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1997

Psychology

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Psychological Metaphor And Financial Crisis In Southeast Asia Dec 1997

Psychological Metaphor And Financial Crisis In Southeast Asia

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article presents several Issues in applying psychological constructs to political phenomena.


Trends. International Trade And The Subversion Of Justice: Japan, The European Union, And Iraq, Editor Dec 1997

Trends. International Trade And The Subversion Of Justice: Japan, The European Union, And Iraq, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the moral philosophy, the psychology of moral judgment, and treatises on law often suggest that justice subsumes some combination of behavioral and intentional accountability and equity.


When Intelligence Is Alleged To Be Bogus: An Israeli Example Dec 1997

When Intelligence Is Alleged To Be Bogus: An Israeli Example

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article highlights a series of hypotheses that may merit analysis when intelligence provided by one's case officer is alleged to be bogus. It then describes a congruence in analyzing intelligence whether or not there are such allegations.


Learning To See Analogies: A Connectionist Exploration, Douglas S. Blank Dec 1997

Learning To See Analogies: A Connectionist Exploration, Douglas S. Blank

Computer Science Faculty Research and Scholarship

The goal of this dissertation is to integrate learning and analogy-making. Although learning and analogy-making both have long histories as active areas of research in cognitive science, not enough attention has been given to the ways in which they may interact. To that end, this project focuses on developing a computer program, called Analogator, that learns to make analogies by seeing examples of many different analogy problems and their solutions. That is, it learns to make analogies by analogy. This approach stands in contrast to most existing computational models of analogy in which particular analogical mechanisms are assumed a priori ...


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages And The Analysis Of Political Entities Dec 1997

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages And The Analysis Of Political Entities

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article illustrates the potential of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory in analyzing political entities.


Functionalism As An Aid To Antiterrorist/Counterterrorist Analysis Dec 1997

Functionalism As An Aid To Antiterrorist/Counterterrorist Analysis

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes how philosophical and psychological variants of functionalism can aid antiterrorist/counterterrorist analysis.


Trade Deficits, Mental Deficits, And Moral Deficits Dec 1997

Trade Deficits, Mental Deficits, And Moral Deficits

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes the psychology of the trade deficit as a political Issue in the United States of America (USA).


Tips, Volume 17, No. 4, 5, & 6, 1997/1998, Wolf P. Wolfensberger Dec 1997

Tips, Volume 17, No. 4, 5, & 6, 1997/1998, Wolf P. Wolfensberger

Training Institute Publication Series (TIPS)

• Poverty & the Poor

• The Gulf Between the Haves & Have Nots

• The Worship of Mammon (Thomas Hood)

• When the Idle Poor Become the Idle Rich (Song from "Finian's Rainbow," 1947 musical)

• The Transfer of Wealth Upward

• Homelessness & the Welfare Helter-Skelter Shelter System

• The Mother of All Hobo Songs!

• Where is My Boy Tonight or Where is My Wandering Boy Tonight (Hobo song)

• Singing the Song of Their Traffic ... (Song by hobo poet Harry Kemp)

• Hobo Jokes

• Hobo History

• Crime

• Punishment

• More Ships of Fools

• The Jail & Prison Scene

• Judicial Killings

• Morality in Society & Public Life

• Religion in Society

• General/Miscellaneous ...


Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul Dec 1997

Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul

Student Work

The present study examined the effects of different aged models (adult vs. peer) on infants' memory and imitative behaviors. Thirty infants between the age of 14- to 18-months were included in the study. Fifteen of the infants watched an adult model demonstrate two familiar three-step event sequences and two novel three-step event sequences on simple objects. The other fifteen infants observed a peer model perform the same event sequences on the same objects. Three questions were addressed: (a) Do infants learn to imitate three-step event sequences better from an adult or a peer model? (b) Do infants better recall familiar ...


Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle Dec 1997

Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle

Student Work

Adolescents in grades 8, 10, 12, and college (13-22 year olds) completed the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI) (Berscheid, Snyder, & Omoto, 1989), a written relationship development narrative, and a graph of major relationship events for a designated friend in a same-sex and cross-sex relationship. Data collection was done in separate sessions for each relationship type, with order of com pletion randomly assigned.

Age and relationship differences were found for total score on the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), indicating that closeness in same-sex relationships increases gradually with age, whereas closeness in cross-sex relationships does not increase until later adolescence. When asked to ...


A Phenomenological Variant Of Ecological Systems Theory (Pvest): A Self-Organization Perspective In Context, Margaret Beale Spencer, Davido Dupree, Tracey Hartmann Dec 1997

A Phenomenological Variant Of Ecological Systems Theory (Pvest): A Self-Organization Perspective In Context, Margaret Beale Spencer, Davido Dupree, Tracey Hartmann

GSE Publications

A framework that emphasizes and integrates individuals’ intersubjective experiences with Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory (PVEST) is introduced and compared with self-organizational perspectives. Similarities, differences and advantages of each framework are described. In a demonstration of PVEST’s utility, a subset of data from the 3rd year of a longitudinal study (14-to 16-year-old middle adolescent African–Americans) is used for examining an achievement variable: negative learning attitude. Explored separately by gender, a regression model that contained risk, stress, and a reactive coping variable for the prediction of negative learning attitudes was investigated. For boys, stress was an independent stressor across ...


The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo Dec 1997

The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo

Nursing Master’s Theses

Due to the increasing number of women who are diagnosed with heart disease and who are undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, it is important to explore the psychosocial aspects involved in the recovery process of these women. This study examined the relationship between locus of control and health behaviors of women who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.


Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer Dec 1997

Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer

Dissertations

This research began as an exploratory investigation into body image differences between individuals who were weight cyclers and those who were noncyclers. Participants were fem ale and m ale graduate students (n= 444) who completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 1990a), the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (M.A. Thompson & Gray, 1995), and the Weight History Questionnaire (W H Q ), a researcher developed self-report survey of weight, dieting, and demographic information. Data gathered from the WHQ were used to identify pairs of individuals who were matched on cycling status, gender, age, and body mass index. Fifteen such pairs were identified and matched among the females; however, due to lower numbers of males in the sample and also lower levels of weight cycling and dieting among these males, the matching process was not able to be accomplished for the males. Therefore, the study was completed only with the female portion of the sample. Data gathered from ...


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since many referrals occur when problem behaviors are exhibited at school (Al-Issa, 1982 ...


Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller Dec 1997

Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller

Dissertations

Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials: those requiring overt construction responses, overt discrimination responses, covert reading of text with highlighted key words, and covert reading of standard text. The material requiring overt responding produced greater learning than did the covert reading materials, with or without highlighting. There was no difference found between the two types of overt responding; nor were there differences between ...


Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger Dec 1997

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship between two affective measures, affective orientation and alexithymia, and five empathy measures in 67 master’s degree level counselor trainees. It was hypothesized that affective orientation would be predictive and alexithymia inversely predictive of five distinct dimensions of empathy: communicated, observed, emotional, cognitive, and relational. Communicated empathy was measured by trainees’ audio-taped responses to a client stimulus which were assessed by “blind” raters. Observed empathy was measured by practicum supervisors based on their observations of trainees with clients. Emotional, cognitive, and relational empathy were assessed by trainees’ self-reported responses ...


Personality Types Of Registered Nurses Employed In A Rural Community Hospital, Tina Snodgrass Dec 1997

Personality Types Of Registered Nurses Employed In A Rural Community Hospital, Tina Snodgrass

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to identify the personality types of registered nurses in a rural community. An extensive literature review revealed that no studies, utilizing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to identify personality types, had been conducted with rural nurses. Jung's Psychological Type Theory was the theoretical framework for the study. The MBTI operationalizes Jung's theory and was utilized to determine the most frequently occurring personality types of the nurses. A descriptive study was conducted at a 68 bed acute care hospital. The sample consisted of 40 experienced registered nurses working in staff positions within the ...


A Statewide Survey Linking Assessment To Interventions: Assessing Teacher Awareness And Training Needs Related To Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Leann Pearson Dec 1997

A Statewide Survey Linking Assessment To Interventions: Assessing Teacher Awareness And Training Needs Related To Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Leann Pearson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The present study, using a survey questionnaire developed by Luckett (1996), was completed by 211 kindergarten through sixth grade teachers in 33 school districts across Kentucky. The sample consisted of regular education, special education, and Title One teachers with one to thirty-one years of experience. Educational backgrounds of the predominantly female sample ranged from bachelor's to doctoral degrees. The survey included four distinct sections. Participants were questioned about (a) knowledge level with respect to the diagnostic criteria and diagnostic labels for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, (b) intervention preferences for addressing ADHD student's behaviors in the classroom, (c) interventions which ...


Farrowing Behaviour And Stillbirth In Two Environments: An Evaluation Of The Restraint-Stillbirth Hypothesis, D. Fraser, P. A. Phillips, B. K. Thompson Dec 1997

Farrowing Behaviour And Stillbirth In Two Environments: An Evaluation Of The Restraint-Stillbirth Hypothesis, D. Fraser, P. A. Phillips, B. K. Thompson

Reproductive Behavior Collection

A total of 59 farrowings were studied in either a conventional, narrow farrowing crate (0.43 m wide) or a much wider alternative design with sides spaced 1.2 m apart at the sow’s standing height but narrowing near the floor to limit the sow’s lying area. Using video recording, we monitored each “birth interval” (i.e. the period between two successive births) and noted the interval’s length, the sow’s posture and postural changes during the interval, and whether the interval ended with a live-born or stillborn piglet. The wide and conventional crates did not differ ...


Friendship Patterns And School Adjustment In The Mixed-Age Context, Sarah Caverly Dec 1997

Friendship Patterns And School Adjustment In The Mixed-Age Context, Sarah Caverly

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

While friendship patterns and the relationship between friendship status and school adjustment have been studied in same-age classrooms, little is known about friendship patterns and the contribution of friendship status to school adjustment in mixed-age classrooms. The purposes of the present study were to investigate friendship patterns in a large sample of mixed-age (ungraded) primary classrooms and to examine the contribution of friendship status to school adjustment in a smaller subsample of ungraded primary children. Peer acceptance level and age relative to classmates both had a significant impact on the number of reciprocated friends children had, and on the relative ...


Analysis Of The Ministerial Emphasis Survey Quantifying The Call Of The Church, Ray Doyel Dec 1997

Analysis Of The Ministerial Emphasis Survey Quantifying The Call Of The Church, Ray Doyel

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The expectations of a church for its minister are broad and difficult to define. These expectations are perhaps most intently examined when the church is seeking to replace a minister. It is during this time that the church may attempt to measure in some way the expectations of the congregation. These expectations may be studied from different perspectives, ranging from the effectiveness of the minister to the leadership style of the minister. This research examined the Ministerial Emphasis Survey which was used by a mainline, Protestant denomination during an actual minister search. The study included participants from the congregation, the ...


Local Use Of A Nationally-Developed Predictor Of University Student Attrition, Michelle Huffman Dec 1997

Local Use Of A Nationally-Developed Predictor Of University Student Attrition, Michelle Huffman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In this study we examine the ability of the scales of the College Student Inventory (CSI) to predict attrition at a single institution. We also develop a locally-specific dropout proneness model with which to compare the nationally-developed model of the CSI. Attention is given to the incremental validity of both of these models over high school grade point average and ACT composite scores. Dropout Proneness National, although statistically significantly related to attrition, was lacking in practical significance, especially when considering its incremental predictive value over high school grade point average and ACT composite score. Dropout Proneness Local was found to ...


Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum Dec 1997

Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In a square asymmetric matrix, the relationships among objects in the lower triangular half-matrix, differ from the relationships among the same objects in the upper triangular half. Square, asymmetric matrices can arise in similarity and preference data, when the direction of comparison is important. An asymmetric matrix can be rendered symmetric by averaging corresponding entries above and below the main diagonal. The difference between the original and the symmetric matrix is purely asymmetric, or skew-symmetric. The symmetric and skew-symmetric pans are orthogonal. An eigenvector-eigenvalue decomposition analyses the asymmetries into rank 2 skew-symmetric matrices, having an optimum least squares fit to ...


The Place Of The Psyche In A Constructed World, Kenneth J. Gergen Dec 1997

The Place Of The Psyche In A Constructed World, Kenneth J. Gergen

Psychology Faculty Works

The vast majority of social constructionist writings have been critical of psychological science-on both ideological and conceptual grounds. The constructionist emphasis on microsocial processes also functions oppositionally to psychological accounting. The existing animus grows, however, from a realist metaphysics and a correspondence view of language, neither of which constructionism endorses. Viewing the relationship between constructionism and psychological science in more pragmatic terms, we find three significant ways in which constructionism contributes to a more fully enriched and broadly effective psychology. First, critical constructionism functions to denaturalize psychological accounts, opening them to reflexive deliberation, and democratizing the field more generally. Second ...


Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson Dec 1997

Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson

Dissertations

Individual productivity of high performers was compared under an individual monetary incentive system and a 10-member group monetary incentive system. Subjects were 4 college students, each assigned to a simulated 10-person group. Subjects individually performed four computerized work tasks (SYNWORK) simultaneously, and the total number of points earned on the tasks was the main dependent variable. A within-subject reversal design was used, with hourly pay (A), individual (B) and group (C) monetary incentives implemented in an ABCB pattern. Subjects, when working under the group incentive pay condition, were told that the number of points they earned during each session would ...


Trends. Dead Souls: Comment On The Luxor Murders, Editor Nov 1997

Trends. Dead Souls: Comment On The Luxor Murders, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

In this analysis, the author discusses an act of terrorism that occurred in Luxor Egypt, with a significant part of the research being done by Steven Cornell.


Trends. Human Rights And Mental Health: What Happens When The Right Are Wrong?, Editor Nov 1997

Trends. Human Rights And Mental Health: What Happens When The Right Are Wrong?, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

In this analysis the author discusses the moral and ethical criteria of those who seek to prevent human rights violations.


Family Breakdown, Little Hope For The Future: Restrictive Moralities To The Rescue? Nov 1997

Family Breakdown, Little Hope For The Future: Restrictive Moralities To The Rescue?

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article reviews the recent text, Posterity Lost: Progress, Ideology, and the Decline of the American Family by Richard T. Gill and published (1997) by Rowman & Littlefield. The review highlights recurring political psychological Issues of conceptualization, levels of analysis, and causality.


Globalization: Bad News For Antiterrorism And Counterterrorism Nov 1997

Globalization: Bad News For Antiterrorism And Counterterrorism

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article suggests that increasing globalization increases the threat of terrorism.


The Political Tale Of The Tape: Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, And Their Successors Nov 1997

The Political Tale Of The Tape: Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, And Their Successors

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes some of the putative positive and negative features of recording political decisionmaking as it occurs.