Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1997

University of Pennsylvania

Discipline
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 67

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Phenomenological Variant Of Ecological Systems Theory (Pvest): A Self-Organization Perspective In Context, Margaret Beale Spencer, Davido Dupree, Tracey Hartmann Dec 1997

A Phenomenological Variant Of Ecological Systems Theory (Pvest): A Self-Organization Perspective In Context, Margaret Beale Spencer, Davido Dupree, Tracey Hartmann

GSE Publications

A framework that emphasizes and integrates individuals’ intersubjective experiences with Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory (PVEST) is introduced and compared with self-organizational perspectives. Similarities, differences and advantages of each framework are described. In a demonstration of PVEST’s utility, a subset of data from the 3rd year of a longitudinal study (14-to 16-year-old middle adolescent African–Americans) is used for examining an achievement variable: negative learning attitude. Explored separately by gender, a regression model that contained risk, stress, and a reactive coping variable for the prediction of negative learning attitudes was investigated. For boys, stress was an independent stressor across ...


Where Homeless Families Come From: Toward A Prevention-Oriented Approach In Washington, Dc, Dennis P. Culhane, Chang-Moo Lee Nov 1997

Where Homeless Families Come From: Toward A Prevention-Oriented Approach In Washington, Dc, Dennis P. Culhane, Chang-Moo Lee

Departmental Papers (SPP)

The District of Columbia shelter system currently operates on a continuum of care model that assumes all or most people with housing emergencies should enter shelters and move progressively through a series of fully subsidized residential programs, then on to independence. The federal government encouraged the development of this model, and it is one that predominates nationally. This approach, however, is inflexible and has relatively high fixed unit costs because it assumes that all homeless people, regardless of the nature of their housing emergency, should enter a system of supervised residential programs. In fact, not all segments of the homeless ...


On Automated Message Processing In Electronic Commerce And Work Support Systems: Speech Act Theory And Expressive Felicity, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Scott. A. Moore Oct 1997

On Automated Message Processing In Electronic Commerce And Work Support Systems: Speech Act Theory And Expressive Felicity, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Scott. A. Moore

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Electronic messaging, whether in an office environment or for electronic commerce, is normally carried out in natural language, even when supported by information systems. For a variety of reasons, it would be useful if electronic messaging systems could have semantic access to, that is, access to the meanings and contents of, the messages they process. Given that natural language understanding is not a practicable alternative, there remain three approaches to delivering systems with semantic access: electronic data interchange (EDI), tagged messages, and the development of a formal language for business communication (FLBC). We favor the latter approach. In this article ...


Language Policy, Language Education And Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, And International Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger Oct 1997

Language Policy, Language Education And Language Rights: Indigenous, Immigrant, And International Perspectives, Nancy H. Hornberger

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Talk To Me! The Development Of Request Strategies In Non-Native Speakers Of English, Caryn L. Francis Oct 1997

Talk To Me! The Development Of Request Strategies In Non-Native Speakers Of English, Caryn L. Francis

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


English Article Deletion In Korean Efl Learners' Compositions, Hikyoung Lee Oct 1997

English Article Deletion In Korean Efl Learners' Compositions, Hikyoung Lee

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Instructional Strategies On Second Language Acquisition Processes, Victoria Jo Oct 1997

Effects Of Instructional Strategies On Second Language Acquisition Processes, Victoria Jo

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Calibrated Learning And Correlated Equilibrium, Dean P. Foster, Rakesh V. Vohra Oct 1997

Calibrated Learning And Correlated Equilibrium, Dean P. Foster, Rakesh V. Vohra

Statistics Papers

Suppose two players repeatedly meet each other to play a game where:

1. each uses a learning rule with the property that it is a calibrated forecast of the other's plays, and

2. each plays a myopic best response to this forecast distribution.

Then, the limit points of the sequence of plays are correlated equilibria. In fact, for each correlated equilibrium there is some calibrated learning rule that the players can use which results in their playing this correlated equilibrium in the limit. Thus, the statistical concept of a calibration is strongly related to the game theoretic concept of ...


Dimensions Of Regional Arts And Cultural Participation: Individual And Neighborhood Effects On Participation In The Philadelphia Metropolitan Area, Mark J. Stern Sep 1997

Dimensions Of Regional Arts And Cultural Participation: Individual And Neighborhood Effects On Participation In The Philadelphia Metropolitan Area, Mark J. Stern

Culture Builds Community

One of SIAP's goals has been to explore the dimensions of cultural participation and, in particular, the social context of participation. In a 1994 working paper, Stern used the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) specially commissioned in 1992 for the Philadelphia metropolitan area to which he added information on the number of cultural organizations located in the zip code of each respondent. The results were startling. This rough measure of community cultural resources was significantly correlated with levels of regional participation--that is, the more cultural programs located in their neighborhood, the more likely respondents were to ...


First Lessons: Charter Schools As Learning Communities, Priscilla Wohlstetter, Noelle Griffin Sep 1997

First Lessons: Charter Schools As Learning Communities, Priscilla Wohlstetter, Noelle Griffin

CPRE Policy Briefs

Twenty-eight states, over the past six years, have authorized the creation of charter schools as an alternative form of public education. Charter schools are seen as opportunities to create highperforming learning communities, with improved student performance and other positive results as the goals of these new institutions.

The creation of high-performing learning communities is central to the success of charter schools, but we need to know if these schools, as currently constituted under their enabling legislation, are capable of creating such learning communities. We want to know what elements help to build or to obstruct these learning communities. To answer ...


First Lessons: Charter Schools As Learning Communities, Priscilla Wohlstetter, Noelle Griffin Sep 1997

First Lessons: Charter Schools As Learning Communities, Priscilla Wohlstetter, Noelle Griffin

CPRE Policy Briefs

Twenty-eight states, over the past six years, have authorized the creation of charter schools as an alternative form of public education. Charter schools are seen as opportunities to create highperforming learning communities, with improved student performance and other positive results as the goals of these new institutions.

The creation of high-performing learning communities is central to the success of charter schools, but we need to know if these schools, as currently constituted under their enabling legislation, are capable of creating such learning communities. We want to know what elements help to build or to obstruct these learning communities. To answer ...


Design In The Age Of Information: A Report To The National Science Foundation (Nsf), Daniel Boyarski, Reinhart Butter, Klaus Krippendorff, Richard Solomon, James Tomlinson, Walter Wiebe Jul 1997

Design In The Age Of Information: A Report To The National Science Foundation (Nsf), Daniel Boyarski, Reinhart Butter, Klaus Krippendorff, Richard Solomon, James Tomlinson, Walter Wiebe

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The Information Age is upon us - it has become a global force in our everyday lives.

But the promise of significant benefits from this revolution, which has been driven largely by technologists, will not be realized without more careful planning and design of information systems that can be integral to the simultaneously emerging user-cultures. In cultural terms, information systems must be effective, reliable, affordable, intuitively meaningful, and available anytime and everywhere. In this phase of the information revolution, design will be essential.


The Near East Since The First World War: A History To 1995,, Heather J. Sharkey Jul 1997

The Near East Since The First World War: A History To 1995,, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Does Disputing Through Agents Enhance Cooperation? Experimental Evidence, Rachel Croson, Robert. H. Mnookin Jun 1997

Does Disputing Through Agents Enhance Cooperation? Experimental Evidence, Rachel Croson, Robert. H. Mnookin

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A distinctive characteristic of our mechanisms for conflict resolution is that litigation is carried out by agents chosen by disputing principals. Does the fact that clients choose lawyers to carry on their disputes facilitate dispute resolution or instead exacerbate conflict? The dominant contemporary view is that the involvement of lawyers magnifies the contentiousness of litigation and wastes social resources, prolonging and escalating the conflict in ways that enrich the legal profession but not the clients. But in a recent article, Ronald Gilson and Robert Mnookin suggest another possibility: by choosing lawyers with reputations for cooperation, clients may commit to cooperative ...


Tort Liability: A Minefield For Managed Care?, Patricia. M. Danzon Jun 1997

Tort Liability: A Minefield For Managed Care?, Patricia. M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

The restructuring of health insurance contracts and health care delivery systems under managed care is the result of competitive attempts to reduce the inefficiencies that developed in medical markets under traditional indemnity insurance. Liability rules that continue to apply norms of customary care threaten to undermine these potential efficiency gains. Liability rules under managed care should treat claims for denial of coverage as contractual disputes, to be brought against health plans as residual claimants. Where contracts are ambiguous, appropriate coverage should be determined using a cost-benefit criterion based on beneficiaries’ willingness-to-pay. Liability claims for negligent care should be permitted only ...


An Exact Solution For The Investment And Market Value Of Firm Facing Uncertainty, Adjustment Costs, And Irreversibility, Andrew B. Abel, Janice C. Eberly May 1997

An Exact Solution For The Investment And Market Value Of Firm Facing Uncertainty, Adjustment Costs, And Irreversibility, Andrew B. Abel, Janice C. Eberly

Finance Papers

This paper derives closed-form solutions for the investment and value of a competitive firm with a constant-returns-to-scale production function and convex costs of adjustment. Solutions are derived for the case of irreversible investment as well as for reversible investment. Optimal investment is a non-decreasing function of q, the shadow value of capital. Relative to the case of reversible investment, the introduction of irreversibility does not affect q, but it reduces the fundamental value of the firm.


Arts Resources For Children And Youth In Philadelphia, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert Apr 1997

Arts Resources For Children And Youth In Philadelphia, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert

Arts Resources for Children and Youth in Philadelphia—1995-1997

This report, commissioned in 1995 by The Pew Charitable Trusts, presents findings of a study of arts and cultural resources for children and youth in Philadelphia. The purpose of the project was to examine access to and opportunities in the arts for young people and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the citywide system. The project used two perspectives to assess resources. First, the research team developed a geographic data base of existing nonprofit youth arts providers and arts in the public schools. This was combined with US census data to examine the geography and socio-economic context of existing services ...


Review Of Evelyn Fox Keller, Refiguring Life: Metaphors Of Twentieth-Century Biology, Susan M. Lindee Apr 1997

Review Of Evelyn Fox Keller, Refiguring Life: Metaphors Of Twentieth-Century Biology, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Moleuclar biology has attracted historical attention in recent years, prompted perhaps by the Human Genome Project, the rise of the biotechnology industry, or the exuberant participant-histories of the 1970s and 1980s. A satisfactory explanation of this scientific field and its cultural and political moorings has yet to appear but much new work is on the way.


Tradition And Transition In Second Language Teaching Methodology, Teresa Pica Apr 1997

Tradition And Transition In Second Language Teaching Methodology, Teresa Pica

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Cultural Consciousness In A Language Class, Hiamanti Banerjee Apr 1997

Cultural Consciousness In A Language Class, Hiamanti Banerjee

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Language Policy: Status Planning For The Quechua Language In Peru, Serafin Coronel-Molina Apr 1997

Language Policy: Status Planning For The Quechua Language In Peru, Serafin Coronel-Molina

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Politeness Strategies In The Workplace: Which Experience Help Japanese Businessmen Acquire American English Native-Like Strategies, Yuko Nakajima Apr 1997

Politeness Strategies In The Workplace: Which Experience Help Japanese Businessmen Acquire American English Native-Like Strategies, Yuko Nakajima

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Persistence And Change: Standards-Based Reform In Nine States, Diane Massell, Michael W. Kirst, Margaret Hoppe Apr 1997

Persistence And Change: Standards-Based Reform In Nine States, Diane Massell, Michael W. Kirst, Margaret Hoppe

CPRE Research Reports

Although public education is a constitutional responsibility of state government, state policymakers historically delegated this authority to local school districts, particularly in matters of curriculum and instruction. District policymakers, in turn, usually entrusted the curriculum to teachers or textbook publishers, and hired few district staff to develop or provide instructional guidance (Walker, 1990; Rowan, 1983; Crowson and Morris, 1985). Typically, when state or district policymakers did provide direction, they limited it to bare listings of course requirements or behavioral objectives. Few systems prescribed topics within courses or curricula; guidelines about teaching pedagogy were even rarer (Cohen and Spillane, 1993).

In ...


Persistence And Change: Standards-Based Reform In Nine States, Diane Massell, Michael W. Kirst, Margaret Hoppe Apr 1997

Persistence And Change: Standards-Based Reform In Nine States, Diane Massell, Michael W. Kirst, Margaret Hoppe

CPRE Research Reports

Although public education is a constitutional responsibility of state government, state policymakers historically delegated this authority to local school districts, particularly in matters of curriculum and instruction. District policymakers, in turn, usually entrusted the curriculum to teachers or textbook publishers, and hired few district staff to develop or provide instructional guidance (Walker, 1990; Rowan, 1983; Crowson and Morris, 1985). Typically, when state or district policymakers did provide direction, they limited it to bare listings of course requirements or behavioral objectives. Few systems prescribed topics within courses or curricula; guidelines about teaching pedagogy were even rarer (Cohen and Spillane, 1993).

In ...


Who Is Telling Stories And Whose Stories Are Being Told?, Anne Pomerantz Apr 1997

Who Is Telling Stories And Whose Stories Are Being Told?, Anne Pomerantz

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Persistence And Change: Standards-Based Reform In Nine States, Diane Massell, Michael W. Kirst, Margaret Hoppe Mar 1997

Persistence And Change: Standards-Based Reform In Nine States, Diane Massell, Michael W. Kirst, Margaret Hoppe

CPRE Policy Briefs

Beginning in the mid-to-late-1980s, state policymakers began to rethink their strategies for influencing curriculum and instruction in public education and adopted a policy strategy known as standards-based, systemic reform.

The rapidity with which the idea of standards-based, systemic reform took hold is remarkable, if not without historical precedent in the strongly networked field of education. Originally incubating quietly in the enclaves of professional subject-matter associations like the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, efforts to set standards and articulate systemic reforms based on them were soon generated by nearly every state in the union (American Federation of Teachers, 1995) and ...


Mechanisms Of Momentum: Does Thinking Make It So?, Diana C. Mutz Feb 1997

Mechanisms Of Momentum: Does Thinking Make It So?, Diana C. Mutz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate several potential theoretical frameworks for understanding the social psychological processes underlying the effects of momentum. Using an experimental design embedded within a national survey conducted during the 1992 Democratic presidential primary season, I examined several potential explanations for changes in candidate preference that result from changing perceptions of public support. Findings were most supportive of an explanation based on the cognitive responses elicited by hearing about others' views. Consensus cues stimulated additional information processing and a reassessment of the individual's own position; information about mass support for candidates triggered respondents who ...


Art And Social Change: Aids Activism In Philadelphia, Mary Stuart Petty Feb 1997

Art And Social Change: Aids Activism In Philadelphia, Mary Stuart Petty

Culture Builds Community

This study examines the social and political aspects of the AIDS epidemic through the lens of local arts and culture in the city of Philadelphia, asking these questions:

  • What are the social roles of arts production and cultural activities arising in response to the AIDS epidemic?
  • Are the categories of AIDS politics, such as treatment activism and prevention activism, or distinctions among infected populations reflected in cultural production?
  • Is the concept of a “day without art” relevant only to those who count as artists and to their affluent patrons?
  • How have the changing demographics of the epidemic affected AIDS related ...


Social Citizenship And Urban Poverty, Mark J. Stern Feb 1997

Social Citizenship And Urban Poverty, Mark J. Stern

Culture Builds Community

The increased visibility of concentrated urban poverty has posed a variety of intellectual and policy challenges in the past decade. The spread of joblessness and economic disinvestment has left many urban neighborhoods in ruins. Fears about the culture and family life of the poor have motivated a variety of responses, including the recent “welfare reform” effort that ended the federal government’s guarantee of financial assistance to dependent children.

The author has argued in previous papers that the underclass thesis--which draws a sharp distinction between the underclass and the mainstream--has served an ideological role with respect to social changes ...


Behavioral And Phenomenological Judaism, Elihu Katz Jan 1997

Behavioral And Phenomenological Judaism, Elihu Katz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.