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1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 439

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Seasonal Corn And Soybean Pricing; Benchmarks For Your Beef Herd: Where To Find Them, Dick Shane, Gene Murra Dec 1997

Seasonal Corn And Soybean Pricing; Benchmarks For Your Beef Herd: Where To Find Them, Dick Shane, Gene Murra

Economics Commentator

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Costs By Size Of Jail For Selected Counties In Iowa, Mark A. Edelman Dr., Adrian J. Mayer Dec 1997

An Analysis Of Costs By Size Of Jail For Selected Counties In Iowa, Mark A. Edelman Dr., Adrian J. Mayer

Economic Staff Paper Series

The authors offer sincere thanks to the sheriffs and chief jail administrators from Adair, Cass, Chickasaw, Floyd, Kossuth, Mahaska, Webster, and Wright counties for their candor, professionalism, experience, and time during the course of this study. The authors also would extend appreciation to county supervisors in Polk, Marshall, Clarke, Franklin, Wright, Boone, and Muscatine counties for providing additional information from recent jail studies.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


More On Fobe, Neil Harl Dec 1997

More On Fobe, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The family-owned business exclusion, enacted as part of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 contained numerous omissions and ambiguities as enacted. A letter from the Joint Committee on Taxation to Sen. Charles E. Grassley of Iowa has provided additional insights into JCT’s view of how the statute should be interpreted.


Index To Volume 8, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 1997

Index To Volume 8, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Trends. Globalization As Old Wine In New Bottles: The 30th Anniversary Of The Association Of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), Editor Dec 1997

Trends. Globalization As Old Wine In New Bottles: The 30th Anniversary Of The Association Of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean), Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the new era of globalization.


Income Averaging, Neil Harl Dec 1997

Income Averaging, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Although the possibility of a return to income averaging had been discussed for several years, enactment of income averaging for farm income came as a great surprise to many. The provision is not effective until 1998, and remains available for 1999 and the year 2000, and sunsets at the end of 2000 unless extended by legislative action.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Using Auctions To Divest Generation Assets, Peter Cramton, Lisa J. Cameron, Robert Wilson Dec 1997

Using Auctions To Divest Generation Assets, Peter Cramton, Lisa J. Cameron, Robert Wilson

Peter Cramton

In most states, ratepayers will compensate utilities for their stranded costs. As a result, these costs must be measured as accurately as possible, in a manner that is easily understood by all concerned parties. We describe the options for measuring stranded costs and argue that a simultaneous ascending auction is the best approach.


Off-Farm Work Participation, Off-Farm Labor Supply And On-Farm Labor Demand Of U.S. Farm Operators, Wallace E. Huffman, Hisham El-Osta Dec 1997

Off-Farm Work Participation, Off-Farm Labor Supply And On-Farm Labor Demand Of U.S. Farm Operators, Wallace E. Huffman, Hisham El-Osta

Economic Staff Paper Series

An agricultural household model provides the framework for modeling off-farm work participation and off-farm and on-farm work decisions of farm operators. The empirical results are obtained from fitting the econometric model to data from a large national survey. In the estimated structural off-farm work participation equation, the operator's off-farm wage offer has a strong positive effect and other household income has a negative effect on the probability of off-farm work. For farm operators who participate in off-farm work, the wage elasticity of their off-farm labor supply is positive but of their on-farm labor demand is zero. The income elasticity ...


Toward A Theory Of Food And Agriculture Policy Intervention For A Developing Economy With Particular Reference To Nigeria, Gbolagade B. Ayoola Dec 1997

Toward A Theory Of Food And Agriculture Policy Intervention For A Developing Economy With Particular Reference To Nigeria, Gbolagade B. Ayoola

CARD Working Papers

Following three months as a visiting scholar in the Department of Economics at lows State University, the author documents the results of his discussions regarding the policy process for agriculture and rural development in developing countries. His goal in this study is to initiate a process that will lead to a concise theory of policy intervention specifically suitable for the prevailing conditions in developing countries. He discusses the main features of the Nigerian agricultural polio environment to arouse interest in the analysis of that environment in relation to the advanced agricultural system of the United States.


Informality, Size, And Regulation: Theory And An Application To Egypt, Marcelo M. Giugale, Sherif El-Diwany Dec 1997

Informality, Size, And Regulation: Theory And An Application To Egypt, Marcelo M. Giugale, Sherif El-Diwany

CARD Working Papers

The paper shows how, when the enforceability of regulations is size-sensitive, price competition can lock firms into informality and, thus, smallness, depending on the form of the production function. In that context, exogenous "help" packages targeted to informal firms "promote" micro and small enterprises (i.e., increase their numbers) but do not "develop" them (i.e., foster their growth). The "help" only generates a short-term span of abnormal profits for existing informal firms, and a long-term income transfer toward informal-market consumers. The model is tested in the context of Egypt's micro and small enterprise sector.


Review Of "The Post-Cold War Trading System: Who's On First?" By S. Ostry, Stephen S. Golub Dec 1997

Review Of "The Post-Cold War Trading System: Who's On First?" By S. Ostry, Stephen S. Golub

Economics Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Agricultural Research: Benefits And Beneficiaries Of Alternative Funding Mechanism, Wallace E. Huffman, Richard E. Just Dec 1997

Agricultural Research: Benefits And Beneficiaries Of Alternative Funding Mechanism, Wallace E. Huffman, Richard E. Just

Economic Staff Paper Series

The United States has developed a very successful R&D system for agriculture. It is a system with shared cost/financing and performance by the federal and state governments and by the private sector. The paper presents an economic analysis of alternative organization, management, incentive, and funding mechanisms for agricultural research under budget constraints, including some emphasis on thekinds of benefits thatare generated and thegroups that receive them. We conclude that the private sector should bepermitted to carry outresearch that it finds profitable to undertake withminimal competition firom the public sector. The public research institutions should focus on general and ...


Is There A Latin-American Debt Crisis Building Up In Eastern Europe? A Comparative Analysis, Dagney Faulk, Marcelo M. Giugale Dec 1997

Is There A Latin-American Debt Crisis Building Up In Eastern Europe? A Comparative Analysis, Dagney Faulk, Marcelo M. Giugale

CARD Working Papers

This paper attempts to advance the analysis of Eastern Europe's ongoing debt accumulation process by comparing it to the debt accumulation press that preceded the Latin American debt crisis of the early 1980s. The authors report on key country and international conditions in both situations and place Eastern Europe in the quantitative context of the Latin-American crisis-in-the-making of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This allows for the identification of some reassuring, as well as some worrisome, trends and for the drawing of some broad sustainability-related conclusions.


Storage For Good Times And Bad: Of Rats And Men, Ted Bergstrom Nov 1997

Storage For Good Times And Bad: Of Rats And Men, Ted Bergstrom

Ted C Bergstrom

How do rats and squirrels decide how much to hoard for the winter when they do not know how long the winter will be? This paper argues that natural selection is likely to result in random differences in the attitudes toward systemic risk by genetically identical individuals.


Do Guaranteed-Low-Price Policies Guarantee High Prices, And Can Antitrust Rise To The Challenge?, Aaron S. Edlin Nov 1997

Do Guaranteed-Low-Price Policies Guarantee High Prices, And Can Antitrust Rise To The Challenge?, Aaron S. Edlin

Aaron Edlin

Price-matching policies can be highly anticompetitive. They allow firms to raise their prices above competition levels by discriminating in price between informed and uninformed customers. The resulting high prices can persist even when new firms enter the industry, a fact that gives price matching the potential to be much more socially costly than an ordinary monopoly or cartel. At the same time, widespread entry implies that the agreement among sellers that is typical of a Sherman Act price-fixing case may be absent. In this article, Professor Edlin argues that there is nonetheless an analogy between a seller offering (and agreeing ...


Cooperatives And Corporate Farming Laws, Neil Harl Nov 1997

Cooperatives And Corporate Farming Laws, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In 1982, Nebraska voters approved Proposition 300, Nebraska’s anti-corporate farming law. The Nebraska provision has been criticized for its detailed, complex and not completely consistent approach to limiting corporations. The constitutional measure bars corporations or syndicates from acquiring real estate in the state except for family farm or ranch corporations; nonprofit corporations; Indian tribal corporations; and several other categories of corporate enterprises. The Nebraska Supreme Court has now ruled on whether a nonstock cooperative involved in hog production was exempt from the law as a “non-profit corporation.”


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 1997

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


The Stock Market: Herd Mentality And Rationality; World Meat Production And Trade: Some Selected Comments, John Sodney, Gene Murra Nov 1997

The Stock Market: Herd Mentality And Rationality; World Meat Production And Trade: Some Selected Comments, John Sodney, Gene Murra

Economics Commentator

No abstract provided.


Assessing New Technology, Michael Duffy Nov 1997

Assessing New Technology, Michael Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Every day seems to bring a new technology for farmers. Global positioning, infrared analysis, herbicide resistant seeds, new hybrids, and variable rate applications are a few of the relatively recent agricultural technologies.


Iowa Cropping Practices, 1996, Michael Duffy Nov 1997

Iowa Cropping Practices, 1996, Michael Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Crop production practices in Iowa are changing rapidly. New technologies and methods are being adopted with such frequency that it is difficult to ascertain current practices. This paper presents summary statistics and initial analysis from a 1996 cropping practices survey. The data were collected as an expansion of the USDA cost and return survey. The Iowa State University Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture provided the funding to expand the survey.


Almost Everybody Disagrees Almost All The Time: The Genericity Of Weakly Merging Nowhere, Ronald I. Miller, Chris William Sanchirico Nov 1997

Almost Everybody Disagrees Almost All The Time: The Genericity Of Weakly Merging Nowhere, Ronald I. Miller, Chris William Sanchirico

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Suppose we randomly pull two agents from a population and ask them to observe an unfolding, infinite sequence of zeros and ones. If each agent starts with a prior belief about the true sequence and updates this belief on revelation of successive observations, what is the chance that the two agents will come to agree on the likelihood that the next draw is a one? In this paper we show that there is no chance. More formally, we show that under a very unrestrictive definition of what it means to draw priors “randomly,” the probability that two priors have any ...


Subsidies In Oligopoly Markets: A Welfare Comparison Between Symmetric And Asymmetric Costs, Stephen F. Hamilton, Rickard Sandin Nov 1997

Subsidies In Oligopoly Markets: A Welfare Comparison Between Symmetric And Asymmetric Costs, Stephen F. Hamilton, Rickard Sandin

Economics

Oligopolistic industries generally produce less than is socially desirable. As a result, the use of production subsidies is often suggested as a means of raising production toward the efficient level in imperfectly competitive markets. In cases where firms are equally efficient in producing the good, the common prescription is a policy of uniform subsidization, as suggested by Besley (1989).(1) When firms in an industry differ in cost efficiency, however, uniform subsidization involves subsidizing inefficient firms in the same manner as efficient firms. Consequently, uniform policy may be undesirable from a social perspective, particularly when the price-cost margins of inefficient ...


Meaningful Measures Of The Current Account, Eric O'N. Fisher, Youngsoo Woo Nov 1997

Meaningful Measures Of The Current Account, Eric O'N. Fisher, Youngsoo Woo

Economics

Since the conventional current account uses cash-flow accounting, it is potentially devoid of economic meaning. Assessing foreign assets at market values and including expected transfers from abroad, this paper reports two measures of the external surplus that are grounded in economic theory. The first measure is the aggregate generational current account, annual differences in the sum of net foreign assets across all current and future generations. The second measure is the generational profile of net foreign assets in a benchmark year. These ideas are implemented with data from Korea.


Managerial Stress In Hong Kong And Taiwan : A Comparative Study, Oi Ling Siu, Luo Lu, Cary L. Cooper Nov 1997

Managerial Stress In Hong Kong And Taiwan : A Comparative Study, Oi Ling Siu, Luo Lu, Cary L. Cooper

Centre for Public Policy Studies : CPPS Working Paper Series

The purpose of this study was to investigate occupational stress in managers in Hong Kong (N=280) and Taiwan (N=347) using the Occupational Stress Indicator-2 (OSI-2). The results showed that the reliabilities and predictive validity of the OSI-2 subscales were reasonably high in both samples. The logical relationships between job satisfaction, mental and physical well-being that were found in the two samples have provided support to the findings obtained in Western countries. The predictors for health effects were various and many in the two places. Further, there were gender differences in managerial stress in Hong Kong: female managers scored ...


Migration And Labour Market Integration In Late Nineteenth-Century England And Wales, George R. Boyer Nov 1997

Migration And Labour Market Integration In Late Nineteenth-Century England And Wales, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] There is a long and well established tradition of studies analysing the pattern and causes of internal migration and assessing the degree of labour market integration in late nineteenth-century Britain. Some studies document the flows of migrants from one area to another and describe migrant characteristics and the directions of the predominant streams of migration. Others analyse the determinants of gross or net migration flows at the region or county level. The questions implicit in these studies are: How mobile was the labour force? What were the major factors which determined individual decisions to migrate? How are these factors ...


Sampling Schemes For Policy Analyses Using Computer Simulation Experiments, Alicia L. Carriquiry, F. Jay Breidt, P. G. Lakshminarayan Nov 1997

Sampling Schemes For Policy Analyses Using Computer Simulation Experiments, Alicia L. Carriquiry, F. Jay Breidt, P. G. Lakshminarayan

CARD Working Papers

Evaluating the environmental and Economic impacts of agricultural policies is not a simple task. A systematic approach to evaluation would include the effect of policy-dependent factors (such as tillage practices, crop rotations, and chemical use) as well as the effect of policy independent covariates (such as weather, topography, and soil attributes) on response variables (such as amount of soil eroded or chemical leached into the groundwater). For comparison purposes, the effects of these input combinations on the response variable would have to be assessed under competing policy scenarios. Because the number of input combinations is high in most problems, and ...


International Trade Between Consumer And Conservationist Countries, M. Scott Taylor, James A. Brander Oct 1997

International Trade Between Consumer And Conservationist Countries, M. Scott Taylor, James A. Brander

M. Scott Taylor

We consider trade between a Consumer country with an open access renewable resource and a Conservationist country that regulates resource harvesting to maximize domestic steady-state utility. In what we call the mild overuse case, the consumer country exports the resource good and suffers steady-state losses from trade, as suggested by the conventional wisdom that weak resource management standards confer a comparative advantage on domestic firms in the resource sector but cause welfare losses. Strikingly, however, when the resource stock is most in jeopardy, the conservationist country exports the resource good in steady state and both countries gain from trade.


Meeting The "50 Percent" Test For The Fobe, Neil Harl Oct 1997

Meeting The "50 Percent" Test For The Fobe, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Without much doubt, the most complex, convoluted and confusing provision in the family-owned business exclusion (FOBE) is the pre-death requirement that the adjusted value of qualified family-owned business interests (plus pre-death gifts of family-owned business interests within the family) must exceed 50 percent of the decedent’s adjusted gross estate (with various modifications). The calculation involves a fraction with both the numerator and the denominator posing formidable problems of interpretation.