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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Climate Change And Human Rights: Shaping The Narrative For Reflexive Responses From Civilization’S Leadership To Counter And Abate Climate Change And Enhance The Role Of Human Rights In The Rule Of Law, Michael Donlan Nov 2019

Climate Change And Human Rights: Shaping The Narrative For Reflexive Responses From Civilization’S Leadership To Counter And Abate Climate Change And Enhance The Role Of Human Rights In The Rule Of Law, Michael Donlan

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article offers a bold new legal process for enhancing and upgrading the rule of law to enable civilization to cope with and counter the mounting damage and injustice caused by climate change. Climate change, once an unimaginable threat, is now a brutal, ubiquitous game changer that is leading inexorably to the demise of all humanity. Only by enhancing the rule of law and melding international law with domestic law can civilization fashion a coherent, global action plan for survival.

For almost three centuries greenhouse gases have been emitted around the world by the burning of fossil fuel, and—most ...


Cultural Work In Addressing Conflicts And Violence In Traumatized Communities, Eugen Koh May 2019

Cultural Work In Addressing Conflicts And Violence In Traumatized Communities, Eugen Koh

New England Journal of Public Policy

There is a growing appreciation that conflict and violence in many communities have their origins in a history of traumatic experiences. Why this link exists and how it comes about is still unclear. We have no unified psychology of traumatized communities, and little is known about how to address these traumatic origins collectively in these communities. This article proposes a psychodynamic model of collective trauma and a psychoanalytically informed approach to working with traumatized communities to address their issues of conflict and violence. It highlights the impact of collective trauma on the culture of a community, which is its collective ...


Trends In Youth Victimization And Well-Being, And Implications For Youth Policy, Lisa M. Jones, David Finkelhor, Rashmi Nair, Michelle Collett Sep 2013

Trends In Youth Victimization And Well-Being, And Implications For Youth Policy, Lisa M. Jones, David Finkelhor, Rashmi Nair, Michelle Collett

New England Journal of Public Policy

Youth victimization concerns have engaged educators, public health officials, and the media for many years. Cases of child victimization regularly make headlines, and in recent years public concern has focused in particular on sexual abuse, child abductions, online predators, school shootings, bullying, and cyberbullying. But little attention has been given to evidence for substantial declines in child victimizations over the past 20 years. Even for internet victimization, an area of high current public anxiety, trend data do not suggest a growing epidemic but instead find that some types of online victimization have declined over the past decade.

The failure to ...


Online Predators: Myth Versus Reality, Janis Wolak, Lindsey Evans, Stephanie Nguyen, Denise A. Hines Sep 2013

Online Predators: Myth Versus Reality, Janis Wolak, Lindsey Evans, Stephanie Nguyen, Denise A. Hines

New England Journal of Public Policy

Media stories about “online predators” who use the Internet to gain access to young victims often give inaccurate impressions of Internet-initiated sex crimes. Most such crimes involve adult men who use the Internet to meet and seduce adolescents into sexual encounters. Most offenders are open about their ages and sexual motivations. Most are charged with statutory rape (i.e., nonforcible sexual activity with victims who are too young to consent). Internet-initiated sex crimes account for a salient but small proportion of all statutory rape offenses and a relatively low number of the sexual offenses committed against minors overall. Victims are ...


Food Insecurity Among Children In Massachusetts, Stephanie Ettinger De Cuba, Deborah A. Frank, Maya Pilgrim, Maria Buitrago, Anna Voremberg, Harris Rollinger, Denise A. Hines Sep 2013

Food Insecurity Among Children In Massachusetts, Stephanie Ettinger De Cuba, Deborah A. Frank, Maya Pilgrim, Maria Buitrago, Anna Voremberg, Harris Rollinger, Denise A. Hines

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article focuses on the prevalence among Massachusetts children and families of food insecurity, inadequate access to enough nutritious food for an active and healthy life. It summarizes research findings on the association of food insecurity with less optimal children’s health and development from the prenatal period through adolescence. Food insecurity also correlates with other material hardships, such as housing and energy insecurity. Data show families’ participation in public nutrition and other assistance program is associated with decreased prevalence of food insecurity and with mitigation of its impact on children’s health and well-being. The article concludes with recommendations ...


Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger Sep 2013

Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger

New England Journal of Public Policy

In Massachusetts, more than half a million children (15% of all children) live in poverty, 30% of all children live with parents who lack secure employment, and 41% live in households with high housing cost burdens. This article examines the root causes of poverty and its links to child homelessness in the state. Though the state has a long-standing progressive political legacy, the well-being of low-income families with children continues to decline. The article offers evidence about the extent of child homelessness and its profound effects on Massachusetts children and youth. The interconnectedness of what are usually thought of as ...


Aids: An Overview, Loretta Mclaughlin Mar 2013

Aids: An Overview, Loretta Mclaughlin

New England Journal of Public Policy

"We stand nakedly in front of a very serious pandemic, as mortal as any pandemic there ever has been," said Halfdan Mahler, director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO). "I don't know of any greater killer than AIDS, not to speak of its psychological, social and economic maiming. Everything is getting worse and worse with AIDS and all of us have been underestimating it, and I in particular. We're running scared. I cannot imagine a worse health problem in this century." When asked to compare AIDS to other epidemics, such as smallpox, that have infected and killed over ...


The Road To Universal Health Coverage In Massachusetts: A Story In Three Parts, John E. Mcdonough Sep 2004

The Road To Universal Health Coverage In Massachusetts: A Story In Three Parts, John E. Mcdonough

New England Journal of Public Policy

In 1988, the Massachusetts Legislature passed a new law, a “play or pay” employer mandate, requiring all employers with six or more workers to provide health insurance coverage for their employees. A few years later, with Medicaid identified as a “Budget Buster,” the Weld administration sought deregulation as the way to cut costs and expand access by establishing MassHealth, which dropped the employer mandate and expanded Medicaid, and eventually distinguished Massachusetts as the state with the greatest percent of covered citizens. But MassHealth enrollment has declined as premium costs have risen, and the Uncompensated Care Pool is once again faced ...


The Citizens Health Prescription: Coping With Rising Drug Costs, Shannon Cadres Sep 2002

The Citizens Health Prescription: Coping With Rising Drug Costs, Shannon Cadres

New England Journal of Public Policy

Prescription drug prices have climbed to unaffordable levels in recent years, creating a serious public policy problem for lawmakers at both the state and federal levels. The U.S. Medicare program only covers the costs of inpatient prescription drugs, and only seventy-five percent of beneficiaries are receiving coverage through some other means. But because of the tremendous power of the pharmaceutical industry on Capitol Hill, lawmakers in Washington have been unable to agree upon a workable solution. As a result, many states are experimenting with different strategies to provide some relief. Massachusetts has attempted to solve the problem through the ...


Environmental Public Health Awaits Rediscovery, Anthony Robbins, Phyllis Freeman Mar 2002

Environmental Public Health Awaits Rediscovery, Anthony Robbins, Phyllis Freeman

New England Journal of Public Policy

Preventing environmental exposures that threaten human health remains among the best but least attended to opportunities to improve everyone’s health. For more than a decade, medical care concerns, exacerbated by voracious competition among medical empires and the implacably growing number of uninsured, have often been misconstrued as constituting a complete agenda for health system reform. The authors explain the predicament from an historical perspective — how defining events moved U.S. health policy away from protecting the public against dangerous exposures toward unrealistic expectations that doctors will fix whatever goes wrong, at least for individuals with ample medical insurance. They ...


From Correctional Custody To Community: The Massachusetts Forensic Transition Program, Stephanie W. Hartwell, Donna Haig Friedman, Karin Orr Mar 2001

From Correctional Custody To Community: The Massachusetts Forensic Transition Program, Stephanie W. Hartwell, Donna Haig Friedman, Karin Orr

New England Journal of Public Policy

Offenders with mental illness who are serving correctional sentences are released to the community.Without support systems linking their transition to community-based programs following release from prison, the services necessary for their community reintegration are often fragmented and attenuated. Nearly two thirds of all inmates return to prison, and offenders with mental illness face major challenges during reintegration and have an even more difficult time living in the community without specialized, informed services. This article describes a Massachusetts program designed to bridge the transition of offenders with mental illness from incarceration to the community.The authors review historical and recent ...


Nursing Homes To Medicare Waiver Programs In Vermont, Joseph Murray Mar 2000

Nursing Homes To Medicare Waiver Programs In Vermont, Joseph Murray

New England Journal of Public Policy

This research examines the differences between nursing home residents and those who were able to leave nursing homes with the help of the Medicaid Waiver Program in Vermont. Ninety individuals who reentered the community with the aid of such waivers were compared with a random sample of nursing home residents through the use of the Nursing Home Minimum Data Set. The researchers found divergence in four key areas: cognition, continence, treatment categories, and desire to return to the community. Typically, those who left nursing homes for the community were cognitively intact, had moderate continence, received rehabilitative or clinically complex treatments ...


Nursing: A New Day, A New Way, Lin Zhan, Jane Cloutterback Sep 1997

Nursing: A New Day, A New Way, Lin Zhan, Jane Cloutterback

New England Journal of Public Policy

The U.S. health care environment is changing rapidly. Its structure, financing, and delivery are being reconfigured toward an integrated system based on managed care. Increasingly, national interest in health promotion and disease prevention is moving care away from a disease-oriented, institutionally based model to a population-focused, wellness-oriented, and community-based system. Health care consumers are diversifying in age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The approach emerging from these changes and others requires nursing to rethink, redesign, and retool its workforce to meet new challenges. This article analyzes nursing education, practice, and operations. The authors discuss the dilemmas and complexity of developing ...


Job Mobility Of Entry-Level Workers: Black And Latina Women In Hospital Corridors, Maria Estella Carrión Sep 1997

Job Mobility Of Entry-Level Workers: Black And Latina Women In Hospital Corridors, Maria Estella Carrión

New England Journal of Public Policy

Based on data from interviews with fifteen black and fifteen Latina women in entry-level jobs, this article discusses job access strategies, patterns of job mobility, and barriers to upward job mobility for low-income minority women in the hospital industry. Concentrated in the lowest wage levels and job tiers, they are quite diverse in subgroup composition, in age, and in training requirements. The research confirms that deficiencies in schooling and skills remain the major obstacles minority women confront when they apply for hospital jobs and restrict their opportunities once they are within the hospital labor market. Efforts to provide training and ...


Labor's Response To Hospital And Workplace Transformation, Enid Eckstein Sep 1997

Labor's Response To Hospital And Workplace Transformation, Enid Eckstein

New England Journal of Public Policy

The health care industry and the nation's hospitals are in the throes of revolutionary change. The shift to managed care resulted in fundamental changes in the delivery of care and the structure of health care, For the past ten years, hospitals have actively been merging and creating large-scale integrated delivery systems. Employers, eager to expand market share and reduce costs, are engaged in radical reorganization of the hospital and the structure of work from which no group is immune. Physicians, nurses, technicians, and housekeepers are all affected by these changes. Hospitals are reducing their personnel, shifting work outside the ...


From Welfare To What?: The Limitations Of Low-Income Work, Lande Ajose Sep 1997

From Welfare To What?: The Limitations Of Low-Income Work, Lande Ajose

New England Journal of Public Policy

The premise of the welfare law enacted by Congress is that people living in poverty could vastly improve their economic status if only they were employed. The author argues that economic security for welfare recipients will not be realized simply by increasing the labor-force attachment. Home health aides comprise an occupation that could absorb many of the large pool of workers expected to join the labor market because demand for their services is high and barriers to entry are low. However, as this survey shows, the home health field offers limited promise to welfare recipients because, significantly for women rolling ...


We Are The Roots: The Culture Of Home Health Aides, Ruth Glasser, Jeremy Brecher Sep 1997

We Are The Roots: The Culture Of Home Health Aides, Ruth Glasser, Jeremy Brecher

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article focuses on the contributions of its workers' culture to the success of Cooperative Home Care Associates (CHCA). It examines what the home healthaides bring to the culture of the company, how their contribution develops through their experience with the company, and how their heritage contributes to their CHCA work and to the company as an organization. This is one segment of a larger study that will deal with the background and history of CHCA, the vision of the founders and its implementation, the role of organizational policy, and the contribution of management philosophy to its accomplishment.


Improving Workforce Conditions In Private Human Service Agencies: A Partnership Between A Union And Human Service Providers, James Green Sep 1997

Improving Workforce Conditions In Private Human Service Agencies: A Partnership Between A Union And Human Service Providers, James Green

New England Journal of Public Policy

In 1995 the Service Employees International Union Local 509 and four Massachusetts human service providers signed an unusual agreement to forge a partnership in which employers would remain neutral while the union approached its workers with an offer to advocate in the state legislature for greater funding for private human service employees and to promote cooperative relations with their employers. This study examines the context of the agreement and the pressures on public employee unions and small human service providers whose workforce copes with low wages, high turnover, meager benefits, and poor public image as well as the give-and-take between ...


The Potential Impact Of Workforce Development Legislation On Cbos, Edwin Meléndez Sep 1997

The Potential Impact Of Workforce Development Legislation On Cbos, Edwin Meléndez

New England Journal of Public Policy

The proposed congressional legislation revamping the employment and training system will result in budget cuts, program consolidation, and block grants for the states. These changes are potentially harmful to community-based organizations (CBOs) because (J ) they eliminate categorical funding that traditionally has required contracting with organizations which specialize in servicing the disadvantaged, and (2) they introduce stricter performance standards that may be unattainable for many small-scale operations. However, the adoption of best practices in serving non-English-speaking and poor populations, increasing connections to emerging government intermediaries in labor markets, and establishing greater linkages to postsecondary educational institutions may offer CBOs the opportunity ...


Workplace Education At The Bottom Rungs, Andrés Torres Sep 1997

Workplace Education At The Bottom Rungs, Andrés Torres

New England Journal of Public Policy

In the late 1980s, observers of the Massachusetts hospital industry were predicting a severe shortfall in skilled technical workers. The Worker Education Program (WEP) emerged as one of several responses to this projected labor shortage. It was premised on the idea of an internal solution to the need for workforce development, shifting the focus from external recruitment to upgrading of incumbents — nutrition, maintenance, clerical, and secretarial staff— and from traditional classroom training to workplace education. Other features of the WEP model made it an extremely interesting experiment: it was operated by labor-management partnership, it was located statewide in nine different ...


Performance And Accountability In Human Services: Ownership And Responsibility Of Professionals, Anna-Marie Madison Sep 1997

Performance And Accountability In Human Services: Ownership And Responsibility Of Professionals, Anna-Marie Madison

New England Journal of Public Policy

The recent frenzy of grant makers and government agencies in requiring impact evaluations of all grant recipients has created consternation among human service providers. To ensure their agencies' survival and worker job security, the leaders are faced with meeting the demands offunder-driven programming. Agencies seeking funding must comply with funder-defined needs and accountability criteria rather than their public missions. This article describes the use of mission-based performance evaluation rather than funder compliance to demonstrate accountability for mission accomplishment.


Victimization And Homelessness: Cause And Effect, Pamela J. Fischer Mar 1992

Victimization And Homelessness: Cause And Effect, Pamela J. Fischer

New England Journal of Public Policy

The literature on the contemporary homeless population is reviewed to examine the association of victimization with homelessness. Although few studies have specifically focused on victimization, findings derived from studies investigating pathways to homelessness, prevalence of health, mental health, and substance-use disorders, and demographic profiles and life histories suggest that victimization both causes homelessness and is an outcome of losing housing. Causal sequences ending in homelessness most frequently involve domestic violence, which mainly affects women, although other types of abuse may extrude individuals from their established housing. Once they become homeless, the risk of violence escalates for people living on the ...


Classification And Its Risks: How Psychiatric Status Contributes To Homelessness Policy, Anne M. Lovell Mar 1992

Classification And Its Risks: How Psychiatric Status Contributes To Homelessness Policy, Anne M. Lovell

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article examines the extent to which psychiatric classification in public policy research contributes to the equation of homelessness and mental illness. Surveys that measure psychiatric status of homeless persons are reviewed to understand whether they contribute to biased rates of mental illness among homeless persons. The relationship between psychiatric classification and the concept of need is examined and alternatives to current classification are proposed. Classification is discussed particularly in relation to policies of segmentation for "single" homeless adults.


The Kindred Bonds Of Mentally Ill Homeless Persons, Richard C. Tessler, Gail M. Gamache, Peter H. Rossi, Anthony F. Lehman, Howard H. Goldman Mar 1992

The Kindred Bonds Of Mentally Ill Homeless Persons, Richard C. Tessler, Gail M. Gamache, Peter H. Rossi, Anthony F. Lehman, Howard H. Goldman

New England Journal of Public Policy

While the unraveling of the kinship bond has long been suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of homelessness, the connection between kinship and homelessness has been little studied. Based on a normative analysis of the role of family structure in response to adversity, this article explores the impact of the amount and quality of kinship ties on episodes of homelessness experienced by discharged psychiatric patients in Ohio. Survey data derived from personal interviews with both former patients and their kin indicate more strain in relations with kin of the homeless than the nonhomeless. The strain in the kinship ...


Housing, Community Support, And Homelessness: Emerging Policy In Mental Health Systems, Paul J. Carling Mar 1992

Housing, Community Support, And Homelessness: Emerging Policy In Mental Health Systems, Paul J. Carling

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article summarizes the dramatic changes in public policy through which public mental health systems are attempting to meet the housing and community support needs of persons with severe and persistent mental illnesses, including those who are homeless. It traces the historical approach to meeting these needs through defining people principally as patients and providing some combination of psychotropic medications, outpatient therapy, and structured, supervised quasi-institutional settings such as group homes, shelters, and segregated single-room-occupancy, or board-and-care facilities. A transition phase in public policy has emphasized defining these individuals essentially as service recipients who need greater or lesser amounts of ...


Program Design And Clinical Operation Of Two National Va Initiatives For Homeless Mentally Ill Veterans, Robert Rosenheck, Catherine A. Leda, Peggy Gallup Mar 1992

Program Design And Clinical Operation Of Two National Va Initiatives For Homeless Mentally Ill Veterans, Robert Rosenheck, Catherine A. Leda, Peggy Gallup

New England Journal of Public Policy

In 1987, in response to reports of large numbers of veterans among America's homeless, the Department of Veterans Affairs established two new national health care initiatives, which have seen over 40,000 homeless veterans since their inception. We present here evaluation and treatment data on a sample of 14,000 of them. Because of differences in their design, the two programs vary in the degree to which they emphasize community outreach, homelessness prevention, and the provision of aftercare services to patients discharged from other VA programs. In spite of these differences, veterans treated in the two programs have similar ...


Homeless Children Having Children, Yvonne M. Vissing Mar 1992

Homeless Children Having Children, Yvonne M. Vissing

New England Journal of Public Policy

Homeless teenagers who have babies pose a significant population of concern for those in health and human services. This article explores demographic, structural, and economic changes for homeless young and single-parent families. It proposes that their homelessness is due to these barriers and the problems that result. Case studies illustrate the process of troubled teens becoming homeless women with babies. Policy recommendations for assisting these youngsters are offered.


Aids And The Homeless Of Boston, James J. O'Connell, Joan Lebow Mar 1992

Aids And The Homeless Of Boston, James J. O'Connell, Joan Lebow

New England Journal of Public Policy

Homeless persons with AIDS and HIV infection face significant health hazards during the daily struggle for survival on the streets and in the crowded shelters of our cities. This article offers a historical perspective on the evolution of the AIDS epidemic within the homeless population of Boston and examines the demographics, risk behaviors, and survival statistics of that epidemic. The Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program is presented as a model of service delivery that offers quality health care to homeless persons with AIDS while addressing the special needs of those bound by the immediacy of the next meal ...


The New England Shelter For Homeless Veterans: A Unique Approach, Ken Smith, James M. Yates Mar 1992

The New England Shelter For Homeless Veterans: A Unique Approach, Ken Smith, James M. Yates

New England Journal of Public Policy

It has been estimated that veterans comprise one third of the homeless population. To combat this national disgrace, many small veterans' groups have been formed nationwide to serve their homeless "brothers" in such settings as shelters, group homes, and outreach centers.

A Boston group, the Vietnam Veterans Workshop, based its New England Shelter for Homeless Veterans on the simple but powerful concept of veteran helping veteran. The shelter created a program to accomplish three important functions: providing the basic necessities of a bed, a meal, clothing, and a hot shower; rehabilitating the veterans by offering various activities to comfort and ...


Ending Homelessness Among Mentally Disabled People, Steven A. Hitov Mar 1992

Ending Homelessness Among Mentally Disabled People, Steven A. Hitov

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article examines some of the many shortcomings of the mental health system operated by the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health (DMH) and explores the impact of that system on single homeless individuals who suffer from some form of serious or long-term mental disability. To afford that discussion context, however, the article first briefly examines those forces which have, and have not, significantly contributed to the large number of mentally disabled homeless persons. It suggests certain changes, including a shift in departmental focus from hospitals to community services and the creation of a housing subsidy system exclusively for DMH clients ...