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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin Aug 2019

Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin

Theses and Dissertations

Mindfulness, as a state, trait, and training, is linked with myriad positive mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding the individual characteristics potentially influencing links between mindful traits, mindfulness training, and physical health, is therefore important, yet remains under-addressed. Utilizing data from the ongoing Serenity Study (NCT02371317), the current project examines if (1) at baseline, higher trait mindfulness relates to lower BP consistently as a function of demographics, (2) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training lowers BP consistently across demographic subgroups and initial levels of trait mindfulness, and (3) if change in trait mindfulness following MBSR training correlates with change in BP ...


Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a traumatic injury in skeletal muscle resulting in the bulk loss of more than 20% of the muscle’s volume. Included in the bulk loss of muscle is the skeletal muscle niche comprised of nerve bundles, vasculature, local progenitor cells, basal lamina, and muscle fibers, overwhelming innate repair mechanisms. The hallmark of VML injury is the excessive accumulation of non-contractile, fibrotic tissue and permanent functional deficits. Though predominant in the younger demographic, the elderly population is also captured within VML injuries. There are many factors that change with aging in skeletal muscle that may further ...


"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson Aug 2019

"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I examine black college sorority women’s views about skin tone bias in hip-hop culture. I conduct interviews with 12 black undergraduate women in Black Greek Letter Sororities at a predominantly white institution. Prior research finds that rap music sends skin color messages to adolescent women through lyrical content and music videos. I build on this work by exploring how the experiences of being in college shape black college sorority women’s views on skin tone bias and hip-hop. I find that time in college has been an important life stage in which black sorority women gained ...


Extending The Boundaries Of Supply Chain Transparency: Supplier Monitoring Activity Disclosure, Consumer Evaluations, And Brand Equity, Yanji Duan Aug 2019

Extending The Boundaries Of Supply Chain Transparency: Supplier Monitoring Activity Disclosure, Consumer Evaluations, And Brand Equity, Yanji Duan

Theses and Dissertations

Socially responsible policy makers and consumers are pressuring firms to make their supply chains more transparent by disclosing information about their supplier monitoring activities (SMA). Yet, high monitoring costs and the complexity of supply chains pose challenges for firms to effectively monitor their extended supply chain, including both first-tier and lower-tier suppliers. In order to comprehensively evaluate the net benefit from SMA, it is therefore critical to consider potential effects on drivers of additional revenues that may accrue from the disclosure of SMA to consumers.

Prior research on SMA has examined the associated cost, risk, and supplier relational implications on ...


The Archaeology Of Mississippian Vulnerability And Resilience In The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Michelle Megan Rathgaber Aug 2019

The Archaeology Of Mississippian Vulnerability And Resilience In The New Madrid Seismic Zone, Michelle Megan Rathgaber

Theses and Dissertations

This work examines the vulnerability and resilience of Mississippian people in the Central Mississippi Valley to the large-scale New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes of the late15th to early 16th century. This is done using the theory of eventful archaeology/anthropology to look at cultural materials both before and after an event (such as an earthquake and sand blows) to look for evidence of changes to the schema and resources on which a society relies. If changes are present, the event can be labeled as such, if there are no changes, it means that the society affected did not see the ...


Emerging Adult Career Pathways: Understanding Aspirations And Switching, Tasmiah Amreen Aug 2019

Emerging Adult Career Pathways: Understanding Aspirations And Switching, Tasmiah Amreen

Theses and Dissertations

Emerging adulthood is a stage of life characterized by a high degree of fluctuation in identity formation and future decision-making (Arnett 2015). During this life stage, emerging adults make decisions about their future career by assessing whether they want to continue with their current career pathway or whether they intend to switch. The present study investigates this process in terms of its overall prevalence – or how often emerging adults intend to switch career trajectories – and the correlates of it. Previous studies on career switching have focused largely on educational switches. This quantitative study operationalizes career pathway by using the major ...


Drug Trafficking, State Capacity, And The Post-Soviet Condition In The Kyrgyz Republic, Christopher George Cowan Aug 2019

Drug Trafficking, State Capacity, And The Post-Soviet Condition In The Kyrgyz Republic, Christopher George Cowan

Theses and Dissertations

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the newly independent states of Central Asia faced numerous challenges. These included cultivating new national identities and state capacity, managing new borders, and addressing issues of conflict and political violence. Converging with these challenges – a booming trade in opium and heroin originating in neighboring Afghanistan. Central Asia quickly became a key route for opiates originating in Afghanistan and transiting to Russia and Europe. The Kyrgyz Republic lies at the southeastern corner of this region, along one of the world’s busiest drug trafficking routes.

This thesis examines state and societal responses to narcotics ...


Representations Of Domestic Workers In Modern Arabic Fiction, Samaher Aldhamen Aug 2019

Representations Of Domestic Workers In Modern Arabic Fiction, Samaher Aldhamen

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I have examined the representations of domestic workers in a number of Arabic mid-century and contemporary novels, using feminism and intersectionality as my overarching framework. I employed several scholarships of feminism such as Marxist and postcolonial feminism to examine the discourse on working-class women. The initial assumption of this study is that there is a noticeable invisibility of domestic workers in Arabic novels. If these characters manage to find their way into a text, they are typically ahistorical figures whose subjectivity is not centered.

Among the Arabic novels I have examined, I found that the tradition of ...


Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce Aug 2019

Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce

Theses and Dissertations

Rice flour generated from broken rice (brokens) has inconsistencies in functional properties. This may be due to differences in size and composition of brokens used for the flour. It is postulated that size classification of brokens can improve flour functionality. This study sought to investigate the effect of size fractionation of brokens on the functional or pasting properties of resulting rice flour. Broken rice was generated from six cultivars of freshly harvested rough rice that were dried at 25◦C in the laboratory. The brokens were classified into large, medium and small, using US sieve size 10, 12 and 20 ...


The Impact Of Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences International Programs On Student Motivation For Continuing College And Student Engagement In The Classroom, Olivia Caroline Caillouet Aug 2019

The Impact Of Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences International Programs On Student Motivation For Continuing College And Student Engagement In The Classroom, Olivia Caroline Caillouet

Theses and Dissertations

Colleges aim to increase student achievement, which has been linked to motivation and engagement, as well as increase global partnerships. There is also an increasing demand from students for international programs (IPs) that prepare them to be global citizens. This study aimed to compare student motivation for continuing college and student engagement in the classroom before and after an IP. Students who participated in a Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food, and Life Sciences IP between January 2018 and August 2018 were surveyed prior to, and two weeks and three months post-program participation (n = 24). The instrument had 51 Likert-scale questions ...


Gender In Apocalyptic California: The Ecological Frontier, Marykate Eileen Messimer Aug 2019

Gender In Apocalyptic California: The Ecological Frontier, Marykate Eileen Messimer

Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is the consequence of ideologies that promote human reproduction and resource consumption by sacrificing human justice, nonhuman species, and the land. Both biology and queer ecologies resist this notion of human separation and supremacy by showing that no body is a singular, impermeable entity, that all beings are biologically and inexorably connected. My dissertation demonstrates that fiction writers use this knowledge to locate a utopian vision that can counteract the dystopian impotence of living within climate change. This argument is founded on novels written by women and set in California, a state that uniquely inhabits a utopian and ...


Impact Of Sanitizers On Salmonella Enterica Contamination And Microbial Populations Of Poultry Processing Reuse Water, Andrew Micciche Aug 2019

Impact Of Sanitizers On Salmonella Enterica Contamination And Microbial Populations Of Poultry Processing Reuse Water, Andrew Micciche

Theses and Dissertations

As human populations increase in numbers, access to clean, fresh water is becoming increasingly difficult to balance between agricultural and municipal demands. Water scarcity is a limiting factor of food production in many countries, whether they are emerging or established economies. In conventional poultry processing systems, access to water is particularly critical for the maintenance and disinfection of processing areas, as well as in processing operations such as scalding, chilling, and carcass washing. The need for sustainable alternatives to single-use water supplies is becoming increasingly more urgent, and as a result, the implementation of water reuse in poultry processing plants ...


Applying Social Network Analysis To Identify How Chief Resilience Officers Promote Community Resilience Through Boundary Spanning, Interorganizational Collaboration, And Leadership, Kasey Couvillion Sisson Aug 2019

Applying Social Network Analysis To Identify How Chief Resilience Officers Promote Community Resilience Through Boundary Spanning, Interorganizational Collaboration, And Leadership, Kasey Couvillion Sisson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this paper is to explore, in some depth, the functions of interorganizational collaboration (IOC) by analyzing the Chief Resilience Officer (CRO) role in 5 US cities. The CRO can act as a key network collaborator or boundary spanner – managing relationships, communication and strategic responses within and across organizations. This study researches the IOC and leadership functions of CROs operating in the social network of 100 Resilient Cities to better understand their boundary spanning roles. This study explores how CROs create and maintain IOC, characterizes their leadership functions and role, and examines the boundary spanning role as reticulist ...


Need Fulfillment And Happiness In Botswana, Carolyn Moe Jul 2019

Need Fulfillment And Happiness In Botswana, Carolyn Moe

Theses and Dissertations

Happiness has been an important aspect of people’s lives spanning centuries and continents; as such, it is a widely researched area. A current prominent theory in happiness research is Needs Theory which has the premise that there are universal human needs and having these needs met would lead to a person’s happiness. Most often, the needs referenced are those presented by Abraham Maslow including needs of physiology, safety and security, love and belonging, esteem, knowing and understanding, aesthetics, self-actualization and transcendence. However, some studies have found that there are individuals who do not fit this theory either through ...


Reassessing The Confluence Model Of Men's Risk Of Sexual Aggression, Ebru Yucel Jul 2019

Reassessing The Confluence Model Of Men's Risk Of Sexual Aggression, Ebru Yucel

Theses and Dissertations

The confluence model of sexual aggression has been a gold standard for identifying men's risk of sexual aggression. However, many replications and iterations of the model have continued to produce similar results with slight improvement. This consistent occurrence may be due to changes in the dating landscape that have occurred since the synthesis of the confluence model. In addition, these replications and iterations of the confluence model have utilized different ways of measuring one of the core constructs of the confluence model: impersonal sex. This study had two aims: (1) identify the best method of measuring impersonal sex, and ...


An Intersectional Examination Of Criminally Involved Women Of Color With Mental Illness, Cailin Rosemary Mcdermott Jul 2019

An Intersectional Examination Of Criminally Involved Women Of Color With Mental Illness, Cailin Rosemary Mcdermott

Theses and Dissertations

Women, people of color, and people with mental illness are fast growing populations in the criminal justice system. However, research tends to overlook the women of color with mental illness who exist at the intersection of these statuses. The current thesis attempts to apply an intersectional framework to the analysis of the narratives of these multifaceted women to explore the ways that their varying positions in society interact to shape unique life experiences. I analyzed a secondary data set of semi-structured life-course interviews with 65 women on a Seriously Mentally Ill (SMI) probation caseload. Implementing a grounded-inspired approach, the interviews ...


Suicide Literacy And Laypersons’ Ability To Accurately Recognize Suicide Warning Signs And Risk Factors, Salman Ibrahim Jul 2019

Suicide Literacy And Laypersons’ Ability To Accurately Recognize Suicide Warning Signs And Risk Factors, Salman Ibrahim

Theses and Dissertations

Suicide is considered a public health crisis in the United States due to the large number of individuals attempting and completing suicide each year. Oftentimes, the first line of defense or “gatekeepers” against suicide is non-mental health professionals. The body of literature on suicide risk assessment has not explored the efficacy of non-mental health professionals’ ability to accurately recognize various levels of suicide risk. This study focused on examining whether non-mental health professionals ability to accurately recognize suicide risk in others is influenced by their level of suicide literacy (knowledge regarding the various aspects of suicide). This study also examined ...


Assessing The Functions Of Prescription Stimulant Abuse Among College Students, Matthew J. Dwyer Jul 2019

Assessing The Functions Of Prescription Stimulant Abuse Among College Students, Matthew J. Dwyer

Theses and Dissertations

Non-medical prescription stimulant use (NMPSU), such as using medications like Ritalin, Adderall, and Concerta without a prescription or at a higher dosage than prescribed, is a rising trend in American adults. Use is most prevalent among college age adults (18-25 years old). Survey research among experienced users has identified several reasons college students are engaging in NMPSU, including enhancement of cognitive, athletic, and social performance, but less is known about how the relative reinforcing value differs based on the reasons of use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks have been used to capture reinforcer strength and motivation related to use of ...


Sleep, Stress, And Sweat: Implications For Client Physiology Prior To Couple Therapy, Christina Michelle Rosa Jul 2019

Sleep, Stress, And Sweat: Implications For Client Physiology Prior To Couple Therapy, Christina Michelle Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Physiological state greatly influences one’s ability to emotionally regulate and connect to a partner in couple therapy. As individuals encounter real or perceived threats in relationships, they are likely to experience sympathetic nervous system (SNS) responses of fight, flight, or freeze, thereby inhibiting the ability to connect with a partner or therapist made possible by the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). This study, guided by the Polyvagal theory, examines the influence of client sleep, daily stress, and exercise on physiological baseline prior to a couple therapy session. Participants included 23 married couples who attended couple therapy at the Brigham Young ...


A Content Analysis Of Ethnic Minorities In The Professional Discipline Of Clinical Psychology, Pedro L. Perez Aquino Jul 2019

A Content Analysis Of Ethnic Minorities In The Professional Discipline Of Clinical Psychology, Pedro L. Perez Aquino

Theses and Dissertations

A more diverse population in the United States calls for the inclusion of REC minority populations in research to improve treatment and clinician cultural awareness. A content analysis is proposed to analyze the inclusion level of REC minority groups in the Journal of Clinical Psychology. Five questions are explored to organize and present the findings of the content analysis. Results demonstrate the low level of inclusion of REC minority groups as well as congruence between most studied topics and each REC minority group in the Journal of Clinical Psychology. These results should encourage researchers and clinicians to push for more ...


Schizotypy As A Predictor For Social Media Use And Internet Addiction Behaviors In Emerging Adults, Devin Massaro Jun 2019

Schizotypy As A Predictor For Social Media Use And Internet Addiction Behaviors In Emerging Adults, Devin Massaro

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the unique domains/symptom clusters within schizotypy as they relate to Facebook use and internet addiction behaviors, while controlling for co-morbid disorders such as depression and anxiety. Using an online survey, this study measured electronic media use, internet addiction behavior, and schizotypy in 270 undergraduate students (aged 18-30). We expected mood symptoms of anxiety and depression to predict both internet addiction and Facebook use in this sample, and controlled for these variables accordingly. We hypothesized that schizotypy would contribute significantly to the prediction of internet addiction and Facebook use above and beyond anxiety, depression, and demographic variables ...


Examining Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, And Health Behaviors, Juliana D'Onofrio Jun 2019

Examining Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, And Health Behaviors, Juliana D'Onofrio

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic disease continues to predominate the leading causes of death and account for the majority of healthcare expenditures in the United States. Researchers have identified that engagement in negative health behaviors, such as eating a poor diet, physical inactivity, risky sexual activity, nicotine and illicit drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption is a key risk factor for developing chronic disease later in life. In order to help motivate individuals to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, understanding why an individual might engage in negative health behaviors is warranted. Young's schema theory is a social cognitive theory that explores early maladaptive ...


Self-Affirmation Theory And The Change Of Perception Of Self And Threats, Isaac Wicker Jun 2019

Self-Affirmation Theory And The Change Of Perception Of Self And Threats, Isaac Wicker

Theses and Dissertations

In today’s American culture, people experience high rates of distress and depression (Kessler et al., 2005). Self-affirmation theory has been shown to help people reduce stress and defensiveness in the face of a wide variety of stressors. A shortcoming of self-affirmation exercises is that there are barriers to using them in naturalistic settings. One such barrier is that the affirmation content needs to be regulated so that it is not closely related to the salient stressor or else the effects of the affirmation could be counteracted. The current study sought to use a prompt-guided value selection for the self-affirmation ...


Let’S Be Perfectly Clear About Ambiguity: Exploring Instructor Use Of Strategic Ambiguity To Enhance Student Work And Learning Outcomes, Anna M. Wright Jun 2019

Let’S Be Perfectly Clear About Ambiguity: Exploring Instructor Use Of Strategic Ambiguity To Enhance Student Work And Learning Outcomes, Anna M. Wright

Theses and Dissertations

Instructors often desire to be clear in their teaching. However, a new area of research raises the possibility that instructors can use ambiguity strategically in courses and assignments to foster improved learning outcomes in students. This study uses quantitative research methods to explore how student characteristics affect learning outcomes when presented with varying levels of instructor messaging regarding clear and ambiguous assignments. Specifically, the measured student’s tolerance for ambiguity, mindset, as well as learning orientation and grade orientation as well as the impact instructor messaging regarding assignments has on student’s learner empowerment and affective learning. Findings suggest that ...


Teachers' Perceptions Of English Learners: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach, Cyndy Alvarez Jun 2019

Teachers' Perceptions Of English Learners: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach, Cyndy Alvarez

Theses and Dissertations

With an influx in immigration across the United States our educational policies have needed to change to meet the instructional needs of our students, especially our English Learners (Koyama, 2004; Mantero & McVicker, 2006). Historically, these educational language policies were an outcome of court cases that highlighted discrimination and racist practices against our English Learners. These cases, such as the Chicano civil rights movements or East L.A. “walkouts” in 1968, Lau v. Nichols (1974), Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools (1974), Rios v. Read (1978), and U.S. v. Texas (1981), Plyver v. Doe (1982), Castaneda v. Pickard (1981), have resulted in policies that provide English Learners access to instruction and support in developing bilingualism. Despite all these language policies that advocate for English Learners’ access to education, there have also been anti-bilingualism sentiments or “English-only” policies. These “English-only” policies are a reflection of individuals in our society being anti-English Learners.

The rise in culturally and linguistically diverse student population is made up of approximately 4 million of English Learners, with majority of students coming in with Spanish as their native language. Despite the changes in our student population becoming more culturally and linguistically diverse our teacher demographics continue to remain very homogenous encompassing of a majority White-middle class females. These differences between student and teachers have lead to cultural and language mismatches that make teachers vulnerable to stereotypes about students. Previous studies have found that teachers hold misperceptions, stereotypes, myths, deficit-based perceptions, or majoritarian rules (Estrada, Gómez, & Ruiz-Escalante, 2009; Fránquiz, Salazar, & DeNicolo, 2011; Gonzalez & Ayala-Alcantar, 2008; Harper & de Jong, 2004; Kolano & King, 2015; Mantero & McVicker, 2006; Marx, 2002/2009; Ortiz, 2011). These perceptions have been noted to impact teacher practices and instructional approaches, such as using a pedagogy of poverty (Diaz, Whitacre, Esquierdo, & Ruiz-Escalante, 2013; Ghaouar, 2015; Harper & de Jong, 2004). Research has suggested that teachers perceptions influence students academic performance and achievement (Diaz, Whitacre, Esquiero, & Ruiz-Escalante, 2013; Glock & Kovacs, 2013; Lumdsen, 1997; Mantero & McVicker, 2006; Richardson, 1996).

Considering the strong implications teachers perceptions have upon student performance, this study sought to gather a comprehensive understanding of teachers’ perceptions of English Learners. A comprehensive literature ...


The Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment Style, Rejection, And Risk Recognition, Jordan E. Marshall Jun 2019

The Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment Style, Rejection, And Risk Recognition, Jordan E. Marshall

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between experiencing childhood sexual abuse, attachment, rejection, and risk recognition (risk appraisal and risk response). Participants consisted of 223 undergraduate women attending Illinois State University. A history of childhood abuse was reported by 37.7% of the participants. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire, the Hot Topics Survey, the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, and the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, Adult version (A-RSQ). Participants were under the impression that information was being gathered for an online dating application algorithm and were randomly assigned to either a rejection condition or a ...


Influence Of Authority And Message Framing On Compliance With Mental Health Treatment Recommendations, Morgan A. Ess May 2019

Influence Of Authority And Message Framing On Compliance With Mental Health Treatment Recommendations, Morgan A. Ess

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of source authority and message framing on compliance with mental health treatment recommendations. The current study used measures of attitudes and intentions to seek psychological help as well as the likelihood that an individual will request initial counseling information as proxies for observing help-seeking behavior. A pretest and posttest experimental design was implemented. Participants were 273 students at Illinois State University. At pretest, participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Kessler K6+, the Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS), the Mental Help Seeking Intentions Scale (MHSIS), and indicated engagement in past ...


Childhood Sexual Abuse, Personality, And Risk Recognition, Emily M. Harms May 2019

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Personality, And Risk Recognition, Emily M. Harms

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and personality in predicting risk recognition among college-aged women. Participants included 223 female undergraduate students at Illinois State University. Students were presented the opportunity to receive extra credit for participating in the study. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire, the Big Five Inventory, and the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 – Brief Form. Participants then read through a risk recognition vignette that was divided into 13 scenes and were asked to indicate when they were no longer comfortable in the situation and when they would leave the ...


The Association Between Attachment And Conflict Resolution During Friendship Conflict Among College Students, Alison Hamlet May 2019

The Association Between Attachment And Conflict Resolution During Friendship Conflict Among College Students, Alison Hamlet

Theses and Dissertations

This study is about college students' attachment to friends and how conflict resolution is related to the level of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Studies have found low attachment anxiety and low attachment avoidance to be related to effective coping strategies and to the compromising conflict resolution style. Many studies have focused on how participants generally resolve conflict. The current study is focused on how participants have actually resolved conflict and how they believe they would resolve conflict in a hypothetical situation. Participants answered if they could think of a conflict with a friend in the past 6 months and ...


Yerba Mate: National Project To Emerging Superfood, Ana Fochesatto May 2019

Yerba Mate: National Project To Emerging Superfood, Ana Fochesatto

Theses and Dissertations

Yerba mate, Ilex paranguariensis, is a shrub commonly found in the Atlantic Forest of South

America which covers part of northeast Argentina, eastern Paraguay, and southern Brazil. The

dried leaves and stem of the tree are used to make an infusion, called mate, used first by indigenous

Guaraní people. Today, yerba mate is widely consumed in the Southern Cone region and is

regarded as the national drink of Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. I argue that yerba mate has

entered the U.S. as a “superfood,” marketed as a product with nutritional and symbolic medicinal

values.

In this thesis, I trace ...