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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul Dec 1997

Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul

Student Work

The present study examined the effects of different aged models (adult vs. peer) on infants' memory and imitative behaviors. Thirty infants between the age of 14- to 18-months were included in the study. Fifteen of the infants watched an adult model demonstrate two familiar three-step event sequences and two novel three-step event sequences on simple objects. The other fifteen infants observed a peer model perform the same event sequences on the same objects. Three questions were addressed: (a) Do infants learn to imitate three-step event sequences better from an adult or a peer model? (b) Do infants better recall familiar ...


Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle Dec 1997

Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle

Student Work

Adolescents in grades 8, 10, 12, and college (13-22 year olds) completed the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI) (Berscheid, Snyder, & Omoto, 1989), a written relationship development narrative, and a graph of major relationship events for a designated friend in a same-sex and cross-sex relationship. Data collection was done in separate sessions for each relationship type, with order of com pletion randomly assigned.

Age and relationship differences were found for total score on the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), indicating that closeness in same-sex relationships increases gradually with age, whereas closeness in cross-sex relationships does not increase until later adolescence. When asked to ...


A Test Of The Self-Regulatory Model Of Prejudice Reduction, Sonja Williams Jul 1997

A Test Of The Self-Regulatory Model Of Prejudice Reduction, Sonja Williams

Student Work

Two assumptions derived from Devine and Monteith’s (1993) self-regulatory model of prejudice reduction were tested utilizing a stereotype-activating stimulus believed to be similar to one which is more likely to occur in everyday-life than those used in previous research. Black and white actors making ambiguously hostile statements were evaluated by 92 low and high-prejudiced participants. Rating-scale data provided partial support for the assumption that low-prejudiced participants inhibit stereotype-consistent responses and replace them with personal, more egalitarian beliefs. Specifically, low-prejudiced participants provided significantly more favorable ratings than their high-prejudiced counterparts (p = .030). Reaction-time data provided support for the model’s ...


Relational And Overt Aggression In Preschool, Nikki R. Crick, Juan F. Casas, Monique Mosher Jul 1997

Relational And Overt Aggression In Preschool, Nikki R. Crick, Juan F. Casas, Monique Mosher

Psychology Faculty Publications

This research was designed as an initial attempt to assess relational aggression in preschool-age children. Our goal was to develop reliable measures of relational aggression for young children and to use these instruments to address several important issues (e.g., the relation between this form of aggression and social–psychological adjustment). Results provide evidence that relationally aggressive behaviors appear in children's behavioral repertoires at relatively young ages, and that these behaviors can be reliably distinguished from overtly aggressive behaviors in preschool-age children. Further, findings indicate that preschool girls are significantly more relationally aggressive and less overtly aggressive than preschool ...


The Effect Of Control Strategies On Sixth Graders' Metacognitive Awareness, Pamela Haag Clower Jun 1997

The Effect Of Control Strategies On Sixth Graders' Metacognitive Awareness, Pamela Haag Clower

Student Work

This experimental action research study provided sixth grade students five lessons about metacognitive control skills, with pre- and post-instruction measurements of the students’ observable behaviors and notation of the students’ think-alouds regarding their metacognitive activity. The purpose of the study was twofold: 1. To test whether students’ metacognitive awareness can be increased, and 2. To compare the performance of students who initially demonstrate higher metacognitive awareness by scoring above the median on a Metacognitive Awareness Inventory with student who students scored below the median on the inventory. Because research has shown metacognitive ability to operate independently of academic ability and ...


Religious Broadcasting Influence On Presbyterians An Omaha Case Study Of Diffusion, Vern J. Wirka May 1997

Religious Broadcasting Influence On Presbyterians An Omaha Case Study Of Diffusion, Vern J. Wirka

Student Work

This thesis is a study of the diffusion of the ideological messages of conservative, evangelical and fundamentalist religious broadcasters upon the decision makers and the influences upon the social system of the congregations within the Missouri River Valley Presbytery of the Presbyterian Church USA. The study revealed that most of the decision-makers within the Missouri River Valley Presbytery do not listen to or watch religious broadcast programs on a regular basis, however, about one-third of the decision-makers do watch and listen. The study showed the ideological messages of the religious broadcasters do not play a large part in the opinion ...


Social Intelligence, Problem Construction, And Leadership: The Trait Approach Revisited, David Michael Koch Apr 1997

Social Intelligence, Problem Construction, And Leadership: The Trait Approach Revisited, David Michael Koch

Student Work

Social intelligence is a personality trait that refers to an individual's ability to correctly interpret their environment and take the appropriate action. Recent research (Gilbert, 1994) found social intelligence to be an important and significant predictor of leader effectiveness across multiple situations. Because the social intelligence construct can account for effective leadership behavior across multiple situations, it may represent a reconciliation of the trait and situation theories of leadership.

The purpose of this study was to continue this line of research on social intelligence and leadership by examining the role of social intelligence in creative problem solving. Problem construction ...


Problem Construction And Creativity: The Role Of Ability, Cue Consistency, And Active Processing, Roni Reiter-Palmon, American Institutes For Research, Jennifer O'Connor Boes, Mark A. Runco Jan 1997

Problem Construction And Creativity: The Role Of Ability, Cue Consistency, And Active Processing, Roni Reiter-Palmon, American Institutes For Research, Jennifer O'Connor Boes, Mark A. Runco

Psychology Faculty Publications

Problem construction has been suggested as the first step in creative problem solving, but our understanding of the underlying process is limited. According to a model of problem construction (Mumford, Reiter-Palmon, & Redmond, 1994), problem construction ability, active engagement in problem construction, and the presence of diverse and inconsistent cues influence creative problem solving. To test these hypotheses, 195 undergraduates were asked to solve 6 real-life problems and complete a measure of problem construction ability. Active engagement in problem construction was manipulated by instructions to the participants. Cue consistency was manipulated by the information presented in the problem situation. The quality ...