuality In A Rural Wyoming County, Michael J. Dalton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A countywide survey in Uinta County, Wyoming, was conducted from December 1992 through March 1993. A stratified random sampling method was used in which 647 surveys were distributed with an overall response rate of 59.5%. This study employed analysis of variance (ANOVA) to address four research questions contending that the independent variables o f education, socioeconomic status, employment, and family stat us would differentially account for variation in the dependent variables, which were responses to survey items indicating the "appropriate age" to teach children about human reproduction, consequences of sexual activity, birth control methods, HIV/AIDS prevention, and sexually ...


Mean Length Of Utterance In Relation To Gender And Preschool Activity Area, Angela Sisson Thompson May 1997

Mean Length Of Utterance In Relation To Gender And Preschool Activity Area, Angela Sisson Thompson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Factors influencing language development and use are many. Teacher influences such as teacher:child ratio and teaching experience can affect the types of language children produce. Classroom influences including activities , size of the room, and length of the day also play a role in the development of language. All of these areas need to be considered in order to provide the best possible language environment for the preschool child.

In this study, the researchers examined the mean length of utterance (MLU) values of preschool children while participating at three areas in a preschool classroom : art, dramatic play, and snack. Gender ...


The Global Assessment Of Relationship Functioning As A Global Assessment Of Individual, Couple, And Family Functioning, Ben Lowell Ashcraft May 1997

The Global Assessment Of Relationship Functioning As A Global Assessment Of Individual, Couple, And Family Functioning, Ben Lowell Ashcraft

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Relationship issues underlie most problems that people bring to therapy. Global relationship assessment_ has great potential in helping therapists account systemically for global issues in individual, couple, and family functioning . The purpose of this thesis was to assess the concurrent validity of the Global Assessment of Relationship Functioning (GARF) with standardized self-report measures on individual, couple, and family levels of relationship functioning and to assess the GARF's discriminant validity in distinguishing between clinical and nonclinical groups. It was hypothesized that GARF scores would correlate with scores obtained on the self~ report assessments and that a statistically significant difference would ...


Empirical Investigation Of Efficacy In Home-Based Mental Health Care, Ann Athorp May 1997

Empirical Investigation Of Efficacy In Home-Based Mental Health Care, Ann Athorp

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The current study consisted of two experiments to examine the impact of home-based therapy on mental illness in multiproblem families. Review of the literature focused on the interplay between poverty and mental illness in defining multiproblem families and the utilization of home-based therapy with this population and others. Experiment 1 focused on delineating the type and severity of psychological distress in families characterized as multiproblem. Subjects were 58 participants in the Community-Family Partnership, a Comprehensive Child Development Program located at Utah State University in Logan, Utah. In this sample, serious psychological distress was evident with depression in both women and ...


An Empirical Study Of The Real Exchange Rate Misalignment And Its Effects On The Macro-Economic Performance Of Bangladesh, Md. Shahnawaz Karim May 1997

An Empirical Study Of The Real Exchange Rate Misalignment And Its Effects On The Macro-Economic Performance Of Bangladesh, Md. Shahnawaz Karim

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper provides empirical study of whether there was a misalignment of the real exchange rate (RER) in the Bangladesh economy during 1976-1991. The time series of multilateral and bilateral RER indexes were computed for the period 1976-1991. The computed series of RER were indexed to a base year of when the RER attained its highest level and thereby appeared to be closer to the actual long-run equilibrium RER.

In the empirical part of this thesis, five different RER indexes were computed: multilateral real exchange rate index 1 (MRER1), multilateral real exchange rate index 2 (MRER2), bilateral real exchange index ...


Price And Trade Relations And Market Integration In Pacific Pork Markets, Jau-Rong Li May 1997

Price And Trade Relations And Market Integration In Pacific Pork Markets, Jau-Rong Li

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Market integration testing is important to agricultural marketing, industrial organization, international trade, and international model design. With reliable market integration information, decision makers can undertake appropriate actions to maximize profits, welfare, or both. Level I market analysis, which uses price data solely, has proved unreliable especially in the presence of discontinuous or bidirectional trade, or significant or nonstationary transaction costs.

Level II market analysis methods, which incorporate both transactions costs and prices, permit spatial markets to be integrated in some periods and segmented in others, thereby obviating many level I method problems. However, level II methods still fail to distinguish ...


Language, Play, And Toy Sharing In Infancy, Lisa A. Newland May 1997

Language, Play, And Toy Sharing In Infancy, Lisa A. Newland

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Toy sharing between 97 Infants and their mothers was used to measure shared reference, mother and infant attention-directing strategies, and maternal and infant responsiveness. The association of toy sharing with early language and symbolic play was assessed. Infants were videotaped in a 10-minute free-play session at 11 months. Videotapes were coded for frequency of toy exchanges and level of infant symbolic play. Language was assessed at both 11 and 14 months. Maternal responsiveness to infant-initiated toy exchanges was positively related to symbolic play at 11 months. Maternal responsiveness was also related to Productive, Receptive, and Total Language scores at 14 ...


Cooperative Games: Promoting Prosocial Behaviors In Children, Abbie R. Finlinson May 1997

Cooperative Games: Promoting Prosocial Behaviors In Children, Abbie R. Finlinson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children who develop more prosocial behaviors tend to be more competent socially than those children who develop fewer prosocial behaviors. Group games are especially effective in the facilitation of prosocial behaviors. This study compared the number of prosocial or positive behaviors and negative behaviors displayed during cooperatively and competitively structured game treatments using the Observational Checklistand the Teacher Checklist. We controlled for possible differences in teacher nuturance through the Caregiver Interaction Scale. Participants included 20 boys and 19 girls (mean age = 4 years 7.3 months) enrolled in one of two classes at Utah State University s Adele and Dale ...


Parenting Styles And Family Communication As Correlates Of Juvenile Delinquency, Montone White May 1997

Parenting Styles And Family Communication As Correlates Of Juvenile Delinquency, Montone White

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine parenting styles and family communication as correlates of juvenile delinquency. A review of the literature was completed in the areas of parenting styles, family communication, and juvenile delinquency. The literature that was reviewed for this study was examined mainly from juvenile perceptions. This study was approached from a general systems theory perspective.

A sample of juveniles (N = 78) from Weber County, Utah, involved in the juvenile justice system completed a survey assessing their perception of parenting styles and family communication. The survey was a 25-item questionnaire measuring kindness, unkindness, communication, authoritarian parenting ...


An Investigation Of Internalizing Social-Emotional Characteristics In A Sample Of Lakota Sioux Children, Michael Shawn Williams May 1997

An Investigation Of Internalizing Social-Emotional Characteristics In A Sample Of Lakota Sioux Children, Michael Shawn Williams

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It has only been recently that research in childhood psychopathology has focused

on a group of disorders referred to as internalizing disorders. Internalizing disorders can

include such problems as depression. anxiety, social withdrawal, and somatic complaints.

Even though research has begun to focus on internalizing disorders with majority

children. there has been very little research conducted on ethnic minority children, Native

American children in particular.

The present study involved obtaining a Native American sample and determining

their internalizing symptomology utilizing the Internalizing Symptom Scale for Children

(ISSC), the Reynolds Child Depression Scale (RCDS), and the State Trait Anxiety

Inventory for ...


An Investigation Of The Psychometric Properties And Factor Structure Of The Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale For Children And Adolescents, Melissa Lea Holland May 1997

An Investigation Of The Psychometric Properties And Factor Structure Of The Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale For Children And Adolescents, Melissa Lea Holland

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent problems for which children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States, affecting approximately 3-5% of the childhood population. Although adequate Ill assessment and identification of this disorder is imperative, most of the currently existing rating scales available to assess for ADHD in the childhood population are inadequate. The present research study involved the investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new behavior rating scale, the ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ADHD-SRS), developed for the assessment of ADHD in the school-age (K-12) population.

The participants in ...


Preliminary Development And Content Validation Of A Rating Scale For Assessing Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Children, Melissa Lea Holland May 1997

Preliminary Development And Content Validation Of A Rating Scale For Assessing Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Children, Melissa Lea Holland

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is currently one of the most frequent problems for which children are referred to mental health clinics in this country, affecting approximately 3-5% of the childhood population. Although adequate assessment and identification of this disorder is imperative, most of the currently existing measures to assess for ADHD in children are inadequate . The present research study involved the development and content validation of a new behavior rating scale prototype for assessing ADHD in the school-age (K-12) population.

This research was conducted in five distinct steps: (a) item development; (b) development of the prototype; (c) content validation by ...


A Comparison Of The Impact Of Two Different Levels Of Item Response Effort Upon The Return Rate Of Mailed Questionnaires, Philip L. Rodgers May 1997

A Comparison Of The Impact Of Two Different Levels Of Item Response Effort Upon The Return Rate Of Mailed Questionnaires, Philip L. Rodgers

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mail questionnaires are a popular and valuable method of data collection. Nonresponse bias is, however, a potentially serious threat to their validity. The best way to combat this threat is to obtain the highest possible return rate. To this end, many factors that are believed to influence return rates have been empirically studied. One factor that has not been empirically examined is the impact of item response effort on return rates, where response effort is defined as the amount of effort that is required by a respondent to answer questionnaire items.

The purpose of this study was to determine if ...


The Relationship Between Graduate Students' Education In Research Ethics And Their Attitudes Toward Research Misconduct, Perry Sailor May 1997

The Relationship Between Graduate Students' Education In Research Ethics And Their Attitudes Toward Research Misconduct, Perry Sailor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A mail survey of a nationwide sample of department heads in university departments of mechanical engineering, physiology, and psychology was conducted, in order to determine what these departments were doing to educate their Ph.D. students in research ethics. Department heads were also asked to supply names of the Ph.D. students in their departments. Based on the survey responses, departments within each discipline were then divided into those placing a relatively high versus low emphasis on teaching research ethics. Random samples of students in each emphasis category for each discipline were then surveyed and asked to rate the seriousness ...


An Investigation Of The Temporal Stability Of Self-Reported Internalizing Symptoms In Elementary-Age Children, Kurt David Michael May 1997

An Investigation Of The Temporal Stability Of Self-Reported Internalizing Symptoms In Elementary-Age Children, Kurt David Michael

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past two decades, a great deal of research has been devoted to the understanding of internalizing disorders in children. Internalizing disorders encompass a wide variety of problems, including depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, and somatic complaints. It has been suggested that the existence of internalizing disorders in children has negative effects upon their self-esteem, academic achievement, physical health, and future adjustment. However, because internalizing disorders are, in great measure, subjective perceptions of internal distress, they are often not readily or reliably identified by external observers. As a result, several researchers have stressed the importance of eliciting the child 's ...


Acculturation, Family Variables, And Cognition Of A Subgroup Of American Indian Children Ages 3-9, Michael Alan Cummings May 1997

Acculturation, Family Variables, And Cognition Of A Subgroup Of American Indian Children Ages 3-9, Michael Alan Cummings

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A study was conducted to examine the relationship between specific family variables and measures of cognitive abilities for preschool and young school-aged children of an American Indian ancestry. More specifically, the study used two cognitive measures, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Embedded Figures Test, and examined the influence that 23 family variables and cultural background (acculturation) had on measures of spatial abilities.

Past studies suggested that American Indian children, as a group, perform above the standardization sample on measures of visual-spatial skills, have higher simultaneous processing skills, and are more field independent. It was anticipated that at ...


The Relationship Between Guilt- And Shame-Proneness And Rorschach Indices Of Psychological Functioning, Julie Bingham Shiffler May 1997

The Relationship Between Guilt- And Shame-Proneness And Rorschach Indices Of Psychological Functioning, Julie Bingham Shiffler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the degrees of proneness to the self-conscious emotions of nonruminative guilt, ruminative guilt, and shame and several indices of psychological functioning, including depression, narcissism, anger, dysphoric affect, cooperation, need for affection, and self-inspection, in a college population. Gender differences were also examined.

A measure of psychological functioning (the Rorschach) and a measure of guilt- and shame-proneness (the Test of Self-Conscious Affect--Modified) were administered to 91 college students (43 males and 48 females). Females reported higher levels of all three self-conscious emotions. The only gender difference found among the psychological ...


An Investigation Of The Parenting Stress Index In The Context Of Generalizability Theory, Jim D. Sharpnack May 1997

An Investigation Of The Parenting Stress Index In The Context Of Generalizability Theory, Jim D. Sharpnack

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This present study examined the application of generalizability theory (GT) to the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) long and short forms for families having children with disabilities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the dependability of parenting stress data scores gathered from families having children with disabilities. The data for the present study came from an extant data set collected by the Early Intervention Research Institute (EIRI; Contract #800-85-0173) at Utah State University. The EIRI studies represented attempts to assess the benefits and cost of conducting early intervention programs. The EIRI data were recoded at the item level for ...


The Interactive And Combined Effects Of Domain-Specific Knowledge And Strategic Knowledge On Reading Comprehension, Eric J. Gee May 1997

The Interactive And Combined Effects Of Domain-Specific Knowledge And Strategic Knowledge On Reading Comprehension, Eric J. Gee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The literature in reading comprehension has demonstrated that both domain-specific knowledge and strategic knowledge are vital to good comprehension. However, few studies have actually compared the effects of the two types of knowledge on reading comprehension. Fewer studies have examined the effects of combining the two strategies even though cognitive theories indicate that true comprehension occurs when certain procedures act upon knowledge constructed from the text being read and "link" that knowledge with knowledge in the long-term memory.

This study compared subjects receiving strategic knowledge and content knowledge to subjects receiving strategic knowledge only, subjects receiving content-knowledge only, and a ...


The Efficacy Of Guided Imagery For Recovery From Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Acl) Replacement, Deborah D. Durso-Cupal May 1997

The Efficacy Of Guided Imagery For Recovery From Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Acl) Replacement, Deborah D. Durso-Cupal

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As an exploratory, developmental injury intervention study, this research investigated the efficacy of providing psychological intervention in the form of relaxation and guided imagery to a group of orthopedic patients recovering from major knee surgery. Utilizing a prospective, experimental research design with 30 subjects randomly assigned to either an intervention, placebo, or control group, this study employed physiological as well as psychological outcome measures. Intervention consisted of 10 individual mental practice sessions for intervention group members as an adjunct to physical therapy. Content of these sessions was intentionally designed to facilitate physiotherapy goals. Imagery protocols with which to deliver these ...


An Investigation Of Social Skills And Antisocial Behaviors Of At-Risk Youth: Construct Validation Of The Home And Community Social Behavior Scales, Paul Caldarella May 1997

An Investigation Of Social Skills And Antisocial Behaviors Of At-Risk Youth: Construct Validation Of The Home And Community Social Behavior Scales, Paul Caldarella

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The major purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the construct validity of a new parent rating scale, the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales (HCSBS), that was used to measure the social skills and antisocial behaviors of at-risk youth in Northern Utah. The results indicate that the HCSBS possesses strong internal consistency with high alphas. Convergent validity with both teacher ratings and student self-ratings of social competence and antisocial behavior appeared slight. Discriminant validity was indicated by the near zero correlations between the HCSBS and the KTEA. The instrument appeared able to detect group differences as indicated by the ...