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Masters Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Allentown's Neighborhood Improvement Zone: Five Years Of Failed Community And Economic Development, Christopher Woods Aug 2019

Allentown's Neighborhood Improvement Zone: Five Years Of Failed Community And Economic Development, Christopher Woods

Masters Theses

Community and economic development decisions affect every aspect of city life. Allentown, Pennsylvania is currently in the midst of redevelopment financed by one of the largest state subsidies in the commonwealth’s history, the Neighborhood Improvement Zone (NIZ) (Assad, 2017). The NIZ is an unprecedented state tax subsidy that most closely resembles locally-financed Tax Increment Financing (TIFs). Despite being the most utilized financing tool for urban redevelopment, the impacts of TIFs are still largely unstudied. The burgeoning literature trying to assess the effectiveness of TIFs is often too small in scale, focusing just on the redevelopment zones isolated from their ...


Combating Human Trafficking In The United States: Causes, Misconceptions, And Indicators, Mariah A. Andrade May 2019

Combating Human Trafficking In The United States: Causes, Misconceptions, And Indicators, Mariah A. Andrade

Masters Theses

Human trafficking is one of the biggest human rights issues today, with millions of men, women, and children being trafficked across the world. Of those millions of people, it’s estimated that roughly 14 to 17,000 foreign nationals are brought into the United States each year, in addition to our own citizens recruited into the industry. The largest issue that hinders the ability to combat human trafficking is the research surrounding this problem. There are many misconceptions about human trafficking, especially the fact that many people do not believe it is happening in the U.S. Modern day human ...


Animal Heads: Exploring Christian Themed Solutions And Mental Health Through Comics, Mariannette Oyola-Perez May 2019

Animal Heads: Exploring Christian Themed Solutions And Mental Health Through Comics, Mariannette Oyola-Perez

Masters Theses

The second leading cause of death for the ages of 10-24 is suicide, a statistic that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows has steadily risen since 1999. Although it is seldom spoken about in mental health circles, an enmity seems to exist between Christianity and modern psychology in regards to mental illness and how it should be treated; this enmity could be preventing helpful Christian-based principles from being shared with the at-risk population while simultaneously excluding Christians from a conversation they need to be a part of.

Interestingly, further research shows that the at-risk demographic overlaps significantly with ...


Crusaders, Sellswords, And Separatists: The Russian State’S Use Of Paramilitaries, Separatists, And Irregular Armies, Bruce Schlesman May 2019

Crusaders, Sellswords, And Separatists: The Russian State’S Use Of Paramilitaries, Separatists, And Irregular Armies, Bruce Schlesman

Masters Theses

Russia currently supports various paramilitaries around the world whether in the guise of separatists, mercenaries, or irregular armies. Using their own military and intelligence operatives and different tactical and religious-ideological means of asserting control over these paramilitaries and the territories they inhabit, Russia seeks to expand the scope of its global dominance and regional influence. Consistent with its long-term goal of weakening NATO and the EU, Russian strategy under Putin has sought to exploit Russian Orthodoxy and the Russian culture as instruments of solidarity binding many of these paramilitaries to Russia in a kind of pan-Slavic religious-nationalist mission. No passive ...


Factors Affecting International Students’ Developmental Functioning: Student And Faculty Perspectives From Liberty University, Andrea S. Childs May 2019

Factors Affecting International Students’ Developmental Functioning: Student And Faculty Perspectives From Liberty University, Andrea S. Childs

Masters Theses

The enrollment rates of international students are increasing, but the attrition rates of international students may also be on the rise. Aligning with Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, the goal of this study was to obtain insight about the encounters that undergraduate international students face. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these encounters to ascertain and compile core themes that will promote international student success. Data gathered from undergraduate faculty also contributed valuable insight. Recommendations were made for both the international student body and the undergraduate faculty. This qualitative research design investigated a small sample of undergraduate international students ...


Bilingual Family Literacy Programming In West Michigan: Points Of Alignment And Disconnect Among Learners, Instructors, And Local Partners, Thomas J. Rogers Apr 2019

Bilingual Family Literacy Programming In West Michigan: Points Of Alignment And Disconnect Among Learners, Instructors, And Local Partners, Thomas J. Rogers

Masters Theses

This research explores the beliefs and experiences of stakeholders in a family literacy program through the Literacy Center of West Michigan and Head Start for Kent County. The program is currently developing a curriculum to improve outcomes for learner specific goals. Therefore, one motivation behind this research is to analyze the goals, needs, and understandings for the multiple stakeholders within the program. On a national scale, there exists a need to better define the goals of family literacy programming in general. Points of alignment and disconnect for the participants in this study reflect realities that extend beyond the program at ...


Influences On International Saudi Students’ Sojourner Acculturation In The U.S., Abdulah Shaban Alasiri Apr 2019

Influences On International Saudi Students’ Sojourner Acculturation In The U.S., Abdulah Shaban Alasiri

Masters Theses

Research on international students’ experiences in tertiary institutions abroad suggest they face difficulties related to culture, language, and socialization (e.g., Andrade, 2006; Hellsten, 2002). To encourage more successful socialization and English language development, the Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission established a cap on the enrollment of Saudi students in any institutions abroad since 2014. The effectiveness of these quotas in promoting socialization is not known, but anecdotal evidence and an exploratory study conducted by the author suggest other (perhaps more influential) factors affecting Saudi students’ opportunities for socialization (in this study defined more specifically as sojourner acculturation) and subsequent language ...


The Effects Of English Pronunciation Instruction On Listening Skills Among Vietnamese Learners, Nguyet Nguyen Apr 2019

The Effects Of English Pronunciation Instruction On Listening Skills Among Vietnamese Learners, Nguyet Nguyen

Masters Theses

Listening has been a neglected skill in both second language research and teaching practice (Khaghaninejad & Maleki, 2015; Nowrouzi, Tam, Zareian & Nimehchisalem, 2015) and recent research has shown that second language (L2) listening difficulties might relate to phonological problems besides syntactic and lexical knowledge (e.g., Suristro, 2018). There have been some empirical studies examining the effects of phonetic instruction on perceptual skills showing promising results (e.g., Aliaga-Garcia & Mora, 2009; Linebaugh & Roche, 2013). This study contributes to this area with a focus on investigating the impacts of English pronunciation instruction on listening skills among Vietnamese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners, targeting the four English phonemes: word-final stop consonants /t/-/d/, the lax high front vowel /ɪ/ and the tense high front vowel /i/. Particularly, it examines whether pronunciation instruction would have effects on (a) students’ abilities to listen to and distinguish target phonemes, and (b) students’ abilities to listen to ...


Women & Adhd Functional Impairments: Beyond The Obvious, Noelle Marita Lynn Apr 2019

Women & Adhd Functional Impairments: Beyond The Obvious, Noelle Marita Lynn

Masters Theses

Women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are an understudied and underserved population. Research on women with ADHD has shown that they are significantly impaired by ADHD and its functional impairments. It also shows that women often internalize their symptoms and impairments. However, no research was found that explores what this internalization does to the women. The researcher chose to begin to address this gap in the literature through this qualitative phenomenological study. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of functional impairments caused by ADHD on the internal lived experiences of women.

The researcher conducted fourteen interviews ...


Swearing In A Second Language, Grace Irwin Apr 2019

Swearing In A Second Language, Grace Irwin

Masters Theses

Second language learners often lack knowledge of L2 swear words, their appropriateness, and pragmatic function. Competence in L2 swearing is important for L2 learners to be able to express themselves expertly and understand others’ emotional expressions precisely. However, taboo language is rarely included explicitly in L2 curricula due to its controversial nature. This paper addresses a gap in the literature concerning what second language users actually know about swearing in their L2. Some studies have attempted to determine learners’ receptive swearing competence (Jay & Janschewitz, 2008; Kapoor, 2016); however, the present study employs an updated measure of L2 pragmatic swearing competence to investigate ...


Language Attitudes Of Writing Center Consultants: Perception And Expectation, Benjamin John Sparks Apr 2019

Language Attitudes Of Writing Center Consultants: Perception And Expectation, Benjamin John Sparks

Masters Theses

This master’s thesis explores the results of research into the language attitudes of peer consultants working in a writing center at a large regional public university in the American Midwest. A survey was administered to writing center staff in which they were asked to evaluate the sociopolitical relationship between standard and nonstandard English dialects, the perceived relative grammaticality of these dialects, and the traditional concept of appropriateness in academic writing. Also included were questions pertaining to how consultants manage the practical responsibilities of their positions and the expectations of students and professors with the writing center’s stated policy ...


Fostering Hope: The Christian Healthcare Chaplain In A Caring Relationship, Felix O. Otuorimuo Mar 2019

Fostering Hope: The Christian Healthcare Chaplain In A Caring Relationship, Felix O. Otuorimuo

Masters Theses

In 2017, the data from suicide prevention resource center (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) showed an increasing rate of 10.6 million persons between the ages 18-65 that have had suicidal thoughts, a precipitating factor from hopelessness that triggers the goal of killing themselves. Given this challenge, the study seeks to understand how the Christian healthcare chaplain in a caring relationship, fosters biblical hope as spiritual care intervention to persons with suicidal thoughts to promote recovery, repair and restoration. The research was designed to use purposeful sampling to collect responses by anonymous online survey from 35 Christian healthcare ...


Patient Motivational Language As A Predictor Of Symptom Change, Hazard Of Clinically Significant Response, And Time To Response In Psychotherapy For Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Brien J. Goodwin Jan 2019

Patient Motivational Language As A Predictor Of Symptom Change, Hazard Of Clinically Significant Response, And Time To Response In Psychotherapy For Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Brien J. Goodwin

Masters Theses

Change-talk (CT), or self-arguments for change, has been associated with favorable patient outcomes, while counter change-talk (CCT), or self-arguments against change, has been associated with poorer outcomes. Most studies on change language have focused on the prediction of distal posttreatment outcomes, while the prediction of more proximal outcomes has remained largely untested. Addressing this gap, we examined early treatment CT and CCT as predictors of worry change trajectories, “hazard” of clinically significant response, and time to response (i.e., outcome efficiency) in CBT and CBT integrated with MI (MI-CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We also explored whether treatment type ...


Racial Differences In Perceptions Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Behavior, Sungha Kang Jan 2019

Racial Differences In Perceptions Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Behavior, Sungha Kang

Masters Theses

Previous research has suggested there may be racial differences in how adults perceive and rate children’s ADHD behavior (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity). The current study examined these differences between African-American/Black (AA/B) parents and European-American/White (EA/W) parents and teachers. Participants watched video clips of children in classrooms and rated their ADHD behaviors and their likelihood of having ADHD. Results showed that EA/W parents and teachers rated African-American boys’ ADHD behaviors and their likelihood of having ADHD higher than AA/B parents. Mechanisms by which these differences exist were explored, including beliefs about stigma related ...


Visual Recollection For Non-Declarative Representations, Patrick Sadil Jan 2019

Visual Recollection For Non-Declarative Representations, Patrick Sadil

Masters Theses

Recollection is a pattern completion process that enables retrieval of arbitrarily associated information following minimal study. These attributes enable recollection to support retrieval of many kinds of mnemonic representations, from highly associative contextual information to very specific low-level representations. However, recollection is typically studied in the context of declarative memory tasks, in which participants exhibit recollection by explicitly reporting on the recollected information. Is it the case that recollection is limited to declarable representations, or is it a more general process that occurs for any representation? Two experiments and a novel analysis technique are presented to answer this question. The ...


Support From Above The Glass Ceiling: Narratives Of Women As University Student Leaders, Rebecca Schwartz Jan 2019

Support From Above The Glass Ceiling: Narratives Of Women As University Student Leaders, Rebecca Schwartz

Masters Theses

Using qualitative methodology. the researcher examined motivations, social support networks, and challenges college women face in student leadership positions. Four semi-structured interviews were conducted at a midsized university in the Midwest with college women in various positions of organizational leadership. The researcher identified motivational factors for women to apply for leadership positions as well as described the social support network that exists for college women in positions of leadership. Challenges college women face in achieving higher leadership positions were also identified. Lastly, recommendations were made for student affairs professionals and women in leadership based on the research findings.


The Development Of The Late Adolescent Social Support Inventory And An Examination Of Social Support's Impact On Depression In Adolescents, Margaret Darlene Yeakel Jan 2019

The Development Of The Late Adolescent Social Support Inventory And An Examination Of Social Support's Impact On Depression In Adolescents, Margaret Darlene Yeakel

Masters Theses

The current study set out to create the Late Adolescent Social Support Inventory (LASSI), a scale designed to measure adolescents' perception of the availability of social support in each of House's (1981) four types of social support and to explore the relationship between depression and types of social support in adolescents. There were 120 participants recruited from Central Illinois high schools and Eastern Illinois University. Participants completed the LASSI as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R; Eaton, Muntaner, Smith, Tien, & Ybarra, 2004). Due to the low number of participants recruited, we were unable to ...


The Transition Of Male Student-Athletes To A Division I College, Tori Harrison Jan 2019

The Transition Of Male Student-Athletes To A Division I College, Tori Harrison

Masters Theses

Using a qualitative methodology, the researcher studied high school student-athletes transitioning to becoming college student-athletes at the Division I-level. The study was narrowed down to six, second-year male student-athletes. There were two participants from baseball, two from football, and two from men's track and field. These participants were interviewed and asked a range of questions about their high school experience, their legal guardians' involvement in high school and in college, what their recruiting process was like, and how they managed their transition from high school to college. The interview was broken up into three parts to better understand their ...


Investigating Auditory-Based Spatial Reorientation Abilities In Individuals With Dyslexia, Leanna Pantier Jan 2019

Investigating Auditory-Based Spatial Reorientation Abilities In Individuals With Dyslexia, Leanna Pantier

Masters Theses

Dyslexia, a common learning disorder, is currently understood to affect the processing of visual and auditory information. The ability to efficiently process the environment to reorient in space is an integral part of navigating the world, but possible impairments in dyslexia have not been fully addressed. In this study, the ability of individuals both with and without dyslexia to use auditory information in a spatial reorientation task was examined to further explore the processing deficits involved in dyslexia. Participants with and without dyslexia did not perform significantly differently when learning (training trials) and during probe test trials. Additionally, individuals found ...


What We Expected From National Socialism: Hermann Rauschning And Danzig's Lnterwar Radical Right (1918-1942), Nima Lane Jan 2019

What We Expected From National Socialism: Hermann Rauschning And Danzig's Lnterwar Radical Right (1918-1942), Nima Lane

Masters Theses

This project uses Dr. Hermann Rauschning as a case study to analyze the transformation of the German intellectual right, stretching from his early career in the Weimar Era to the post-1945 era. Rather than offer a purely narrative biography, this study uses the figure of Rauschning to examine the fate of the German right from the Kaisserreich to the aftermath of World War II. Rauschning, born in 1887, was both a political and intellectual figure. However, these aspects of Hermann Rauschning are not necessarily separate. Although some historians see Hermann Rauschning as unique, I argue that he is in fact ...


(Dis)Respect In The Classroom: A Gendered Perspective Of Academia, Abriana Nichole Vesconte Jan 2019

(Dis)Respect In The Classroom: A Gendered Perspective Of Academia, Abriana Nichole Vesconte

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine gendered practices and the experiences of women instructors within academia. Women face different challenges than men in the classroom, and many times, they are challenged by their students. In order to complete this study, I conducted narrative interviews with women faculty ranging from Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs), contractual instructors, as well as tenured and untenured professors at a Midwest university. I was able to interview eight women faculty members of varying positions. After completing the interviews and analyzing the data from each instructor, three prominent themes emerged. These themes are: (1) public ...


Vote Choice Of Minority Groups: Emphasizing Their Issue Preferences, Md Kamrul Islam Jan 2019

Vote Choice Of Minority Groups: Emphasizing Their Issue Preferences, Md Kamrul Islam

Masters Theses

In explaining vote choice of minority groups, scholars of American politics often characterize them as natural democrats. They argue that they have become natural Democrats because of their minority identity and the constraints they faced throughout the history of the United States. However, this thesis questions the characterization and highlights the issue preferences of minority groups; it analyzes whether their issue preferences have an impact on shaping their vote choice. By analyzing the Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES) 2016 survey, this thesis has explored that minority groups vote for candidates who pay greater emphasis on the issues they care about ...


Student Use Of Institutional Social Media, Hayley Elizabeth Hanger Jan 2019

Student Use Of Institutional Social Media, Hayley Elizabeth Hanger

Masters Theses

This study is a quantitative exploration of student use of their university's social media accounts at a mid-sized Midwestern institution. The survey was conducted via Qualtrics and was emailed to all undergraduate on-campus students. T-tests showed that differences in reason for use existed across gender, race, and first-generation status. Chi Square test results showed a statistically significant gap between the amount of White and non-White students following institutional social media accounts. Descriptive statistics also indicated that lack of awareness is the driving reason students do not follow institutional social media accounts. Recommendations were made to increase advertisement of social ...


Middle And High School Teachers' Praise And Reprimand Delivery, Emma Riedesel Jan 2019

Middle And High School Teachers' Praise And Reprimand Delivery, Emma Riedesel

Masters Theses

The benefits of increasing teacher praise and decreasing teacher reprimand (for both students and teachers) is well-established in the literature. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on teachers' natural use of praise and reprimand, specifically in terms of how teachers deliver praise and reprimand. Sixty-six middle (sixth through eighth grade) and high school (ninth through twelfth grade) teachers' delivery of praise and reprimand to individual (one student), small clusters (two to six students), and large groups (seven or more students) during a 20-minute observation were examined. Teachers delivered significantly more general praise to individual students, rather ...


Construct Validity Of The Teate Depression Inventory (Tdi) With A Middle Eastern/Arab American Sample, Dalia Bunni Jan 2019

Construct Validity Of The Teate Depression Inventory (Tdi) With A Middle Eastern/Arab American Sample, Dalia Bunni

Masters Theses

The purpose of the study was to examine the construct validity of a newer test used to measure depressive symptoms, the Teate Depression Inventory (TDI). The primary focus of the study was on Middle Eastern/Arab Americans (ME/AA). Previous research has demonstrated that ethnic minority groups may experience and present internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety differently than the majority ethnic group, White/Caucasian (W/C) individuals. Further, research suggests that there is a disparity in mental health care among ethnic minority groups, starting with detecting and diagnosing mental health disorders. Inaccurate detection and diagnoses informs inaccurate treatment ...


College Students Experiences Participating In International Alternative Break Trips, Dayton L. Ehrlich Jan 2019

College Students Experiences Participating In International Alternative Break Trips, Dayton L. Ehrlich

Masters Theses

This study sought to explore undergraduate students’ experiences participating in international alternative break trips. A qualitative approach was used to understand the motivating factors as well as the impact the trip had on them. Participants included three female undergraduate students who had participated in an international alternative break trip in Mexico were interviewed one-on-one. The results demonstrated there were multiple different motivating factors and impacts the students experienced. The motivating factors consisted of student involvement, they were all personally invited on the trip, practicing a new language, opportunity to leave the country, and service was not a motivator. The impacts ...


Exploratory Factor Analysis Of The Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Fifth Edition For A Sample Of First Nations Students, Jessica Hanson Jan 2019

Exploratory Factor Analysis Of The Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Fifth Edition For A Sample Of First Nations Students, Jessica Hanson

Masters Theses

Native Americans and First Nation students are overrepresented in special education and underrepresented in structural bias research of the intelligence measures that place them there. There are several empirical studies of test bias on the Wechsler scales due to their popularity within the school system, however there is little exploratory factor analysis research on these scales with the Native American Indian population. Further, the Native American Indian and First Nation population is a relatively small minority group compared to other racial and ethnic groups in North America and this group is underrepresented in government statistics and overlooked in funding for ...


Obtaining And Retaining Engagement In Nonprofit Organizations, Sierra Price Jan 2019

Obtaining And Retaining Engagement In Nonprofit Organizations, Sierra Price

Masters Theses

This project is a guide for directors to strategically communicate and display behavior that will influence volunteers to be engaged nonprofit settings. Engagement and motivation is influenced by communicative patterns from directors. Volunteer engagement can result to acceptance of leadership styles, clear understanding of vision, and building trust. Directors should minimize disengagement by fostering behavior that is correlated to working with volunteers in a partnership.


“Mystery Meat” And “Bulldyke:” Disciplining Gender And Silencing Women Sports Reporters On Reddit, Kayla Peterson Jan 2019

“Mystery Meat” And “Bulldyke:” Disciplining Gender And Silencing Women Sports Reporters On Reddit, Kayla Peterson

Masters Theses

Most of the sports industry is a male dominated space where women are very rarely accepted. We see men in the field, whether they work or play, defend the space and tell women reporters to “stay in their lane.” This study focuses on an online news-sharing site, reddit, and examines how sports fans take it upon themselves to defend sports as a male space. Reporters, such as Sarah Spain, Jemele Hill, and Doris Burke, are subjected to hundreds of comments that silence them and discipline them based on their gender. This study emphasizes the need for gender equality in what ...


The Impact Of Academic Enablers Instruction On Academic Achievement Of Elementary School Children, Bryce Kirk Jan 2019

The Impact Of Academic Enablers Instruction On Academic Achievement Of Elementary School Children, Bryce Kirk

Masters Theses

The present study investigated the relationship between Academic Enablers (AEs) instruction and student achievement. Specifically, whether such behaviors and attitudes explicitly taught in a small group setting would improve students' academic performance. Students struggle academically and behaviorally for a variety of reasons, poor or lack of instruction, lack of motivation, or related to a disability, to recognize a few. Existing literature has identified several factors, (e.g., interpersonal/social skills, motivation, study skills, and engagement), known as AEs, that meaningfully contribute toward students' academic success. However, unlike previous studies that focused on such AEs in isolation, this study addressed this ...