Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1997

Psychology

Wilfrid Laurier University

Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Qualitative, Participatory Study Of The Process Of Becoming An Advocate For Nonhuman Animals, Angela Kathleen Raithby Jan 1997

A Qualitative, Participatory Study Of The Process Of Becoming An Advocate For Nonhuman Animals, Angela Kathleen Raithby

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This thesis begins with an overview of some published works concerning oppression, its alleviation and the interconnectedness of its various forms, as they relate to the diverse area which is loosely referred to as ‘animal rights’. In general terms, the ultimate goal of choosing to do this thesis in the area of animal rights is to further the defence of nonhuman animals. The purpose of this specific project is to document, compare, and contrast a range of examples of the process of changing relationships and becoming an advocate for other animals. These examples, the experiences and life stories of five ...


Pentobarbital-Induced Place Aversion Learning, Gilbert Lew Jan 1997

Pentobarbital-Induced Place Aversion Learning, Gilbert Lew

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Pentobarbital is self-administered by rats, but has also been reported to produce a conditioned place aversion. Since the self-administration and place preference paradigms both are considered to assess drug reward, we further examined the hedonic properties of pentobarbital using place conditioning. In Experiment 1, a dose of 15 mg/kg (ip) of pentobarbital produced a conditioned place aversion following 4 conditioning trials of various durations (5, 15, 30 or 60 min). Since rats are typically drug-experienced in the self-administration paradigm. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effect of drug history on pentobarbital-induced place conditioning. Although preexposure to pentobarbital attenuated the ...


Specific Dopaminergic Manipulation Of The Internal Clock Mechanism, Lianne Elizabeth Stanford Jan 1997

Specific Dopaminergic Manipulation Of The Internal Clock Mechanism, Lianne Elizabeth Stanford

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Using non-specific dopaminergic agents, Meck (1983, 1986) and his colleagues have repeatedly demonstrated manipulations of the internal clock mechanism, while showing no other changes to the psychophysical function (DL & WF). The current study used analyses and procedures similar to those of Meck (1983) and investigated the internal clock mechanism with the specific D2 agonist, quinpirole. Two groups were trained with saline and tested with quinpirole (0.08 mg/kg). One group was naive to the drug prior to testing (DN), while the other had previous drug exposure (DE). A third group (DT) was trained with quinpirole, and tested with saline. The DN and DE groups revealed no differences in acquisition, no predicted shift in the point of subjective equality (PSE), and changes in the DL and WF, when compared over phase. The DT group acquired the task more slowly and to a lower criterion, and no differences were found in the PSE, DL, or WF, over phase. The data presented here do not support dopaminergic control over the clock component as represented in the Internal Clock Model (Church, 1989). Results are consistent with other research (Lejeune et al., 1995; Rapp & Robbins, 1976; Santi et al., 1995; Stubbs & Thomas, 1974) in suggesting that dopaminergic control of the internal clock is more complex than was once thought.


Barely A Whisper In The System: Parents' Perspectives On The Prevention Of Foster Care Placement, Tammie O. Belliveau Jan 1997

Barely A Whisper In The System: Parents' Perspectives On The Prevention Of Foster Care Placement, Tammie O. Belliveau

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Despite an abundance of literature stressing the need to prevent child maltreatment and foster care placement, information related to the prevention of foster care placement and child maltreatment from a parent's perspective is virtually nonexistent. This research utilized qualitative research techniques to elicit parental perspectives on the prevention of foster care placement and child maltreatment. Results were analyzed utilizing Belsky's (1980) ecological framework for child maltreatment and a risk and protective framework. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical, research, practical and personal implications. Practical implications stress the importance of creating interventions which (a) strive to build self-esteem ...


Animal Memory Processes For Number And Time: Pigeons, Methamphetamine, And The Internal Clock Model, James W. Coyle Jan 1997

Animal Memory Processes For Number And Time: Pigeons, Methamphetamine, And The Internal Clock Model, James W. Coyle

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The mode-control model of counting and timing (Meek & Church, 1983) suggests that discriminations based on number and time may be controlled by the same internal clock mechanism. In Experiment 1, two groups of pigeons were initially trained to perform delayed symbolic matching-to-sample (DSMTS) at a 5s fixed baseline delay, with sample stimuli that consisted of sequences of flashing light. Testing was conducted with a range of delays (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10s). In the Number Group, control by number was established by varying the number of flashes while holding time constant. In the Time Group, control by ...


Achieving Diversity (Sciences, Relativism, Compassion), Erich John Knerr Jan 1997

Achieving Diversity (Sciences, Relativism, Compassion), Erich John Knerr

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This thesis is about achieving diversity in our society and in our world. In it I examine attributes of relativism as well as understandings of our existence in order to develop a model for achieving diversity. I examine our present model of science and the approach of romanticism and conclude that our sciences today are really about control and domination. I propose that the goals of our sciences should not be about domination, and therefore neither should our methods of science. Further, I propose that attributes of relativism represent a necessary beginning in achieving diversity and in bringing compassion into ...


The Comprehensive Organizational Social Support Tool: Cosst Assessment, Amanda Kroger Jan 1997

The Comprehensive Organizational Social Support Tool: Cosst Assessment, Amanda Kroger

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This thesis describes the development of an instrument (the Comprehensive Organizational Social Support Tool (COSST)) designed to assess the extent to which organizations foster socially supportive interactions amongst their employees. Research indicates that the support that individuals receive from their co-workers in the workplace can have a significant impact on their physical and emotional health, and their commitment to, and performance within, an organization. Organizations can do much to foster these kinds of supportive interactions. However, in order for an organization to determine the strategies it should employ in enhancing support, it is necessary to assess what it is currently ...


A Case Study Of Partnerships In Practice, Heather Lorraine Macgillivary Jan 1997

A Case Study Of Partnerships In Practice, Heather Lorraine Macgillivary

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Despite calls for partnership from government, human service organizations, researchers, consumers and providers, there is very little literature about partnership. This research attempts to better understand the concept of partnership through a case study of Waterloo Regional Homes for Mental Health Inc., an organization which is implementing partnership oriented practices. Data collected included 11 key informant interviews, a review of documents, and process notes. Findings were organized around definition, facilitative and impeding factors, and outcomes of partnership. Defining values of partnership which emerged were collaborative interaction, power-sharing, shared decision-making, stakeholder involvement, resource sharing, shared responsibility, and equality. Facilitative and impeding ...


Cross-Cultural Differences In Parenting And Moral Development In Late Adolescence: A Narrative Approach, Wanna E. Mar Jan 1997

Cross-Cultural Differences In Parenting And Moral Development In Late Adolescence: A Narrative Approach, Wanna E. Mar

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated differences in parenting and late adolescents’ moral development in two cultural groups: Chinese-Canadian and European-Canadian Measures of parental authoritativeness and degree of parental influence on moral values were administered to a sample of 62 European-Canadian and 40 Chinese-Canadian university students, aged 17-26 years. The participants were then compared with respect to two outcome measures, one assessing the degree to which they internalized and represented parents’ viewpoints (“voice”) in narratives about moral socialization, and the other assessing level of moral reasoning development. Results indicated that reported parental authoritativeness was positively related to the degree of parent “voice” displayed ...


Social Support, Campus Involvement, And The Adjustment To University, Krista Martin Jan 1997

Social Support, Campus Involvement, And The Adjustment To University, Krista Martin

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This thesis sought to assess the relationships between students’ involvement in campus life and their adjustment to university. Additionally, the study examined some of the possible determinants of involvement in campus activities (i.e., living in residence, past involvement in school activities, and parental community involvement). Ninety-eight introductory psychology students completed a questionnaire containing measures of campus involvement, social support, residential status, students’ past involvement in school activities and their parents’ involvement in community organizations. Results indicated that students who were involved in campus organizations and activities were better adjusted to university social life. In addition, there was some evidence ...


Value Dilemmas In Striving For Social Justice: A Case Study Of The Working Centre (Ontario), Stephen Orr Jan 1997

Value Dilemmas In Striving For Social Justice: A Case Study Of The Working Centre (Ontario), Stephen Orr

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study examines the Working Centre, a self-help resource centre for the unemployed in Kitchener, and how it has responded to the changing nature of work. It explores the growth of global capitalism and the impact of new technologies on the workplace. The study also examines how economic restructuring leads to high levels of unemployment and part-time work. The thesis reviews the Working Centre’s mission, goals and objectives, and how these have been translated into action in the Centre’s early years and today. Finally, this study discusses the Centre’s efforts to pursue a social justice agenda in ...


Breaking The Silence: New Immigrant Children Affected By War Trauma. Community Needs And Resources Assessment, Danijela Seskar-Hencic Jan 1997

Breaking The Silence: New Immigrant Children Affected By War Trauma. Community Needs And Resources Assessment, Danijela Seskar-Hencic

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The main purpose of this study was to provide a basis for and facilitate the development of strategies and programs based on actual life experiences of the refugee families and their children and on present needs and resources in the Kitchener-Waterloo community. The participants in the study included three refugee families and their children from Somalia, Kurdistan and Bosnia, English as a Second Language teachers, cultural assistants (settlement counsellors), and a local community group. Qualitative data obtained from the participants were complemented with demographic characteristics relevant to the phenomenon of war trauma among children in the K-W Region The qualitative ...


Mk-801 Interferes With The Acquisition Of Amphetamine- And Lithium-Induced Place Conditioning, Jonathan Francis Toth Jan 1997

Mk-801 Interferes With The Acquisition Of Amphetamine- And Lithium-Induced Place Conditioning, Jonathan Francis Toth

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The place conditioning paradigm was used to assess the ability of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, M- 801 to interfere with drug-place associations. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, ip) attenuated a place preference produced by 10 mg/kg, but not by 3 or 5 mg/kg of amphetamine. MK-801 alone produced neither a place preference nor a place aversion. Interference with amphetamine place preference learning was not the result of state-dependent learning produced by MK-801. Furthermore, MK-801 did not interfere with the expression of a previously established amphetamine place preference. Pretreatment with MK-801 also interfered with lithium-induced conditioned place aversion ...


Application Of The Remember/Know Judgement Paradigm To Eyewitness Stimuli, P. Michael Appavoo Jan 1997

Application Of The Remember/Know Judgement Paradigm To Eyewitness Stimuli, P. Michael Appavoo

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The ability to gauge the accuracy of eyewitnesses’ recall of a crime scene is of great investigative importance. Previous research has shown that outright confidence judgements may not be a very reliable method of assessing witnesses’ recall accuracy. The purpose of the present research was to apply the Remember/Know judgement paradigm to eyewitnesses’ recall in the hopes of finding a more effective technique for judging accuracy. In this paradigm individuals are asked to make judgements about each recalled item in terms of whether they specifically Remember the item (including context and time of presentation), as opposed to simply having ...


Conforming To The Will Of The Church: The Role Of Religious Orientation, Religious Proscription, And Right-Wing Authoritarianism In The Religion-Prejudice Relationship, Robert James Duck Jan 1997

Conforming To The Will Of The Church: The Role Of Religious Orientation, Religious Proscription, And Right-Wing Authoritarianism In The Religion-Prejudice Relationship, Robert James Duck

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Study 1 was designed to determine the relationships between three religious orientations and three measures of prejudice. Contrary to previous findings, religious Quest (Q) was not negatively correlated with 2 measures of ethnocentrism. However, the associations among dependent measures of religiously proscribed and nonproscribed prejudices, and Intrinsic (I) and Extrinsic (E) religious orientations, supported previous findings. Study 1 also was intended to examine the role of “right-wing authoritarianism” (RWA) and “social desirability’ (SD) in the religion-prejudice relationship. Contrary to Batson, Schoenrade, and Ventis (1993), no correlational evidence was found to support the hypothesis that highly intrinsic believers are prone to ...


The Need For Social Validation, Robert S. Graham Jan 1997

The Need For Social Validation, Robert S. Graham

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This thesis describes the psychometric evaluation and validation of a scale assessing people's tendency to use others’ opinions in order to assess the correctness of their own opinion. In study 1, 320 introductory psychology students completed the 12-item Need for Social Validation scale (N SV), as well as the Need to Evaluate and Self-Monitoring scales. The NSV scale was demonstrated to possess good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=.85), a two factor structure, and high test-retest reliability after 22-weeks (r = .76). The NSV was found to be negatively related to the Need to Evaluate scale (r = -.49) and unrelated ...


Age Differences In Implicit Memory Tests, Penny Kathleen Poisson Jan 1997

Age Differences In Implicit Memory Tests, Penny Kathleen Poisson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Evidence concerning age differences on perceptual implicit memory tests has been inconsistent, with some studies showing no age effects and others showing reduced priming in older adults. Recently, research on implicit tests that focus more on the semantic features of words has typically shown no reliable age effect on priming scores. In the present study we examined the pattern of age effects on a conceptual (general knowledge) and a perceptual (word stem completion) implicit test Explicit memory performance was measured using cued word recall and fact recall tests. The nature of the encoding task used for each test was also ...


Organizational Change And Inclusive Practices: Promoting Access For Diverse Populations In The Canadian Mental Health Association (Waterloo Region Branch) (Ontario), James W. Taylor Jan 1997

Organizational Change And Inclusive Practices: Promoting Access For Diverse Populations In The Canadian Mental Health Association (Waterloo Region Branch) (Ontario), James W. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This research began a process and generated information that would help guide the Canadian Mental Health Association/Waterloo Region Branch (CMHA/WRB) in developing services that meet the needs of all residents in the area it serves. This project was comprised of two phases. The phases were conceptualized as being intervention cycles consisting of information, awareness and action-building components. The first phase consisted of work done within the agency itself, to help articulate the goals, attitudes, and possible barriers seen by the paid/non-paid staff towards the new multicultural emphasis. This work involved three focus groups with paid and non-paid ...


Assessing Process Dissociation Procedure And Implicit Memory Estimates Of Automatic Retrieval For A Retention Interval Manipulation, Daryl E. Wilson Jan 1997

Assessing Process Dissociation Procedure And Implicit Memory Estimates Of Automatic Retrieval For A Retention Interval Manipulation, Daryl E. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Results from standard implicit memory tests suggest that automatic retrieval decreases or remains relatively stable over time, whereas results from the process dissociation procedure (PDP) suggest that automatic retrieval may actually increase over time. Advocates of the PDP view, have suggested that this incongruity results from contamination of the implicit tests by intentional retrieval, whereas the PDP provides a valid index of automatic retrieval. In contrast, new results from a speeded implicit memory test suggest that the standard implicit memory tests provide reasonable estimates of automatic retrieval, but that the PDP underestimates automatic retrieval at a short retention interval when ...