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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1997

Psychology

Western Michigan University

Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger Dec 1997

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship between two affective measures, affective orientation and alexithymia, and five empathy measures in 67 master’s degree level counselor trainees. It was hypothesized that affective orientation would be predictive and alexithymia inversely predictive of five distinct dimensions of empathy: communicated, observed, emotional, cognitive, and relational. Communicated empathy was measured by trainees’ audio-taped responses to a client stimulus which were assessed by “blind” raters. Observed empathy was measured by practicum supervisors based on their observations of trainees with clients. Emotional, cognitive, and relational empathy were assessed by trainees’ self-reported responses ...


Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson Dec 1997

Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson

Dissertations

Individual productivity of high performers was compared under an individual monetary incentive system and a 10-member group monetary incentive system. Subjects were 4 college students, each assigned to a simulated 10-person group. Subjects individually performed four computerized work tasks (SYNWORK) simultaneously, and the total number of points earned on the tasks was the main dependent variable. A within-subject reversal design was used, with hourly pay (A), individual (B) and group (C) monetary incentives implemented in an ABCB pattern. Subjects, when working under the group incentive pay condition, were told that the number of points they earned during each session would ...


Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer Dec 1997

Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer

Dissertations

This research began as an exploratory investigation into body image differences between individuals who were weight cyclers and those who were noncyclers. Participants were fem ale and m ale graduate students (n= 444) who completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 1990a), the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (M.A. Thompson & Gray, 1995), and the Weight History Questionnaire (W H Q ), a researcher developed self-report survey of weight, dieting, and demographic information. Data gathered from the WHQ were used to identify pairs of individuals who were matched on cycling status, gender, age, and body mass index. Fifteen such pairs were identified and matched among the females; however, due to lower numbers of males in the sample and also lower levels of weight cycling and dieting among these males, the matching process was not able to be accomplished for the males. Therefore, the study was completed only with the female portion of the sample. Data gathered from ...


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since many referrals occur when problem behaviors are exhibited at school (Al-Issa, 1982 ...


Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller Dec 1997

Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller

Dissertations

Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials: those requiring overt construction responses, overt discrimination responses, covert reading of text with highlighted key words, and covert reading of standard text. The material requiring overt responding produced greater learning than did the covert reading materials, with or without highlighting. There was no difference found between the two types of overt responding; nor were there differences between ...


Effects Of Linear And Non-Linear Incentive Pay Systems With Individual And Group Payouts On The Social Psychology Phenomenon Of Social Loafing, Delores A. Tinley Smoot Aug 1997

Effects Of Linear And Non-Linear Incentive Pay Systems With Individual And Group Payouts On The Social Psychology Phenomenon Of Social Loafing, Delores A. Tinley Smoot

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the experiment investigated the occurrence of social loafing behavior when individuals are engaged in a production task. Social loafing is defined as a decrement in individual performance when working co-actively with a group. Second, the experiment compared the effectiveness of three incentive pay systems (linear, positively and negatively accelerating) in eliminating social loafing behavior and in generating performance levels higher than those generated by a flat or hourly pay system.

Sixteen undergraduate students, all female, participated in twenty-five 15- minute work sessions in which they made widgets from pop beads. Subjects ...


Human Impulsivity: Effects Of Reinforcement Procedure, Catherine A. Karas Aug 1997

Human Impulsivity: Effects Of Reinforcement Procedure, Catherine A. Karas

Dissertations

In this study, positive and negative reinforcement procedures were directly compared across subjects to determine whether more impulsive responding would occur with one reinforcement procedure when compared to the other, under a discrete-trial choice procedure. For both reinforcement procedures, taped music served as the reinforcer. For the positive reinforcer, subjects brought in their own music, from which tapes were made for use in the study. Subjects then ranked the tapes according to their preferences. For the negative reinforcers, the investigators made tapes of various types of music, and all subjects ranked their preferences for these tapes. Subjects were then presented ...


The Development And Validation Of A Multicomponent Scale Measuring Aids Phobia, Jessica Purtan Harrell Aug 1997

The Development And Validation Of A Multicomponent Scale Measuring Aids Phobia, Jessica Purtan Harrell

Master's Theses

The development, reliability, and validity of a new instrument, the Multicomponent AIDS Phobia Scale (MAPS), is described. The results indicate that the MAPS has strong internal consistency and moderate test-retest reliability. In addition, an assessment of concurrent and discriminant validity indicates statistically significant correlations with other self-report measures of anxiety, hypochondriasis, obsessive compulsive disorder, and fear of AIDS. The results of a factor analysis indicate that the scale consists of 2 factors: fear of infection and fear of others/avoidance. The instrument appears to be a reliable and valid measure of AIDS Phobia and may prove useful for improving clinical ...


Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) In The Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Dismantling The Cognitive Component, Karen Cusack Aug 1997

Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) In The Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Dismantling The Cognitive Component, Karen Cusack

Master's Theses

Twenty-three individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for post traumatic stress disorder were randomly assigned to either a standard EMDR treatment group or a modified treatment group that omitted the cognitive reprocessing component of EMDR. All subjects were assessed on a variety of pretest posttest measures including the SCL-90- R, the Impact of Events, the Structured Interview for PTSD, SUDS, and Validity of Cognitions (VoC). Results of repeated measures ANOVAs indicate a significant decrease across all pre to post measures, with these results being maintained at a 1 month followup. With the exception of SUDs and SCL-90-R anxiety scores, there were no ...


Do Reinforcer Surveys Enhance A Brief Parenting Skills Program For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered Children?, Maria A. Channell Jun 1997

Do Reinforcer Surveys Enhance A Brief Parenting Skills Program For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered Children?, Maria A. Channell

Dissertations

Several clinical researchers have documented the benefits of evaluating reinforcer preference prior to the implementation of behavioral parent training programs. However, this has not been specifically tested with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered (ADHD) population in relation to parent training. This between groups study investigated whether systematically altering parent delivered reinforcers to match children’s preferred reinforcers would result in an even greater increased compliance and decreased noncompliance.

One group received a brief (4-6 session) parenting program based on Patterson’s (1974) model. A second group received the same program with an added component wherein the child completed a reinforcer survey ...


The Efficacy Of Pediatric Pain Management Techniques For Infants During Inoculation Procedures, Kimberly K. Wisdorf-Houtkooper Jun 1997

The Efficacy Of Pediatric Pain Management Techniques For Infants During Inoculation Procedures, Kimberly K. Wisdorf-Houtkooper

Dissertations

In this study four different pre-immunization interventions were compared with respect to their effects on modifying arousal level before an immunization and their effects on the level and duration of distress after the immunization. In addition, the study evaluated whether the infants’ pre-inoculation behavioral state affected their response to a painful stimulus. Data consisting of facial expression, presence or absence of cry, cry duration, and behavioral state were collected prior to, during, and after the inoculation. Forty-two subjects were randomly assigned to one of four soothing conditions. These included: rocking, swaddling, sucking on a pacifier, and a control group.

An ...


Effects Of Alternative Activities On Productivity Under Different Percentages Of Incentive Pay, Grainne A. Matthews Jun 1997

Effects Of Alternative Activities On Productivity Under Different Percentages Of Incentive Pay, Grainne A. Matthews

Dissertations

This study examined whether low percentages of incentive pay would be as effective as high percentages in maintaining work performance in the presence of competitive alternative activities. Incentives may increase performance primarily by decreasing time spent performing alternative activities. Although the link between performance and pay is tighter when the percentage of incentive pay is higher, laboratory studies have not found the expected difference. It is possible that previous simulations of work settings have not offered realistic competing contingencies. This study used a computer simulation of a quality inspection task and provided computer games as alternative activities to participants who ...


A Systems Approach To Performance Quality: An Application To Higher Education, Tobias Lafleur Apr 1997

A Systems Approach To Performance Quality: An Application To Higher Education, Tobias Lafleur

Dissertations

Graduate-student teaching apprentices (TAs) in the psychology department at a university in Michigan conducted seminars in an advanced undergraduate-level psychology course. All were members of the department’s behavior analysis training system (BATS). BATS was an integrated series of courses and practicum experiences designed to achieve three main goals: recruiting, training, and maintaining the skills of competent behavior analysts. Twenty-five different tasks performed by the TAs were analyzed and measured prior to an intervention aimed at their improvement. Informal observation suggested that failure to complete these tasks reduced BATS’ ability to meet its larger goals. Three well-known systems analysis models ...


Assessment Of The Discriminative Properties Of A Selective D3 Antagonist, Mary-Jo E. Miller Apr 1997

Assessment Of The Discriminative Properties Of A Selective D3 Antagonist, Mary-Jo E. Miller

Master's Theses

Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n= 16) were used in a drug discrimination assay to assess the stimulus properties of PNU-99194A, currently the most selective D3 dopamine antagonist. Eight rats were trained to discriminate cocaine-HCL (10 mg/kg) from saline and remaining eight rats were trained to discriminate PNU-99194A-HCL (10 mg/kg) from saline. PNU-99194A was tested for substitution (0-40 mg/kg, i.p and s.c.),. antagonism (5-20 mg/kg), and potentiation (5-20 mg/kg) in the animals trained with cocaine. PNU-99194A did not substitute for cocaine at any dose tested. PNU-99194A did not alter cocaine discrimination ...