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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1997

Psychology

Illinois Wesleyan University

Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Tactile Defensiveness And Patterns Of Social Behavior In Autism, Cari D. Neal '97 Jan 1997

Tactile Defensiveness And Patterns Of Social Behavior In Autism, Cari D. Neal '97

Honors Projects

The expression of tactile defensiveness (Tn) varies among individuals; however, it appears to affect a great number of people with autism. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted to evaluate TD in autism. Past literature regarding touch and typical social development suggests that a relationship between tactile stimulation, or in this case the aversion to this stimuli, and social behavior may exist. Utilizing survey data, it was found that Tn was significantly related to the severity of characteristics of autism as well as to social subscales. In addition, significant differences in cognitive functioning among social subgroups (aloof, passive, active but odd ...


The Validity Of The B3r Entry-Level Examination For Fire Services As A Predictor For Future Job Performance, Terrance W. Gaylord '97 Jan 1997

The Validity Of The B3r Entry-Level Examination For Fire Services As A Predictor For Future Job Performance, Terrance W. Gaylord '97

Honors Projects

The use of aptitude tests by public and private organizations has drawn attention from the scientific community as well as the courtroom. While theorists have argued that aptitude tests are not valid, several research studies have indicated otherwise. The current study focused on the B3R Entry-Level Examination for Fire Services, an aptitude test administered by a growing number of municipalities nationwide for selection purposes. To test the predictive ability of the exam, a criterion-related validation approach was initiated. A total of eight subjects were administered the B3R exam which was accompanied with a 21-item job performance evaluation of the employees ...


The Effects Of Multiple Injections Of Ba(25-35) Into The Medial Septal Area On Spatial Learning In The Male Rat, James Bedrosian '97 Jan 1997

The Effects Of Multiple Injections Of Ba(25-35) Into The Medial Septal Area On Spatial Learning In The Male Rat, James Bedrosian '97

Honors Projects

Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that beta-amyloid (PA) plays a role in the degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system, which is implicated in learning and memory function, is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. It has been previously reported that injections of PA(25-35) into the medial septal area (MSA) of rats produce a hypofunction of the cholinergic system and a decrease in ACh release in the hippocampus. Investigators report mixed results in the development of behavioral spatialleaming impairments following single injections of pA. Recent studies suggest that multiple injections or ...


The Roles Of Age And Frontal Lobe Damage In Prospective Memory, Sara J. Russell '97 Jan 1997

The Roles Of Age And Frontal Lobe Damage In Prospective Memory, Sara J. Russell '97

Honors Projects

Recent evidence suggests that the frontal lobe plays an intimate role in the meditation of prospective memory (Shallice & Burgess, 1991; Cockburn, 1995). However, there is a paucity of studies linking damage to the frontal lobe to reduced efficacy of prospective memory. The present study attempts to examine three types of participants who differ in frontal lobe functioning and their relative levels of successful prospective memory. The participants consist of younger adults, older adults (55 and over) and individuals with frontal lobe damage determined by a CAT scan or MRI. All three groups will be given a computer-based general knowledge quiz that has ...


Subtyping A Batterer Population, Melissa A. Sprowl '97 Jan 1997

Subtyping A Batterer Population, Melissa A. Sprowl '97

Honors Projects

Archival data from a batterers' assessment and treatment program was gathered on 75 males. The data were cluster analyzed to try to parallel the three subtypes of batterers suggested by Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) (family-only, dysphoric/ borderline, and generally violent/antisocial). To classify the batterers, the 300+ coded variables were condensed into the following subscales: legal history, alcohol/drug use, childhood violence, family distress, and psychiatric history. Three clusters defined by four of the five classifying variables emerged. However, the cluster-defined subtypes did not differ according to the four "external subscales" (physical abuse, emotional abuse, self-report of domestic violence incident ...


Perception Of Parental Conflict As A Predictor Of Attachment And Caregiving Styles In The Romantic Relationships Of Young Adults, Benjamin P. Chapman '97 Jan 1997

Perception Of Parental Conflict As A Predictor Of Attachment And Caregiving Styles In The Romantic Relationships Of Young Adults, Benjamin P. Chapman '97

Honors Projects

Attachment styles and caregiving styles have provided a useful framework for conceptualizing romantic relationships. The present study seeks to examine whether perceptions of high parental conflict will predict less secure attachment and caregiving styles in the romantic relationships of young adults. It is hypothesized that higher perceptions of parental conflict, as measured by the Family Structure Survey and the Conflict Tactics Scale, will correlate positively with more insecure ratings on a dimensional attachment measure, and will correlate positively with maladaptive extremes of caregiving styles, measured using the Caregiving Questionnaire. Low correlations between dimensional attachment and parental conflict were found. Results ...


Reassessing The Mozart Effect: Musicians And Non-Musicians Respond Differently To Late Eighteenth-Century, Non-Texted Music For A Monochromatic Instrument, William B. Cooper '97 Jan 1997

Reassessing The Mozart Effect: Musicians And Non-Musicians Respond Differently To Late Eighteenth-Century, Non-Texted Music For A Monochromatic Instrument, William B. Cooper '97

Honors Projects

Recent accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between music and spatial-reasoning. One particular link:, the termed "Mozart effect," is an enhancement in performance on spatial-reasoning tasks after listening to the ftrst movement of a sonata by Mozart. Though some studies offer additional evidence to support the "Mozart effect," it is interesting that a number of studies attempting to reproduce it have failed. Accordingly, this study investigated the "Mozart effect" using an alternative means of assessing spatial-reasoning ability. Additionally, the music of Haydn was used in an effort to reproduce the effect. Lastly, a differentiation was made between the scores of musicians ...


Women Who Batter: A Comparison To Men Who Batter, Treva S. Bogaerts '97 Jan 1997

Women Who Batter: A Comparison To Men Who Batter, Treva S. Bogaerts '97

Honors Projects

A sample of 27 females and 27 males was drawn from the client files of a domestic violence agency in a medium-sized mid-western city. Clients were matched on ethnicity, age, and education so that comparisons could be made to determine whether distinctions exist between these batterer populations. The two groups were compared in terms of legal, family, mental, and social histories, as well as type of physical abuse used. The results have implications for adjustments in treatment procedures for female batterers.


The Effects Of Information And Container Proximity On Paper Recycling, Todd Carlisle '97 Jan 1997

The Effects Of Information And Container Proximity On Paper Recycling, Todd Carlisle '97

Honors Projects

Contrary to popular belief, paper products are the one material that has actually increased (in percent of total waste) in U.S. landfills in the past 25 years (Rathje, Hughes, Archer, Wilson & Casselles, 1989). While paper recycling programs have become more commonplace today, their effectiveness has plateaued. To better understand how to increase a person's recycling behavior, this experiment, using a multiple baseline design, measured the effects of (1) information and (2) recycling container proximity on the paper recycling levels of 152 undergraduate students. The results of the experiment suggest that increasing a recycling container's proximity and educating ...


Adult Attachment Style And Attitudinal Assessment Of Preferred Timing Of First Marriage, Elizabeth J. Arthur '97 Jan 1997

Adult Attachment Style And Attitudinal Assessment Of Preferred Timing Of First Marriage, Elizabeth J. Arthur '97

Honors Projects

The study assessed the factors contributing to expected ages of marriage in two student populations that are presumed to differ in academic achievement and goals. A primarily goal of this study was to describe the influence that adult attachment style has upon a person's expected age at marriage. A secondary goal was to explore other social and goal-oriented influences on timing of marriage in the two populations. There were no significant differences in attachment style for men and women. The more Avoidantly a person ranked, the later the age at which they expected to get married. University students' ideas ...