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Articles 1 - 7 of 7

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Relational And Overt Aggression In Preschool, Nikki R. Crick, Juan F. Casas, Monique Mosher Jul 1997

Relational And Overt Aggression In Preschool, Nikki R. Crick, Juan F. Casas, Monique Mosher

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research was designed as an initial attempt to assess relational aggression in preschool-age children. Our goal was to develop reliable measures of relational aggression for young children and to use these instruments to address several important issues (e.g., the relation between this form of aggression and social–psychological adjustment). Results provide evidence that relationally aggressive behaviors appear in children's behavioral repertoires at relatively young ages, and that these behaviors can be reliably distinguished from overtly aggressive behaviors in preschool-age children. Further, findings indicate that preschool girls are significantly more relationally aggressive and less overtly aggressive than preschool ...


The Book Of Predictions: Fifteen Years Later, Alan M. Tuerkheimer, Stuart Vyse Mar 1997

The Book Of Predictions: Fifteen Years Later, Alan M. Tuerkheimer, Stuart Vyse

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Understanding Power In The College Classroom, Aubrey Immelman Mar 1997

Understanding Power In The College Classroom, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This article presents a theoretical framework for conceptualizing power relations in educational settings and argues that research on the metamorphic effects of social power provides an empirical basis for the constructive use of power in the college classroom. It recommends that teachers should concentrate on strengthening their informational, expert, and referent power bases; limit their use of legitimate and reward power; and avoid the exercise of coercive power at practically any cost.


Intrathecal Urokinase As A Treatment For Intraventricular Hemorrhage In The Preterm Infant, Roger J. Hudgins, William R. Boydston, Patricia A. Hudgins, Robin Morris, Saul M. Adler, Carita Lynn Gilreath Jan 1997

Intrathecal Urokinase As A Treatment For Intraventricular Hemorrhage In The Preterm Infant, Roger J. Hudgins, William R. Boydston, Patricia A. Hudgins, Robin Morris, Saul M. Adler, Carita Lynn Gilreath

Psychology Faculty Publications

Despite improvements in the care of preterm infants, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) continue to be frequent occurrences in this patient population. Shunt procedures in these children are frequently complicated by obstruction and/or infection. As the hydrocephalus is usually caused by an obliterative arachnoiditis due to contact of the blood with the basilar meninges, it was postulated that infusion of urokinase into the ventricles of infants who have sustained an IVH would clear the blood, mitigate the arachnoiditis, and prevent the progression of PHH. Accordingly, 18 preterm infants who had sustained IVH and subsequently developed PHH were ...


Prejudice Toward Fat People: The Development And Validation Of The Antifat Attitudes Test, Robin J. Lewis, Thomas F. Cash, Lora Jacobi, Cristina Bubb-Lewis Jan 1997

Prejudice Toward Fat People: The Development And Validation Of The Antifat Attitudes Test, Robin J. Lewis, Thomas F. Cash, Lora Jacobi, Cristina Bubb-Lewis

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although the stigma of obesity in our society is well documented, the measurement of antifat attitudes has been a difficult undertaking, Two studies were conducted to construct and validate the Antifat Attitudes Test (AFAT), In study 1, college students (110 men and 175 women) completed the preliminary 54-item AFAT and specific indices of body image and weight-related concerns, Psychometric and factor analysis revealed a 47-item composite scale and three internally consistent factors that were uncorrelated with social desirability: Social/Character Disparagement, Physical/Romantic Unattractiveness, and Weight Control/Blame. Several body image correlates of antifat prejudice were identified, and men expressed ...


Women: The Ignored Majority, Carol T. Mowbray, Daphna Oyserman, Catherine J. Lutz, Rogeair Purnell Jan 1997

Women: The Ignored Majority, Carol T. Mowbray, Daphna Oyserman, Catherine J. Lutz, Rogeair Purnell

Psychology Faculty Publications

The major thrust of psychiatric rehabilitation is to provide skill development and supports enabling individuals to function in their roles of choice. The model thus contains an underlying assumption that meaningful life roles are “chosen” roles. It therefore may tend to overlook the impact on persons’ lives of the roles that they are given. These given or ascribed roles include those based on gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. Self-definitions, behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, and values are all likely to be structured within such social roles, which can also serve as important social identities (Oyserman & Markus, 1993). In spite of increased awareness of gender as an issue, in current Western culture, gendered roles are those for which there are, perhaps, the least latitude. Yet, as we shall show, the field of psychiatric rehabilitation has paid little attention to the subject of gender differences. We reviewed the 1992-93 volumes of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal and found that only 15 out of a total of 21 studies, which reported information on individuals who were recipients of psychiatric rehabilitation services, presented the gender composition 171 of the study sample at all. Furthermore, of these articles, less than half (N = 6) tested for gender differences (40%). Thus, only 28% of the articles could inform their readers about whether men and women differed on the study results.

It seems likely that when differences between women and men are not even examined, the result is likely to be a service model that is theoretically androgenous, but in actuality male-biased. Again, the psychiatric rehabilitation literature on service approaches bears this out. The primary domain considered in services is vocational. There has been some consideration of the generic topic of rehabilitation in housing choices. However, those domains where women are considered to occupy primary roles, e.g., the family, parenting, and interpersonal relationships (Miller & Stiver, 1993), have received scant attention (Oyserman, Mowbray & Zemencuk, 1996).

This lack of concern for possible gender differences in psychiatric rehabilitation overall and especially to those issues of primary concern to women, is not unique to this field, but may be seen to reflect the perspective of the entire psychiatric/mental health establishment. For decades, feminist scholars and advocates have decried sex bias in the treatment system. Early research by Braverman et al. (1970) established the negative perceptions of women held by clinicians and the double bind in which women were placed, in that the expected characteristics of a “healthy” adult varied markedly from those for an adult female. Similarly, Chesler (1972) contended that because gendered roles were so proscriptive of mental health, women were in double jeopardy; those who overconformed to female sex roles ...


Problem Construction And Creativity: The Role Of Ability, Cue Consistency, And Active Processing, Roni Reiter-Palmon, American Institutes For Research, Jennifer O'Connor Boes, Mark A. Runco Jan 1997

Problem Construction And Creativity: The Role Of Ability, Cue Consistency, And Active Processing, Roni Reiter-Palmon, American Institutes For Research, Jennifer O'Connor Boes, Mark A. Runco

Psychology Faculty Publications

Problem construction has been suggested as the first step in creative problem solving, but our understanding of the underlying process is limited. According to a model of problem construction (Mumford, Reiter-Palmon, & Redmond, 1994), problem construction ability, active engagement in problem construction, and the presence of diverse and inconsistent cues influence creative problem solving. To test these hypotheses, 195 undergraduates were asked to solve 6 real-life problems and complete a measure of problem construction ability. Active engagement in problem construction was manipulated by instructions to the participants. Cue consistency was manipulated by the information presented in the problem situation. The quality ...