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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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1997

Old Dominion University

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Articles 1 - 20 of 20

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Subsystem Variables Associated With Positive Foster Mother-Foster Child Relationships, Meg Sandow Oct 1997

Subsystem Variables Associated With Positive Foster Mother-Foster Child Relationships, Meg Sandow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Many researchers have explored variables that appear to influence a foster child's placement, and both researchers and theorists have noted the need for an overarching understanding of the variables that may affect a foster child's care and progress. This study examined four interlinking subsystems of foster care: the foster child, the family of origin, the foster parent, and the social worker. Data regarding relevant variables for each of these subsystems were analyzed by means of canonical correlations, factor analyses, a multiple regression, and zero-order correlations. Participants in the study were 42 foster children from the Chesapeake and Suffolk ...


African-American Males' Perception Of Law Enforcement: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Adolph Brown Iii Jul 1997

African-American Males' Perception Of Law Enforcement: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Adolph Brown Iii

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study compared the psychophysiological reactivity of African American and European American males to authority. Nineteen African American males and 23 European American males were randomly assigned to either be interrogated by a police officer, or see a police officer interrogate that experimenter or view a videotape of police activity. Participants' physiological reactivity, acceptance of authority, fear of negative evaluation or social anxiety, and apprehension and anxiety in stressful situations as well as EMG, SCR, heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure were measured. African American males were hypothesized to show greater physiological response than European American males and participants who ...


A Comparison Of Factors Associated With Referrals, Service Placements And Length Of Service For African-American And Caucasian Youth With Serious Emotional And Behavioral Disturbances Served Through The Comprehensive Services Act In Virginia, Vanessa B. Sheppard Jul 1997

A Comparison Of Factors Associated With Referrals, Service Placements And Length Of Service For African-American And Caucasian Youth With Serious Emotional And Behavioral Disturbances Served Through The Comprehensive Services Act In Virginia, Vanessa B. Sheppard

Health Services Research Dissertations

Despite the efficacy of community-based treatment, many emotionally and behaviorally disturbed youth still receive restrictive service placements. This is quite problematic for minority youth since studies have reported they are more at risk of out-of-home placements. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in referrals, out-of-home placements, residential placements and length of service for African-American and Caucasian youth. This historical cohort study was a secondary analysis of data from the Comprehensive Services Act in Virginia. The sample consisted of 2,883 youth ages 10-19. Multiple logistic regression was employed for data with dichotomous outcomes in order to adjust ...


Fostering The Development Of Domain-General, Nonlinear Mental Models: A Foundation For Systemic Thinking, Jeffrey S. Sinn Jul 1997

Fostering The Development Of Domain-General, Nonlinear Mental Models: A Foundation For Systemic Thinking, Jeffrey S. Sinn

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Two experiments examined whether people can develop a domain-general, nonlinear mental model when provided with an appropriate conceptual model. Both experiments presented causal loop models (i.e., variables connected in a circle by arrows representing causal relationships) as a conceptual model for positive feedback. Study 1 found that participants trained in causal loop modeling could accurately represent scenarios of low but not high complexity. Study 2 expanded on the design of Study 1 by varying the type of training and type of aid presented during testing. Participants received training with modeling instruction, training with cue-utilization instruction (i.e., participants were ...


A Comparison Of Coping Styles And Body Image Of Abused And Non-Abused Women, Laura Elizabeth Brown Jul 1997

A Comparison Of Coping Styles And Body Image Of Abused And Non-Abused Women, Laura Elizabeth Brown

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study compared body image, patterns of coping, and the relationship between these factors in subjects with and without a reported background of childhood incest. Self-report measures of personal experience (Relevant Variable Questionnaire and the Assessment of Coping Interview), body image (the Human Figure Drawing Test (HFDT) and the Body Image Assessment (BIA)), and coping (the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (AECOM) Coping Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)) were administered individually to twenty-two women with reported incest histories and an equal number of women with no reported history of sexual or physical abuse. Significant ...


To Lead A Team: Construct Validity Evidence For Team Leadership In The High-Tech Industry, Johanna M. Merritt Jul 1997

To Lead A Team: Construct Validity Evidence For Team Leadership In The High-Tech Industry, Johanna M. Merritt

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to gather evidence of construct validity for functions of team leadership. The research built on a continuing line of background research. Three hundred and thirty-seven team leaders from sixty-three companies in the manufacturing electronics industry participated in the studies and completed surveys.

Four types of validity evidence were examined: content, criterion-related, convergent, and discriminant. Content validity evidence was demonstrated in Study 1. The overwhelming majority of team leaders perFormed the proposed functions and rated them as important. A confirmatory analysis did not indicate a parsimonious fit among the seven functions that were generated from background research ...


The Measurement Of Mood Variation Over Time And Its Relation To Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy In Young Adolescents, William Thomas Pinkston Apr 1997

The Measurement Of Mood Variation Over Time And Its Relation To Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy In Young Adolescents, William Thomas Pinkston

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

Variation in mood states over time and the relationship between mood states and career decision making self-efficacy in young adolescents were investigated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List - Revised (MAACL-R), the Rotter's IE locus of control test, and the Career Planning Confidence Scale (CPCS). These tests were administered twice a week for six weeks. A correlational analysis was performed. The results showed a higher correlation between mood state measures as the subjects' moods varied over time than between either mood measure and locus of control which did not covary with either of ...


Self-Concept Of Eating-Restrained Women: A Study Of Personal Constructs, Adelia Atkinson Furr Apr 1997

Self-Concept Of Eating-Restrained Women: A Study Of Personal Constructs, Adelia Atkinson Furr

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

A modified version of Kelly's Repertory Test was administered to 15 women identified as eating-restrained, 21 women identified as non-eating-restrained and matched on neuroticism, and 15 women identified as non-eating restrained and low on neuroticism in order to elicit personal constructs related to being overweight, average weight, and underweight. The personal constructs were used in measures of components of self-concept: real self, ideal self, social self, and ideal social self. It was hypothesized that in comparison to the other two groups, the eating-restrained women would exhibit a distinct pattern among the components of self-concept: Real and ideal selves would ...


Councilmanic Perceptions Of Water Policy For The Lake Gaston Water Supply Project In Virginia And North Carolina, Beverly Mcafee Hedberg Apr 1997

Councilmanic Perceptions Of Water Policy For The Lake Gaston Water Supply Project In Virginia And North Carolina, Beverly Mcafee Hedberg

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Management

The purpose of this case study is to analyze the perceptions of city council members in formulating and implementing policy on the Lake Gaston Water Supply Project in Virginia and North Carolina. A comparison of the perceptions of twenty-three members of three city councils: Henderson, North Carolina; Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina; and Virginia Beach, Virginia serves as the basis for analysis. Their perceptions of the issues and how they view other actors in the intergovernmental arena, within the context of the Lake Gaston Water Supply Project.

Specifically, the research examines how city council members view (1) water-policy issues, (2) the ...


Towards Understanding Why Assessment Centers Work: An Evaluation Of The Subtle Criterion Contamination Hypothesis, Christopher T. Rotolo Apr 1997

Towards Understanding Why Assessment Centers Work: An Evaluation Of The Subtle Criterion Contamination Hypothesis, Christopher T. Rotolo

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The success of the assessment center method in predicting job performance has been one of the most researched efforts in personnel psychology (Thornton, 1992). However, there is little reported evidence showing that assessment center procedures produce scores that serve as valid representations of separate constructs (Klimoski & Brickner, 1987). It is perhaps ironic, then, that despite the success stories, we still do not understand why assessment centers "work," (i.e., predict performance).

This study examined the subtle criterion contamination hypothesis as an explanation to assessment center validity. The subtle criterion contamination hypothesis states that assessment centers predict managerial performance because assessors ...


A Case Study Of The Perceptions Of Character Education In A Large Urban Community, Suzanne G. Houff Apr 1997

A Case Study Of The Perceptions Of Character Education In A Large Urban Community, Suzanne G. Houff

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

This case study seeks to provide insight into the community perception of character education in a large urban area that does not currently implement an explicit program in moral values. The community is established through adolescents in middle school, parents of the adolescents, school counselors and community members. Informants are selected in an attempt to ensure a diverse cross section of the middle school communities.

Perceptions of character education are established through the process of interviews and a card sort involving a total N of 72 stakeholders. Each respondent is asked to provide definitions, synonyms and/or examples of a ...


A Sociotechnical Systems Analysis Of The Approval Process For A Complex Public Works Proposal, James C. Pyne Apr 1997

A Sociotechnical Systems Analysis Of The Approval Process For A Complex Public Works Proposal, James C. Pyne

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This research applied sociotechnical systems theory to explore the process used by two elected bodies to decide upon adoption of a complex technical engineering proposal. The research used a modified sociotechnical systems conceptual framework that was developed by Pava (1983) for application to non-traditional work settings. Pava applied the conceptual framework to what he termed non-routine office work which is characterized by non-linear conversion flow, multiple, concurrent conversion processes and vocational separatism (Pava, 1983).

The research was designed as a multiple case study of two town councils each undertaking a decision process to approve or reject a public works proposal ...


Structural Equation Modeling Of Attitudes Toward Employment Testing, Laura Susan Hamil Apr 1997

Structural Equation Modeling Of Attitudes Toward Employment Testing, Laura Susan Hamil

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This research investigated the relationships among past testing experiences, testing attitudes, perceptions of test performance, race, and gender. In addition, the effects of testing information on testing attitudes were studied. Two hundred and twelve applicants to a variety of positions in a large telecommunications company were asked to complete a series of questionnaires before and after employment testing. The questionnaires included measures of testing experience, general and specific testing attitudes, and perceptions of test performance. Scores on the employment test were also obtained as a measure of cognitive ability. Of the 212 participants, half were given a brochure to read ...


The Effects Of Human-Computer Communication Mode, Task Complexity, And Desire For Control On Performance And Discourse Organization In An Adaptive Task, Cristina Bubb-Lewis Jan 1997

The Effects Of Human-Computer Communication Mode, Task Complexity, And Desire For Control On Performance And Discourse Organization In An Adaptive Task, Cristina Bubb-Lewis

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The present study examined how different communication patterns affected task performance with an adaptive interface. A Wizard-of-Oz simulation (Gould, Conti, & Hovanyecz, 1983) was used to create the impression of a talking and listening computer that acted as a teammate to help participants interact with a computer application.

Four levels of communication mode were used which differed in the level of restriction placed on human-computer communication. In addition, participants completed two sets of tasks (simple and complex). Further, a personality trait, Desire for Control (DC), was measured and participants were split into high and low groups for analysis. Dependent measures included ...


A Survey Of Health Care Personnel's Perceptions Toward Diversity In The Workplace, Jacqueline Elaine Sharpe Jan 1997

A Survey Of Health Care Personnel's Perceptions Toward Diversity In The Workplace, Jacqueline Elaine Sharpe

Health Services Research Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity climate in a large teaching military hospital by assessing the perceptions of employees regarding the organizational climate, including aspects of the climate related to ethnicity, gender, age, physical ability, sexual orientation, and job level. All 3,176 eligible employees based in the medical center were invited to participate, 1,252 did so (RR = 40%). Participants were 37% minority, 57% females, 25% officer, 30% enlisted, and 45% civilian. Twenty-four percent were at the managerial level. Perceptions of the diversity climate were measured using the Diversity Survey Instrument (the reliability and validity ...


Coping Processes Used By Mothers Of Triplets, Susan Mullen Kaplan Jan 1997

Coping Processes Used By Mothers Of Triplets, Susan Mullen Kaplan

Health Services Research Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to identify and describe the coping processes used by mothers of triplets. Using a descriptive design, interpersonal comparisons of 92 mothers of triplets attending a national meeting of families of higher order multiples were made. Variables, in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, included coping processes, levels of depression, perceived availability of social support, and current stress levels. Coping processes were measured using the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988), derived from their cognitive-phenomenological theory of stress and coping. Level of depression was measured using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung, 1965). Perceived availability of ...


Social Support, Prior Interracial Experiences, And Network Orientation: Factors Related To Later Adjustment Among Black Freshmen At A Predominantly White University, Calvin Graham Jan 1997

Social Support, Prior Interracial Experiences, And Network Orientation: Factors Related To Later Adjustment Among Black Freshmen At A Predominantly White University, Calvin Graham

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

African-American students (mostly Freshmen) enrolled for the first year at a four-year university completed information about the racial composition of their high school, family income, living arrangements, and stressor prior to entering school. At two times during the first semester they completed measures of social support, network orientation and adaptation to college. Information about Grade Point Average (GPA) for the following term and attendance at the University one year later were also obtained. Racial composition of high school had some affect on social support at the university: Students from integrated and mainly Black high schools reported more social support satisfaction ...


A Repertory Grid Assessment Of Traitedness And Its Relation To The Validity Of The Neo Pi-R Conscientiousness Scale, Susan Nancy Heidal-Schiltz Jan 1997

A Repertory Grid Assessment Of Traitedness And Its Relation To The Validity Of The Neo Pi-R Conscientiousness Scale, Susan Nancy Heidal-Schiltz

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Since Allport (1937) first introduced the idea that traits may vary in their relevance for particular individuals, several investigators have explored ways to operationalize the construct of traitedness in order to improve the criterion-related validity of a trait-based approach to personality assessment. Specifically, these investigators have examined the utility of traitedness indicators as moderators of trait-criterion correlations, seeking to separate those individuals who are predictable on a given trait dimension from those who are not. This study attempted to determine whether the criterion-related validity of the Conscientiousness scale from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) varies ...


A Comparison Of White Male College Students Attending An Urban Black University And An Urban White University: White Racial Identity And Perceived Comfort With Blacks, Cheryl Lorraine Evans Jan 1997

A Comparison Of White Male College Students Attending An Urban Black University And An Urban White University: White Racial Identity And Perceived Comfort With Blacks, Cheryl Lorraine Evans

Theses and Dissertations in Urban Services - Urban Education

The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in White Racial Identity and degree of tolerance for Blacks between two samples of White male undergraduate students attending an urban Black university and those attending an urban White university. The theoretical framework for this study was based in Social Contact Theory as a contributor to racial tolerance and Racial Identity Development Theory as a factor in human growth toward increasing acceptance of diversity. This was a quasi-experimental post-hoc design using intact groups.

The study analyzed the responses of 182 White male undergraduates using three instruments. A Background Questionnaire, designed ...


The Effects Of Race And Socioeconomic Status On The Acceptance Of Biracial Individuals, Erika Lela Gilyot Jan 1997

The Effects Of Race And Socioeconomic Status On The Acceptance Of Biracial Individuals, Erika Lela Gilyot

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The present study investigated the effects of race and socioeconomic status on the acceptance of biracial individuals having one Black and one White parent. A sample of 153 Black and 114 White college students were divided into high- and low-socioeconomic status based on demographic information. Acceptance of biracial individuals was measured by 2 modified versions of the Social Distance Scale (SDS1 and SDS2) developed by Bogardus (1928), a shortened version of the Scale To Measure Attitudes Toward Defined Groups (AS) developed by Grice (1934), and a measure of Perceived Commonality (PC) developed by Feather (1980). The Marlowe-Crowne (1960) Social Desirability ...