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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau Jan 2008

The Role Of Life Meaning In Psychotherapy, Dawn M. Brandau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the association between meaning in life and outcome in therapy. Most current studies examining meaning and mental health have not examined these variables in the context of the therapeutic relationship. As well as examining how meaning in life relates to level of functioning and well-being, this study collected data from clients undergoing therapy at two time periods to assess the association between clients' perceptions of their meaning in life and outcome in therapy. It was hypothesized that the presence of meaning in life would be positively related to well-being variables and negatively related to problems or psychological ...


The Effect Of The Internet On The Civic Engagement And Voting Behavior Of Young Americans, Katherine Anne Mcnitt Jan 2008

The Effect Of The Internet On The Civic Engagement And Voting Behavior Of Young Americans, Katherine Anne Mcnitt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Election returns from 2004 show increased voter turnout amongst 18 to 29 year olds. Is this reversal symptomatic of a larger trend? This paper examines what, if any, connection exists between the Internet, civic engagement, and turnout of young citizens. I test the hypothesis that increased use of the Internet to obtain news and political information will have a positive effect on civic engagement and voter turnout.


Postconflict And Conflict Behavior In All-Male Groups Of Captive Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla), Jackie Elizabeth Davenport Jan 2008

Postconflict And Conflict Behavior In All-Male Groups Of Captive Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla), Jackie Elizabeth Davenport

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

I studied male western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in a captive setting in order to determine if post-conflict reconciliation exists in male-male dyads of this species. I also examined conflict itself in order to determine the consequences of housing these males together in all-male groups in captivity. This was accomplished by examining the behaviors of nine male gorillas at the Henry-Doorly Zoo in Omaha, Nebraska. Data that I recorded included post-conflict observations, social interactions, and activity budgets. I analyzed the data in order to determine levels of reconciliation, welfare of the population, and comparisons with wild conspecifics. I hypothesized ...


Dyadic Power Shifts And Alliance Credibility: Analysis Of Gap Of The Threat Perception, Inhan Yeo Jan 2008

Dyadic Power Shifts And Alliance Credibility: Analysis Of Gap Of The Threat Perception, Inhan Yeo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A host of scholars have made great contributions to establishing a theory regarding potential causes on alliance credibility in areas including a quantitative and qualitative approach. Previous empirical findings support that taking account of only one ally in alliance power increase or decrease, which is a monadic power shift, regardless of the other ally's power shift is likely to affect alliance credibility; thus the power shift considering only one ally may be a significant contributor for decline of alliance credibility. Morrow and Leeds argue monadic power shifts might trigger a decline of alliance credibility providing a reasoning that one ...


Presidential Leadership From Presidents Washington To Bush And Beyond: Assessing Presidents Within The Cycled Circumstances Of Institutional Expectations, Christopher Halverson Untiet Jan 2008

Presidential Leadership From Presidents Washington To Bush And Beyond: Assessing Presidents Within The Cycled Circumstances Of Institutional Expectations, Christopher Halverson Untiet

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A revealing way of assessing Presidential leadership comes through interpreting a President's time in office within the six-step cycled circumstances of institutional expectations. Using historical biographies and reinterpreting the patterns of Presidential political time from Stephen Skowronek's The Politics Presidents Make: Leadership from John Adams to George Bush, I develop leadership cycles of Reconstructive, Great-Son Articulator, Preemption-One, Grandson Articulator, Preemption-Two, and Disjunctive Presidents. I develop the thesis through a literature review and chapter describing Presidential history from 1789-1829. From here, I use the Presidential leadership types in my Washington, Jackson, Lincoln, McKinley/Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, and Reagan ...


An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman Jan 2008

An Investigation Of The Theory Of Reasoned Action Concerning Consumer Acceptance Of Food Irradiation, Natalia Frishman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research examined how attitudes and subjective norms influence behavioral intentions to eat irradiated food. This inquiry is important because, food irradiation is controversial and the public's attitude toward it can influence the extent to which it is eventually adopted.;The data received from the first, large-scale commercially funded market test of irradiated food in supermarkets located throughout Minneapolis, Minnesota, has been used for statistical analysis. The test was conducted by Huisken's Meats, Inc. on spring of 2000. The data includes questionnaire responses of 225 participants.;The data analysis of consumers' opinions, concerning food irradiation, confirms the theory ...


An Exploratory Study Of Language And Nonlanguage Factors Affecting Nonnative Undergraduate Students' Reaction To International Teaching Assistants, Edna De Freitas Lima Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Language And Nonlanguage Factors Affecting Nonnative Undergraduate Students' Reaction To International Teaching Assistants, Edna De Freitas Lima

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates whether language and nonlanguage factors affect international undergraduates' perceptions of international teaching assistants (ITAs). Fifty-five students enrolled in first-year composition classes listened to a short lecture under one of three guises related to nationality of the speaker and rated the lecture and the speaker based on eight response variables. Results indicate that the information provided to participants about the nationality of the speaker did not influence their perception of both lecture and speaker. However, when participants' variables were analyzed, statistically significant results were found for two response variables: accent and speaker likeability. The results for accent indicate ...


Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova Jan 2008

Nonsexual Multiple Role Relationships, Attachment Style, And Perception Of The Counseling Situation And The Counselor, Irina Vladimirovna Diyankova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Professional discussion of nonsexual multiple role relationships (NMRR) has been extensive in the last fifteen years. However, only a few investigations have explored clients or former clients' views on NMRR. This analogue experimental study focused on the former clients' views on NMRR with mental health professionals. Additionally, associations between participants' attachment styles and their emotional and cognitive reactions to the counseling situations, as well as their perceptions of the counselor, were explored.;An experimental mixed 2 (multiple roles: accepted, declined) x 2 (gender: male, female) x 2 (type of multiple roles: social, professional) factorial design was used in this analogue ...


Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston Jan 2008

Predictors Of Loneliness In Gay, Lesbian, And Bisexual Youth, Michelle Leigh Johnston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined predictors of loneliness in a sample of 76 gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) youth living in the Midwest. Participants completed measures to assess levels of gender nonconformity, outness, positive sexual identity, victimization, perceived campus climate, social support from family, social support from GLB peers, GLB community involvement, and loneliness. Results showed that GLB peer support was the strongest predictor of loneliness, with higher levels of support predicting lower levels of loneliness. Family support was a marginally significant predictor of loneliness. Contrary to predictions, no evidence was found that social support or positive sexual identity moderated the effects ...


Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo Jan 2008

Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the social support network of pregnant (n=10) and parenting (n=22) teens recruited through local agencies. The support network was viewed both as support and as an agent of stress to adolescents. The pregnant and parenting teens' perceptions of motherhood and their attitudes toward being a parent were also studied. The teens had a variety of support types and support sources, but the two groups did not differ in those types and sources. They preferred support from boyfriend and mother over other sources and both groups had similar expectations and beliefs about motherhood and social support ...


Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects In Ghana: Newspaper Vs. Online And State Vs. Private, Etse Godwin Sikanku Jan 2008

Inter-Media Agenda-Setting Effects In Ghana: Newspaper Vs. Online And State Vs. Private, Etse Godwin Sikanku

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influx of the worldwide web has brought about dynamism in the way news is formulated and reported. Over the years scholars have debated the key ingredients that influence news selection. At the bottom of this discussion rests the question: what is considered newsworthy? But an even more evolving question is: who sets the media agenda? This study argues that the news worthiness of print and online media or state and private media is based on inter-media agenda setting. It examines the inter-media agenda setting effects of four publications in Ghana-the Daily Graphic-a government controlled newspaper which has both print ...


In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman Jan 2008

In Search Of Growth: Neoliberal And Institutional Models For Economic Growth In An Age Of Globalization, Mark David Nieman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following study is an examination of the effects of globalization, regime type and macroeconomic policy on economic growth. 90 countries are examined between the years 1975-2003. While there are issues with the use of the proxy variable, the general effects can be explored. These effects are found to differ between high-income and low-income countries. The analysis finds that low-income countries should focus on improving inefficient distribution of services. High-income countries are able to choose from a range macroeconomic policies and are not forced to converge around any one policy.


An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage Jan 2008

An Exploratory Study Of Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) Glosses And Traditional Glosses On Incidental Vocabulary Learning And Spanish Literature Reading Comprehension, Thomas Michael Lage

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The following is an exploratory study investigating the difference in the incidental vocabulary learning (or recall) of Spanish vocabulary while reading for comprehension. A secondary area of investigation is the influence of learner characteristics on gloss access. High-intermediate/low-advanced Spanish students from two sections of the same Spanish course at an American university participated in this study. One group of participants was provided traditional English marginal glosses to the left of the reading while the second group of students was provided with computer-assisted language learning (CALL) glosses. The participants took three constructed response vocabulary post-tests in the following three weeks ...


The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee Jan 2008

The Role Of Recasts In The Interactions Of Native-Speakers Of English With Korean English Language Learners, Hyunjung Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study partially replicates that of Braidi (2002). Like the original, it investigates occurrences and use of recasts, that is, reformulations of incorrect utterances, in relation to the number of grammatical errors in conversations of NSEs (Native Speakers of English) and NNSEs (Nonnative Speakers of English) and examines whether different types of tasks can affect the occurrences and use of recasts. In contrast to many previous studies, I examine here the occurrences of recasts in non-instructional interactions between NSEs and NNSEs.;Five dyads of American teaching assistants and Korean graduate students at Iowa State University participated in performing two different ...


Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner Jan 2008

Cosmetic Technologies Of The Body: An Exploration Of Self And Identity Through The Consumption Of Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures, Keila Elizabeth Tyner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although much research has been conducted on cosmetic surgery and some research has been conducted on cosmetic use in general, little to no research has explored nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body, particularly as a symbolic form of consumption in shaping notions of the self. Thus, the purpose of the present qualitative study was to gain understanding of the consumption of nonsurgical cosmetic technologies of the body from multiple theoretical perspectives. Of particular interest was how this consumption serves as a symbolic means for shaping the self, specifically in the context of self-presentation and impression management (Goffman, 1959).;For this ...


Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung Jan 2008

Peasant Communities, The First Link Of The Commodity Chain Of Vicuña Fiber, Liliana L. Lay Lisung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Vicuna fiber has a high value in the textile and fashion industry and is seen on the runways of the most selective and luxurious clothing designers in Europe. However, the vicuna fiber process and commodity chain are little known. This thesis presents the commodity chain of vicuna fiber and the positive and negative impacts that vicuna fiber commercialization generates in Peruvian peasant communities. The research, based on in-depth interviews and document analysis, studies the development of this buyer-driven chain, the social actors' roles, and the policies and legislation implemented to preserve vicuna species. In response to consumption demands, the marketing ...


Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Book Design: An Agentive Vehicle For Social Change, Shannon Kelly Proulx Jan 2008

Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde Book Design: An Agentive Vehicle For Social Change, Shannon Kelly Proulx

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The increasing dominance of visual communication puts pressure on professional communicators and students of rhetoric to understand the nature of the scopic regime and how competing ways of seeing affect communication networks and the societies they serve. This document focuses on the attempts of the early twentieth-century avant gardists to profoundly shift social realities by challenging the scopic regime of their time through book design. Their attempts to seize agency through aesthetics failed to directly enact a new social order, but the avant gardists succeeded in establishing the necessary visual grammars for new ways of visually presenting information, including the ...


Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem Jan 2008

Effects Of Stereotypic Video Game Portrayals On Implicit And Explicit Attitudes, Muniba Saleem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of media stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes across various forms of media. Because video games are a relatively new form of media, there is almost no research on the influence of video game stereotypes on people's attitudes. The main goal of this study was to test the effects of negative video game stereotypes on implicit and explicit attitudes. The results indicated that negative video game stereotypes are associated with negative implicit attitudes but not negative explicit attitudes. Other results revealed influences of overall media stereotypes, sources of information about groups, direct ...


The Acceptance Of Domestic Technology: Tam As Applied To A Proposed Classification Scheme, Helen Marie Colvin Jan 2008

The Acceptance Of Domestic Technology: Tam As Applied To A Proposed Classification Scheme, Helen Marie Colvin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Information systems researchers have studied technology acceptance for decades. Domestic technologies, such as ambient computing devices or smart homes have more recently begun to show up in scientific literature, mostly in the area of computing design. Such studies often use an ethnographic method, or study the development and potential use of particular gadgets or systems. Consumers have largely not embraced these technologies. In asking why this is the case, a previously proven method to study technology acceptance was sought and found in Davis' Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). This study seeks to demonstrate the applicability of TAM to the study of ...


The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor Jan 2008

The Effects Of Individual Attributes, Health Behaviors, And Religion On Adolescent Obesity: A Study Of African American And Caucasian Adolescents, Bernice Adabasu Dodor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of individual attributes (family socioeconomic status, gender, and race) and health behavior factors (vigorous physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, and sleeping pattern) as well as religion (religious affiliations and religious commitment) on African American and Caucasian adolescents' body weight. The sample for this study consisted of African American and Caucasian adolescents (N = 3,596) aged 14-18 years at Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Stratification of the percentage of adolescents based on CDC growth charts indicates greater prevalence of overweight and obesity among ...


Transformative Learning Partnerships: Bridging Research And Practice To Improve The Lives Of Older People, Rhoda Helton Meador Jan 2008

Transformative Learning Partnerships: Bridging Research And Practice To Improve The Lives Of Older People, Rhoda Helton Meador

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focused on consensus building and learning partnerships between researchers and practitioners aimed at improving the lives of older people. A series of three papers used an exploratory qualitative approach to describe the application of innovative methods that bridge the gap between research and practice in three case studies. Three research questions guided these case studies: (1) What joint perspectives and recommendations emerge when participants in community-based participatory research partnerships reach consensus about issues that impact the lives of older people?, (2) What role does learning play in community-based participatory research partnerships involving researchers and practitioners?, and (3) How ...


Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer Jan 2008

Middle Class Identification: The Influence Of Interclass Context On Middle Class Evaluations Of Morality And Success, Patrick Charles Archer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the influence of interclass context on how people identify themselves as middle class. Data were collected from 676 employees of Iowa State University who categorized themselves as being in the middle class. Using an online survey design, all participants were randomly selected into an experimental condition in which they were asked to compare their own social class (i.e., the middle class) with either the working class or the upper class. In agreement with social identity theory, participants evaluated members of the upper class to be more successful, but less moral, than members of the middle class ...


Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis Of Post-Conflict Rural Development In Southern Sudan, Joseph Deng Malual Jan 2008

Sustainable Livelihoods Analysis Of Post-Conflict Rural Development In Southern Sudan, Joseph Deng Malual

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Organizations that provide assistance in post-conflict situations shift from emergency humanitarian relief to long-term development assistance, but face enormous challenges because conflicts have destroyed assets crucial for sustainable development. Southern Sudan emerged from a 23 year devastating civil war that ended in 2005 as result of a peace treaty signed by the Southern People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and the Government of Sudan (GOS). The central goal in this study is to understand the extent and means by which development organizations are helping make people central actors in their own development by effectively empowering them through meaningful participation and ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


Community Well-Being, Individual Responsibility, And Agricultural Change: An Analysis Of Iowa Communities, Daniel R. Sundblad Jan 2008

Community Well-Being, Individual Responsibility, And Agricultural Change: An Analysis Of Iowa Communities, Daniel R. Sundblad

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes towards vertical integration in agriculture, increases in farm size, and fewer farm numbers have concerned sociologists for decades. This research conducted two empirical examinations of such trends and their effects on community well-being in 99 small towns in Iowa from 1994 to 2004. The first study examined the effects of the scale and structure of agriculture on material and social community well-being. Changes in farm size proved more drastic than changes in farm organization during this decade, with the most dramatic changes occurring in the concentration of pork production. The findings indicate that structural variables have a modest, yet ...


Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel Jan 2008

Negotiating Memorial And Extra-Memorial Information: The Effect Of Social Information On Eyewitness Identification Decisions, Lisa Elizabeth Hasel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recognition judgments, such as those involved in eyewitness identification, are often depicted as relatively pure products of memory processes and criterion setting, such as is depicted in the WITNESS model of eyewitness identification behavior. The presence of extra-memorial factors, such as social influence, however, necessitates a negotiation between memorial and extra-memorial information. Participants (N = 450) viewed a short video depicting a person planting a bomb down an airshaft. Before attempting lineup identifications, participants in Experiment 1 learned that an alleged co-witness made a "not there," plausible, or implausible identification decision with high or low confidence. Co-witness information dramatically influenced identification ...


Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore Jan 2008

Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of children's and adults' experiences with adoption. This qualitative study used individual interviews to examine 25 participants---8 adoptive mothers and fathers, and their 5- to 14-year-old sons (n=5) and daughters ( n=4) adopted before 18 months. Data were collected using a phenomenological methodology and analysis of the data was guided by the following research questions: (a) What are children's and parents' overall experiences with adoption? (b) What is the social construction of adoption? (c) What do children understand about the concept of adoption and how do ...


"Thin Is What We're Supposed To Be, Not What We're Supposed To Talk About": A Qualitative Study Of Pro-Eating Disorder Blogging Communities, Andrea M. Weare Jan 2008

"Thin Is What We're Supposed To Be, Not What We're Supposed To Talk About": A Qualitative Study Of Pro-Eating Disorder Blogging Communities, Andrea M. Weare

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates how and why an "underground" group pro-eating disorder bloggers formed a covert community on the Internet to share their emotions, offer each other support, and indulge in discussions of taboo eating practices and body image. Questions were posed during in-depth interviews with 10 participants.;The results show overwhelming agreement that the thin models the participants see in the media inspired them to lose weight. Mother and daughter relationships, as well as sister and friend interactions, played a significant role in the development and continuation of disordered eating. Their blogs provide a safe haven where they feel welcome ...


An Analysis Of The Creative Economy In Rural Midwestern Communities, Brad Robert Schmidt Jan 2008

An Analysis Of The Creative Economy In Rural Midwestern Communities, Brad Robert Schmidt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The creative economy concept has recently become increasingly popular. Although the concept is popular and research is being conducted on it, there has been a lack of research on the creative economy in rural communities. This thesis attempts to determine the characteristics that define the creative economy in rural communities. Previous research found that creative workers prefer communities with certain characteristics which include technology, talent, tolerance, lifestyle, and authenticity/identity (Florida 2002). The results of this study indicate that rural creative communities in the Midwest tend to have higher percentages of residents with at least a bachelor's degree, more ...


Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing Jan 2008

Attention Abilities, Media Exposure, School Performance, Personality, And Aggression, Edward Lee Swing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has recently addressed concerns about the potential for media exposure to cause attention problems and hyperactivity. A cross-sectional study of 211 undergraduate students examined behaviors and characteristics associated with exposure to television, films, and video games. Greater media exposure was associated with more attention problems and hyperactivity based on self-reported symptoms and past attention disorder diagnosis. Exposure to screen media was also associated with poorer school performance and greater aggression, possibly mediated by attention problems and hyperactivity. Two computerized performance tasks, the IVA Continuous Performance Test and the Eriksen Flanker Task, were generally unrelated to media exposure and other ...