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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Backgrounds In L1 Literacy And Attitudes Toward Text In An Esol Writing Classroom , Lia Margaret Plakans Jan 1997

Backgrounds In L1 Literacy And Attitudes Toward Text In An Esol Writing Classroom , Lia Margaret Plakans

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera Jan 1997

Maternal Factors Affecting Academic Achievement Of Latino Adolescents , Marisa Rivera

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Latinos are the fastest growing segment of the population in the United States. Consequently, that growth will have a dramatic effect on this country.. The high number of Latino youth that drop out of school is exceedingly critical in light of the fact that by the turn of the century less than 14 percent of jobs will require less than a high school diploma. There is divergence among researchers as to the cause of the high drop out rates. Some attribute it directly to socioeconomic factors while others argue that those factors should be viewed as distal influences and that ...


A Study To Determine Student-Athletes' Motivational Climate Influencing Their Athletic And Academic Performance At A Midwestern University , Percy Lee Caldwell Jan 1997

A Study To Determine Student-Athletes' Motivational Climate Influencing Their Athletic And Academic Performance At A Midwestern University , Percy Lee Caldwell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to describe and analyze the perceptions and experiences of six selected student athletes at a Midwestern university. The general research objects of the study were to describe and analyze the perceptions, expectations, and experiences of student athletes regarding: (a) school climate; (b) personal attitude; (c) teachers' interaction; (d) coaches' interaction; and (e) parental impact;The emerging themes elicited from the primary data were summarized for each of the five constructs. Two themes for school climate were: (a) some students adapt to the conditions of their school environment with differential behaviors and attitudes of teachers ...


Effects Of A Videodisc Problem Solving Approach Embedded In Constructivist-Based Instruction In Mathematics Methods Course On Preservice Teachers' Decisions About Teaching Mathematics Strategies And Attitudes Toward Mathematics And Technologies , Min Kyeong Kim Jan 1997

Effects Of A Videodisc Problem Solving Approach Embedded In Constructivist-Based Instruction In Mathematics Methods Course On Preservice Teachers' Decisions About Teaching Mathematics Strategies And Attitudes Toward Mathematics And Technologies , Min Kyeong Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research on teaching and learning mathematics indicates that offering an appropriate constructivist-based teaching model of mathematics instruction to preservice teachers enhances their teaching abilities and confidence in their future teaching. The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice elementary teachers' decisions about teaching strategies and their attitudes toward mathematics and computer-related technologies in a constructivist-centered methods course which included the use of problem-solving multimedia;This study involved 73 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in an elementary education methods course at Iowa State University. Twenty-eight participants were involved in the treatment group, eighteen students participated in the comparison 1 group and ...


Distance Education, Innovativeness, And Teacher Education: Status In Iowa Independent, Four-Year Colleges And Universities , Nancy Jean Pollock Maushak Jan 1997

Distance Education, Innovativeness, And Teacher Education: Status In Iowa Independent, Four-Year Colleges And Universities , Nancy Jean Pollock Maushak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between organizational characteristics and the organizational innovativeness of teacher education programs in institutions of higher education in the state of Iowa in reference to the integration of the innovation, distance education. A second purpose was to determine the relationship between organizational characteristics and identified barriers to the integration of distance education throughout teacher education programs in institutions of higher education in the state of Iowa;Participants were 45 education faculty members from Iowa, independent, 4-year colleges and universities with teacher education programs who attended site visits conducted by the Teacher ...


Learning Styles And Attitude Toward Hypermedia , Charles Andrews Schlosser Jan 1997

Learning Styles And Attitude Toward Hypermedia , Charles Andrews Schlosser

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined learning style and attitude toward hypermedia among sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students working with the hypermedia program Loess Hills Interactive. Three hundred fifteen science students from four Iowa middle schools participated in the month-long study. Students worked in groups of four with five gender compositions; all male, all female, mostly male, mostly female, and equal. The Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (MMTIC) was used to identify four learning styles: extraverted sensor, extraverted intuitive, introverted sensor, and introverted intuitive. The Attitude Toward Hypermedia Index (ATHI), developed by the author, was used to measure students' attitudes toward hypermedia ...


Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter Jan 1997

Investigating Antecedents To The Development Of Competence And Fulfillment Among Intellectually Gifted Adolescents: The Validity Of Conjointly Applying Above-Level Ability And Preference Assessment For Early Educational And Career Planning , John Andrew Achter

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recent efforts examining the educational and vocational development needs of intellectually gifted students have focused on the possibility of early intervention. There is considerable anecdotal evidence that the gifted begin to think earlier about careers than their peers and that their general vocational preferences may crystallize at an earlier age. Empirical research has produced some support for these assertions, as well as the notion that tests and questionnaires devised for use with older students might be applied in early adolescence with intellectually gifted individuals. Instruments measuring abilities and preferences, factors critical to the development of educational and vocational choice, competence ...


Women In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering College Majors: A Model Predicting Career Aspirations Based On Ability, Self-Efficacy, Role Model Influence, And Role Conflict , Margaret Mary Nauta Jan 1997

Women In Mathematics, Science, And Engineering College Majors: A Model Predicting Career Aspirations Based On Ability, Self-Efficacy, Role Model Influence, And Role Conflict , Margaret Mary Nauta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated a model of predictors of career aspirations among two groups of women: students in mathematics, physical science, and engineering majors and students in biological science majors. Based on theories of women's career development and social-cognitive theories, it was hypothesized that ability, self-efficacy, positivity of role model influence, and role conflict would influence the career aspirations of these women. It was further hypothesized that the students' year in school would contribute to this model as a predictor variable. Five hundred forty-six students (representing a 71% response rate) from Iowa State University were surveyed by mail to evaluate ...


The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich Jan 1997

The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Art Education As Seen In The Work Of Howard Gardner And Elliot Eisner , Marcia C. Rich

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the influence of educational psychology on contemporary art education. The century-old debate in art education between those wanting more scientific methods of teaching and assessment and those wanting a more child-centered education appears in contemporary version in the work of Howard Gardner and Elliot Eisner. In this contemporary setting it is the educator, Eisner, who wants more discipline-oriented curricula, while the cognitive scientist, Gardner, calls for more child-centered education. By examining the writings of Howard Gardner, a cognitive scientist, and Elliot Eisner, an art educator, and comparing the art education programs overseen by them, i.e., Arts ...


Design And Training For Implementation Of Constructivist-Based Distance Learning Environments , Mary Corwin Herring Jan 1997

Design And Training For Implementation Of Constructivist-Based Distance Learning Environments , Mary Corwin Herring

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In response to societal shifts, K-12 teachers are attempting to design responsive, effective learning environments. A body of theory titled Constructivism has become increasingly important as a foundation for the design of learning environments that prepare students for the future demands of adulthood;When knowledge is being constructed, the tools to support that construction become important. Societal demands, new visions about learning, emerging technology, and connectivity to the information superhighway are offering educators the opportunity and the challenge to rethink and restructure the way they go about designing effective learning environments;This project identified a design guiding framework for constructivist-based ...


A Project In English For Specific Purposes: English For Hispanic Workers At A Bulk Mailing Company, Janese Alane Cerón Jan 1997

A Project In English For Specific Purposes: English For Hispanic Workers At A Bulk Mailing Company, Janese Alane Cerón

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Textile Handcraft Guilds: A Conduit For Identity, Friendships, And Successful Aging , Sherryl A. Schofield-Tomschin Jan 1997

Textile Handcraft Guilds: A Conduit For Identity, Friendships, And Successful Aging , Sherryl A. Schofield-Tomschin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore inductively older women's involvement in textile handcraft guilds as a conduit for interactions among textiles and their producers, successful aging, and friendships. Thirty women, representing 15 textile handcraft guilds and 8 different textile crafts, were interviewed throughout the state of Iowa. All informants were actively engaged in craft production and a guild. Content analysis revealed two superordinate themes, Craft as "I" and Guild as "We." From these themes emerged a grounded theory of guild membership. Within the Craft as "I" theme three minor themes surfaced: (a) Process, (b) Product, and (c ...


Play Behaviors And Peer Interactions Of Preschoolers In Classroom And Playground Settings , Sook-Young Shim Jan 1997

Play Behaviors And Peer Interactions Of Preschoolers In Classroom And Playground Settings , Sook-Young Shim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The relationship among different settings for young children's play behaviors and peer interactions was examined. The participants were forty-one children from 2 to 5 years of age (21 2- and 3-year-olds and 20 4- and 5-year-olds) enrolled in three child care programs. The children were videotaped for 5 minutes each on 4 different days both indoors and outdoors. Program measures described the quality of the child care program (the Assessment Profile for Early Childhood Programs) and additional measures described the playground setting. Children's play behaviors were categorized using the Parten-Smilansky Scale, which combines social play categories and cognitive ...


Writing Instruction In Western Canadian Universities: A History Of Nation-Building And Professionalism , Kevin Alfred Brooks Jan 1997

Writing Instruction In Western Canadian Universities: A History Of Nation-Building And Professionalism , Kevin Alfred Brooks

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Writing instruction in western Canadian universities between 1908 and 1957 was seen as a necessary technology of nation-building and the proper jurisdiction of English departments. After 1957, specialization in western Canadian universities enabled English departments to claim literature as the proper disciplinary object of their field and exclude writing instruction from their jurisdiction. Only recently has writing instruction returned to western Canadian university curriculums, but not in any systematic fashion;This study challenges the standard account of writing instruction in Canada: that the traditional first-year literature and composition class favored literature at the expense or even exclusion of composition. This ...


Cooperative Learning With Interactive Multimedia: The Effect Of Gender And Group Composition On Attitude And Interaction , Jane Mason Adamson Jan 1997

Cooperative Learning With Interactive Multimedia: The Effect Of Gender And Group Composition On Attitude And Interaction , Jane Mason Adamson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effect of gender and group gender composition on interaction patterns and attitudes toward their cooperative learning experience of seventh- and eighth-grade students working with the multimedia program Loess Hills Interactive. One hundred twenty-seven middle school science students (60 males, 67 females) from two schools in Iowa participated in the month-long study. Students were randomly assigned to cooperative learning groups of 3, 4, and 5 with the following gender compositions: (1) same-gender, (2) mostly-male, (3) mostly-female, and (4) equal-gender. Trained raters coded and tallied interaction frequencies for each student from videotapes, using a Peer Interaction Scale developed ...


Classnet: A Potential Computer-Mediated Communications Learning Tool In Preservice Teacher Education? , Mark Jay Van Gorp Jan 1997

Classnet: A Potential Computer-Mediated Communications Learning Tool In Preservice Teacher Education? , Mark Jay Van Gorp

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates computer-mediated communications (CMC) in preservice teacher education. Three papers respectively examine current CMC uses and outcomes, describe a new CMC tool which may enhance future use, and present an evaluation of that tool with preservice teachers;The first paper reviews the utilization of CMC in the preservice curriculum and then analyzes occurring problems and assesses resulting needs. The problems are divided into two broad categories: Those that may dissipate with improvement of existing CMC technology and those that may persist even with improved technology. A study of these problems reveals that learning from CMC integration must be ...


Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong Jan 1997

Parents And Kindergartners: Money And Number, Practices, Concepts And Skills , Jyh-Tsorng Jong

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine an exploratory model to explain the interactive relationships among parents' number and monetary practices, and their kindergartners' number concepts, monetary concepts, and monetary skills. The 207 kindergartners participated in three number and monetary tasks during clinical interviews. Each child's father or mother completed two kinds of home practices questionnaires. By using path analysis through LISREL 8.12, the results showed that kindergartners' use of money was significantly influenced by their number concepts (i.e., cardinality) and knowledge of coins (i.e., knowing the coin names and coin values). Kindergartners' cardinality benefited ...


Analyzing The Growth Of The Critical Thinking Skills Of College Calculus Students , Cymbelene Ann Forbes Jan 1997

Analyzing The Growth Of The Critical Thinking Skills Of College Calculus Students , Cymbelene Ann Forbes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research study analyzed the growth of the cognitive critical thinking skills of college calculus students from six sections of Calculus 165 at Iowa State University. For one semester subjects from three experimental sections learned calculus in a consistently facilitated active learning environment. Subjects from three comparison sections learned the same material in a traditional passive learning environment. Fidelity of treatment--i.e. adherence to an active learning format, was verified by direct observations. The main difference between any active and passive learning environment is the amount of time spent on instructor activities (passive learning) versus the amount of time spent ...


An Examination Of Factors Affecting Secondary Teachers' Levels Of Use Of The National Standards For United States History , Thomas Jens Forsgren Jan 1997

An Examination Of Factors Affecting Secondary Teachers' Levels Of Use Of The National Standards For United States History , Thomas Jens Forsgren

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the impact of state mandates on teachers' levels of use of the National Standards for United States History (hereafter referred to as the "Standards"). Exploring relationships between factors which may affect teachers' use of the Standards and teachers' levels of use of the Standards, this study surveyed ninth through twelfth grade United States history teachers in Iowa and Oregon. The research method to determine teachers' levels of use of the Standards was informed by the Levels of Use dimension of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model;The survey questionnaire consisted primarily of sections describing teachers': social and demographic characteristics ...


The Attitudes Of Five International Teaching Assistants (Itas) Towards Teachers, Teaching, And Their Ita Training Course, Duane Curtis Litwiller Jan 1997

The Attitudes Of Five International Teaching Assistants (Itas) Towards Teachers, Teaching, And Their Ita Training Course, Duane Curtis Litwiller

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The more teachers know about their students, the easier it is to meet their students' needs and expectations. The investigator's objective of this qualitative study was to gain in-depth knowledge of five international teaching assistants (ITAs) from China from the researcher's own ITA training class to determine (1) how their views of teachers and teaching had been shaped by Chinese society, and (2) the degree of agreement between their expectations of the ITA training class and goals that had been set for the class. Data were collected via open-ended interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that (1) the ...


Attitudes And Motivation Of Second Language Learners In Kuwait, Basma E. Alshaar Jan 1997

Attitudes And Motivation Of Second Language Learners In Kuwait, Basma E. Alshaar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined attitudes and motivation of second language learners in Kuwait. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from Gardner's (1985) Attitude and Motivation Test Battery and translated into Arabic, the participants' first language. Several methods were used in dealing with the data collected: descriptive statistics, correlation, and t-test. Scores on each measure were used as separate variables to examine the relationship between any two variables (nine hypotheses). The findings were consistent with those of the other researchers': there are significant correlations between affective variables (attitudes and motivation) and learning a second language. Also, a significant level of English class ...


The Sins Of The Father: An Historical Analysis Of Race And Class Equality In Educational Resource Allocation And The Implications For Future Educational Technology Distribution , Patricia Randolph Leigh Jan 1997

The Sins Of The Father: An Historical Analysis Of Race And Class Equality In Educational Resource Allocation And The Implications For Future Educational Technology Distribution , Patricia Randolph Leigh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The underlying premise of this research is that American educational and economic systems are intricately tied and educational opportunities correlate with economic participation. This dissertation consists of three research papers that focus on the unequal opportunities historically afforded Black Americans and those of low socio-economic status. The first paper, "Economics and Education: Kindred Inequalities in Kindred Systems," examines the research literature concerning the connection between education and economic factors such as land, labor and capital. Particular attention is paid to the effects of racial and class discrimination upon the allocation and distribution of these factors. There is an extensive examination ...


Applied Academics: An Evaluation Of The Applied Academics Program In Iowa , Dennis Wayne Field Jan 1997

Applied Academics: An Evaluation Of The Applied Academics Program In Iowa , Dennis Wayne Field

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This investigation compares academic achievement and employability skills of high school students enrolled in applied academics courses versus traditional courses. Outcomes from three American College Testing Work Keys assessment tests--Applied Mathematics (AM), Applied Technology (AT), and Reading for Information (RFI)--were used as measures of employability skills. Data were collected under quasi-experimental conditions on 1,321 students from 9 Iowa high schools. The data included school, type of course (applied or traditional), course subject matter, class within course, gender, grade, grade point average (GPA), Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED) score, test content area, and test score;Findings included: (1 ...


Educational And Vocational Choices Of Gifted Individuals: Guidance Counseling And Research For Adolescents Into Adulthood , Teresa Anne Argo Boatman Jan 1997

Educational And Vocational Choices Of Gifted Individuals: Guidance Counseling And Research For Adolescents Into Adulthood , Teresa Anne Argo Boatman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The two papers presented herein focused on guidance and research surrounding educational and vocational development of gifted adolescents. The first paper presented educational interventions to optimize talent development through formulating an individualized educational plan to provide the best match of intellectual ability and preferences with educational opportunities. The paper highlights the school psychologist's role as consultant for serving the needs of the gifted learner;The second paper examined the educational and vocational choices, as well as preference profiles, of intellectually talented individuals with dominant mathematical abilities or dominant verbal abilities at age 13 based upon Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT ...


Equity Attitudes Of Public School Stakeholders: A National Study , James Arnold Scott Jan 1997

Equity Attitudes Of Public School Stakeholders: A National Study , James Arnold Scott

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to document equity attitudes of public school stakeholders (PSS) and compare them to attitudes of Americans in general. In all, 1014 PSS (school board members, district superintendents, school principals, teachers, and parents) representing 323 school districts responded via a 67-item questionnaire. Major areas were affirmative action, opportunity perceptions, reasons for poverty and wealth, and redistribution of income. Sample: stratified random selection of 683 public school districts in 41 states representative of the nation. Hypotheses. (1) no statistically significant differences between stakeholders and the general public, and (2) no such differences among stakeholder groups. Hypothesis 1 was ...


An Analysis Of Request-Centered Relational Communication Within Behavioral Consultation Using A Sample Of Practicing School Psychologists , Tracey Lynn Johnson Jan 1997

An Analysis Of Request-Centered Relational Communication Within Behavioral Consultation Using A Sample Of Practicing School Psychologists , Tracey Lynn Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Folger and Puck (1976) request-centered relational communication coding system was used to examine the relationship between measures of consultant and consultee control in behavioral consultation and (a) consultee satisfaction; (b) client behavior change; (c) perceived treatment integrity; and (d) perceptions of client behavior change. School psychologists from across Iowa served as consultants to one consultee each across three problem-solving interviews. The Problem Identification Interview was audiotaped and request-response transactions were coded. Requests were coded as either: dominant, dominant-affiliative, or submissive and served as measures of consultant and consultee control. Measures of consultant and consultee control and the outcome measures ...


Community College General Education Impact On Student Critical Thinking Ability , Judith Hansen Jan 1997

Community College General Education Impact On Student Critical Thinking Ability , Judith Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study of the impact of community college general education, semester hours on student critical thinking ability responded to national and regional research recommendations in analysis of three components: (1) critical thinking, (2) general education, and (3) community college. Student critical thinking ability was measured by student scores on the ACT Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (CAAP) Critical Thinking component exam. General education was defined as the semester hours completed in each of five general education areas required for associate degree graduation: communications, humanities, math, science, and social science. All data for this study were obtained from the records of ...


The African American Experience: Notes On Black Identity Development, Membership In A Historically Black Fraternity Or Sorority And Involvement, Kimberly Joyce Branch Jan 1997

The African American Experience: Notes On Black Identity Development, Membership In A Historically Black Fraternity Or Sorority And Involvement, Kimberly Joyce Branch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Women's Functional Swimwear, 1860-1920 , Maxine James Johns Jan 1997

Women's Functional Swimwear, 1860-1920 , Maxine James Johns

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using periodicals, catalogs, extant garments, postcards, patents, photographs, and newspapers, I traced the origin and development of women's functional swimwear from the bloomer costume of the 1850s to the "tank suit" of the 1920s. To gain insight into exogenous or external forces that may influence the fashion process, I considered urban lifestyle, education and status of women, leisure activities, swimming facilities, renowned swimmers, the Olympics, knit technology, water travel, drownings, life preservers, and public baths;Initial findings supported the thesis that women's bathing garments followed the dominant outerwear silhouette of the era. Visual data indicated women generally adopted ...


Self-Reported Measures Of Work Satisfaction, Receptivity Towards Organizational Change, And Ratings Of Quality Management Initiatives Of Campus Facilities' Workers In The State Universities Of Iowa , Radhakrishnan Balamuralikrishna Jan 1997

Self-Reported Measures Of Work Satisfaction, Receptivity Towards Organizational Change, And Ratings Of Quality Management Initiatives Of Campus Facilities' Workers In The State Universities Of Iowa , Radhakrishnan Balamuralikrishna

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Faced with increasing budgetary constraints, higher educational institutions across the United States are attempting to transform their organizational systems and processes. Quality management initiatives have become increasingly popular in several functions of universities and four-year colleges. In particular, campus facilities' departments have adopted total quality management (TQM) as the new Philosophy;;The major purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure job satisfaction, receptivity towards organizational change, and ratings of quality management initiatives as perceived by custodial workers employed in university campus facilities. A secondary purpose was to determine existing perceptions of custodial workers employed by the ...