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Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2177

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Couvrant Les Yeux, Les Oreilles Et La Bouche: How The Musée Royale De Batoufam Preserves Tradition And Culture For Multiple Audiences And Perspectives, Julia Hirsch Apr 2019

Couvrant Les Yeux, Les Oreilles Et La Bouche: How The Musée Royale De Batoufam Preserves Tradition And Culture For Multiple Audiences And Perspectives, Julia Hirsch

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Museums are important to study as a way of representing, preserving, and teaching culture. In this study, I wanted to explore how James Clifford’s exhibitionary complex, about the interactions of the viewer, the museum, and the represented culture, applies in the unique case of Musée Royale de Batoufam, a living site museum full of art and rich with tradition. In studying this, I examined the way different audiences use the museum and how the museum can preserve the idea of the coexistence of modernity and tradition, which is integral to Batoufam life, for all audiences. In conducting 20 interviews ...


"It Is Our Own Thing": The Expression Of And Limits To Enculturation At St. Joseph's Anglophone Parish, Kayleigh Kaminski Apr 2019

"It Is Our Own Thing": The Expression Of And Limits To Enculturation At St. Joseph's Anglophone Parish, Kayleigh Kaminski

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Down a small side street in the heart of Yaoundé, Cameroon, St. Joseph’s Anglophone Parish houses worshippers from the Northwest and Southwest regions of the country. Its members bring their cultural traditions to the church in the process of enculturation, and mass is filled with clergy-sanctioned elements of traditional culture, but beyond its walls, people still carry out the traditional practices that are deemed as “non-Christian” by the Church. This study seeks to examine the ways that traditional culture manifests itself both inside and outside St. Joseph’s Anglophone Parish, exploring the ways in which tradition is translated in ...


The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch Apr 2019

The Impacts Of Warming Coffee: The Climate Change-Coffee-Migration Nexus In The Northern Triangle Of Central America, Connor Lynch

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change continues to threaten every corner of the world, one of the key features of the 21st century is migration, as a response to the myriad of effects related to a warming planet. This paper seeks to analyze the role of climate change as a motive for migration. The climate change-migration nexus is illustrated in this paper by revealing how slow-onset effects of climate change jeopardize the production of coffee in the Northern Triangle of Central America (NTCA), a region that is particularly vulnerable to the many effects. Thousands of people who depend on coffee production around Guatemala ...


"Root Causes Not Symptoms": Sustainable Organizational Structures, Réseau De Lutte Contre La Faim: The Decision-Making Process In Combatting Systemic Issues, Ambar Deleon Apr 2019

"Root Causes Not Symptoms": Sustainable Organizational Structures, Réseau De Lutte Contre La Faim: The Decision-Making Process In Combatting Systemic Issues, Ambar Deleon

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper attempts to understand the basis for how an organization structures itself and their vision. This research draws its focus to the civil society sector in Cameroon, particularly looking at Reseau de Lutte Contre la Faim (RELUFA) and their organizational structure in the battling against systemic issues. The main research question for this study looked at how RELUFA reflects and monitors its performance to keep the organization sustainable in the long-term. For this research the methodology included interviews, observations and secondary resources along with tertiary resources that offered the context for the analytical part of this research. The interviews ...


Morocco: The Intersection Between Intercultural Mediation And Migration, Arianna Diaz Oct 2018

Morocco: The Intersection Between Intercultural Mediation And Migration, Arianna Diaz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

My research seeks to understand the intersection between migration and intercultural mediation through a Moroccan context. The increase of undocumented and documented Sub-Saharans flowing into Morocco through the Western Mediterranean route creates an increase in intercultural spaces within Moroccan society. By analyzing Sub-Saharan livelihoods and discrimination in Morocco I address how ineffective intercultural communication creates tensions between Moroccan nationals and Sub-Saharan Migrants. By applying intercultural mediation theory I come to understand how intercultural mediation can be applied between these two cultural groups. I specifically analyze the capacity of Moroccan civil organizations to act as intercultural mediators between Moroccan communities and ...


“I Hope Whiteness Means Nothing”: A Narrative Exploration Of Whiteness As Identity In South Africa, Mackenzie Berry Oct 2018

“I Hope Whiteness Means Nothing”: A Narrative Exploration Of Whiteness As Identity In South Africa, Mackenzie Berry

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In post-apartheid South Africa, whiteness and the legacy of its codification shape the social, political, and economic landscape of the country. Though white studies in South Africa emerged as an investigation of how whiteness operates as a social identity post-apartheid, the field is still developing. This narrative project examines how whiteness has been constructed in South Africa as identity and property, referencing South African history for context. The project explores “whiteness as identity” as opposed to “white identity” in recognition that whiteness manifests in many forms, including as an identity but also within institutions and in economic, social, political, and ...


The Root Of Racism: How Slavery Has Led To The Condition Of Discrimination Against Sub-Saharan Africans And Migrants In Morocco, James Artis Iii Oct 2018

The Root Of Racism: How Slavery Has Led To The Condition Of Discrimination Against Sub-Saharan Africans And Migrants In Morocco, James Artis Iii

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Slavery is the oldest and most central form of discrimination and while most have knowledge on the Trans-Atlantic slave trade that of the Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Slave trade in which current day North Africa and Middle East contributed to both sexual and military exploitation of Sub-Saharan Africans is often forgotten. The historical implication that going along with North African and Middle Eastern salve trade contribute to the discrimination dehumanization and otherization of sub-Saharan Africans and their perception in North Africa.


Hijos De La Dictadura: Posmemoria, Trauma Y Resistencia En Chile Actual / Children Of The Dictatorship: Postmemory, Trauma And Resistance In Chile Current, Dana Williams Oct 2018

Hijos De La Dictadura: Posmemoria, Trauma Y Resistencia En Chile Actual / Children Of The Dictatorship: Postmemory, Trauma And Resistance In Chile Current, Dana Williams

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Today Chile prides itself on the success of its neoliberal economy and democracy. Yet, instances like the assassination of the Mapuche activist, Camilo Catrillanca, and the impassioned protests that have ensued, serve as constant reminders (to those who look for them) that the legacy of seventeen years of military dictatorship is hiding right beneath the surface of the modern ‘Miracle of Chile.’ This project seeks to unravel the loosely woven protective layer of Chilean democracy by investigating how the violence, trauma, and resistance that defined Pinochet’s dictatorship is alive in well amongst the children of victims and survivors of ...


Mind Control In The Post-Colonial State: The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment In Tertiary Education In Senegal And Jamaica, Janiel Chantae Slowly Oct 2018

Mind Control In The Post-Colonial State: The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment In Tertiary Education In Senegal And Jamaica, Janiel Chantae Slowly

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Since the end of 17th to 20th century colonization, Senegal and Jamaica have been victims of the rhetoric of development. The economic, social, and political progress of these nations have always been overshadowed by their categorization as “developing countries”. Yet, this development rhetoric fails to acknowledge not only the wounds of colonization but the more modern manifestations of continued exploitation of these countries often by the same countries that “emancipated” their colonies. Senegal and Jamaica for example, are both dominated by large percentages of young adults, in both cases a large majority of the populations are individuals under the age ...


Pemban Farmer Agency In Adapting To Climate Change, Rachael Hood Oct 2018

Pemban Farmer Agency In Adapting To Climate Change, Rachael Hood

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As a result of climate change, agricultural societies will be challenged by a variety of altered conditions, including increased severe weather events, saltwater intrusion, pest and disease outbreaks, and higher temperatures. The island of Pemba, in the Zanzibar archipelago, is home to many small-scale agriculturalists. During this study, I interviewed Pemban farmers in the districts of Wete and Micheweni about their awareness of the impacts of climate change and the mitigation strategies that they have implemented. The results from Pemba were compared to relevant academic literature regarding climate change to explore whether disparities exist between models of climate change in ...


Correlations Between Reef Health And Vertical Zonation On Ushongo Village Reef And Fungu Zinga Reef, Daniel Gates Oct 2018

Correlations Between Reef Health And Vertical Zonation On Ushongo Village Reef And Fungu Zinga Reef, Daniel Gates

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

While the existence of vertical zonation on coral reefs is well-known, the driving mechanisms and the influence each has is not clear. This study seeks to investigate the influence of reef health on vertical zonation. Reef health is used as a potential factor since it is essentially a broad description of reef diversity. Therefore, a healthy reef which is very diverse is likely to have more and different interspecies interactions than an unhealthy one. This project investigates whether these altered interactions results in different depth distributions of various coral types, categorized broadly by colony shape. Reef health did not seem ...


Large Mammals Of The High Andes A Survey Of Community Composition And Habitat Usage In The Highlands Of Angochagua, Sage Fox Oct 2018

Large Mammals Of The High Andes A Survey Of Community Composition And Habitat Usage In The Highlands Of Angochagua, Sage Fox

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The large mammal community of the high Andes may be the least understood in South America. It contains multiple threatened and charismatic species including the Andean Bear, Mountain Tapir, Red Brocket Deer, Northern Pudu, and Puma. Many of these species are lacking in distribution and population data. The highlands of the Parroquia de Angochagua were once overgrazed by livestock, but have been mostly restored over the last 20 years through conservation efforts by the local community. These highlands are thought to have populations of all the previously mentioned species, though they had not been surveyed before this study. Transect surveys ...


La Influencia Del Quechua En El Castellano De La Isla De Taquile / The Influence Of Quechua In The Castilian Of The Island Of Taquile, Gianna Macri Oct 2018

La Influencia Del Quechua En El Castellano De La Isla De Taquile / The Influence Of Quechua In The Castilian Of The Island Of Taquile, Gianna Macri

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Esta investigación explora el español de la gente que vive en la isla de Taquile. Esta población habla quechua principalmente, pero es importante aprender la lengua española para comunicarse con los turistas, y el español se enseña en la escuela. En una situación como esta de contacto entre dos lenguas, ambas pueden cambiar su estructura, sus características gramaticales y su vocabulario. En otras comunidades quechuahablantes, se describe una variedad de la lengua, el “castellano andino”. Los resultados muestran que el español de Taquile también tiene variaciones similares por la influencia del quechua: el orden de las palabras más común en ...


Balance And Imbalance: The Necessity Of Natural Disasters In Balinese Hinduism, Lorin Foster Demuth Oct 2018

Balance And Imbalance: The Necessity Of Natural Disasters In Balinese Hinduism, Lorin Foster Demuth

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

No abstract provided.


Las Perspectivas De Los Trabajadores Sobre La Accesibilidad A Los Recursos Públicos Para El Tratamiento De Depresión Y Ansiedad En La Actualidad En El Área Metropolitana De Buenos Aires: Estudio Cualitativo De Tipo Exploratorio-Descriptivo. / Perspectives Of Workers On The Accessibility Of Public Resources For The Treatment Of Depression And Anxiety In The Metropolitan Area Of Buenos Aires: Qualitative Exploratory-Descriptive Study., Ellen Broaddus Oct 2018

Las Perspectivas De Los Trabajadores Sobre La Accesibilidad A Los Recursos Públicos Para El Tratamiento De Depresión Y Ansiedad En La Actualidad En El Área Metropolitana De Buenos Aires: Estudio Cualitativo De Tipo Exploratorio-Descriptivo. / Perspectives Of Workers On The Accessibility Of Public Resources For The Treatment Of Depression And Anxiety In The Metropolitan Area Of Buenos Aires: Qualitative Exploratory-Descriptive Study., Ellen Broaddus

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En los últimos años, el tema de la salud mental se ha convertido en un elemento fundamental para la salud y el bienestar. Con la ley nacional 26.657 de 2010, Argentina declaró que todos tendrían servicios de salud mental gratuitos y accesibles y que no serían discriminados por sus trastornos. Sin embargo, los trastornos mentales, especialmente la depresión y la ansiedad, siguen siendo muy frecuentes, y en realidad muchos de los recursos públicos prometidos no son en realidad accesibles. Para investigar el estado actual de la salud mental pública, esta investigación buscó en los profesionales del campo para explorar ...


Women’S Divorce Rights In Jordan: Legal Rights And Cultural Challenges, Helen David Oct 2018

Women’S Divorce Rights In Jordan: Legal Rights And Cultural Challenges, Helen David

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This research aims to examine women’s divorce rights in Jordan examining the topic both through their legal rights as well as through the cultural challenges and stigma that divorced women face. The research is focused specifically on the rights of Muslim women, who have to file for divorce through the Shari’a court system, in Jordan that are Jordanian nationals. The literature used in the research provides background insight into Jordan’s tribal system, family law in Jordan, and psychological theories that relate to group therapy and self-efficacy in divorced women. The researcher hypothesizes that despite the many socio-economic ...


Discutiendo Desde El Interior: La Marginación De Los Hombres Trans Dentro Del Movimiento Por El Aborto Legal En Argentina / Arguing From Within: The Marginalization Of Trans Men Within The Movement For Legal Abortion In Argentina, Olivia Nichols Oct 2018

Discutiendo Desde El Interior: La Marginación De Los Hombres Trans Dentro Del Movimiento Por El Aborto Legal En Argentina / Arguing From Within: The Marginalization Of Trans Men Within The Movement For Legal Abortion In Argentina, Olivia Nichols

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En la actualidad, el color verde lleva con ello una asociación casi indudable al movimiento por el aborto legal en Argentina. A pesar de este alto perfil del movimiento conocido como la marea verde, una recorrida por la historia del movimiento revela una gran brecha en el diálogo en relación con la inclusión de personas que no son mujeres cis, como los hombres trans que también abortan.

Informada por entrevistas con activistas trans argentinos y la observación de un encuentro de la Campaña Nacional por el Derecho al Aborto Legal, Seguro y Gratuito, esta investigación considera la inclusión (o falta ...


Vivencias De Jóvenes Con Autismo De La Ciudad De Temuco, Desde La Percepción De Sus Familiares Y Educadores / Experiences Of Young People With Autism In The City Of Temuco, From The Perception Of Their Relatives And Educators, Sophia Cerreta Oct 2018

Vivencias De Jóvenes Con Autismo De La Ciudad De Temuco, Desde La Percepción De Sus Familiares Y Educadores / Experiences Of Young People With Autism In The City Of Temuco, From The Perception Of Their Relatives And Educators, Sophia Cerreta

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study, centered on the life experiences of young people with moderate to severe autism who attend specialized schools in the city of Temuco, Chile. Autism is a common developmental disability that most strongly affects social skills but is also characterized by sensory sensitivities, difficulty with change, and highly focused interests. There is no national registry in Chile of its population with autism, and there is a lack of investigation in the autistic population in Chile. This study sought to complete three objectives: describe factors that make the process of integration into society more difficult, identify the networks of social ...


Looking Beyond Primary: A Study Of Barriers To Secondary Education In Kiryandongo Refugee Settlement, Uganda, Chloe Schalit Oct 2018

Looking Beyond Primary: A Study Of Barriers To Secondary Education In Kiryandongo Refugee Settlement, Uganda, Chloe Schalit

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The increase in protracted refugee situations around the world complicates the provision of public services such as education. Accessing secondary school is key to individual and community empowerment for vulnerable refugees through providing higher education and employment opportunities. However, secondary school attainment is often severely lacking in refugee settlements. In Uganda, 58.2% of refugees are enrolled in primary school, while only 11.3% attend secondary school. This study sought to understand the experiences of Ugandan refugees related to barriers to secondary education and its relation to social and economic empowerment, as well as solutions that refugee communities, Implementing Partners ...


Kisumu County Hospital Patient Demographic Analysis: Looking Toward Universal Health Coverage, Lauren Scheffey Oct 2018

Kisumu County Hospital Patient Demographic Analysis: Looking Toward Universal Health Coverage, Lauren Scheffey

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Universal health coverage is priority sought after by developed and developing nations alike, and Kenya sits on the list of countries seeking to achieve this goal in the coming years. The definition of “coverage” can vary by country, but three criteria are commonly found in the discussion of UHC globally: access, affordability, and quality. Affordability is determined by the state’s healthcare financing system; quality refers to the services provided by health facilities; and access, at least in part, concerns the geographic placement of health services providers in relation to the population they intend to serve. This geographic element is ...


“Archival Of The Fittest: The Role Of Archives In Constructing Public Memory Of Queer History”, Brooks Hosfeld Oct 2018

“Archival Of The Fittest: The Role Of Archives In Constructing Public Memory Of Queer History”, Brooks Hosfeld

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

IHLIA LGBT Heritage, an LGBTI-specific archive housed in Amsterdam, is moving beyond traditionally-introverted roles of an archive by putting on an exhibit about the past 40 years of LGBT activism in the Netherlands. The archive alone contributes to public awareness of queer history, and the exhibit, With Pride, gives a heightened platform for select gay narratives from the collections. The subjects on display, as well as the goals and decisions that selected them, reflect which narratives are included in historical memory and deemed palatable to the public.


“So What Are You?:” Nepali Third Gender Women’S Identities And Experiences Through The Lens Of Human Rights Development Discourse, Amit Gerstein Oct 2018

“So What Are You?:” Nepali Third Gender Women’S Identities And Experiences Through The Lens Of Human Rights Development Discourse, Amit Gerstein

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Nepal is the site of many national and international human rights development measures focused on the country’s gender and sexual minorities (SGM). Given the significant impact those development efforts have on SGM and Nepali society, national and international development actors need to understand the identities and experiences of the populations they attempt to help. Performed in Kathmandu and Bharatpur, this study attempts to understand the identities used by third gender women and if those identities are reflected in development discourse. Furthermore, this research seeks to understand the life experiences of these women and the discriminations they face, a reflection ...


The Impact Of Foreign Involvement On Political Reform Organizations In Jordan, Sravya Tadepalli Oct 2018

The Impact Of Foreign Involvement On Political Reform Organizations In Jordan, Sravya Tadepalli

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper assesses the impact of foreign involvement on the effectiveness of political reform organizations in Jordan. Through the qualitative analysis of the democratization work of completely foreign-funded international organizations, partially foreign-funded Jordanian organizations, and Jordanian organizations that do not receive foreign funding, derived from several interviews conducted with democracy practitioners in international and local NGOs, political activists, scholars, and others, this paper examines the effect of foreign involvement on organizational strategies, credibility, and effectiveness, ultimately arguing that foreign involvement (and conversely, the lack thereof) has several effects on the way political reform organizations have carried out their activities. This ...


“Yo Agradezco Por No Sentirme Solo”: La Iglesia Evangélica En El Espacio Transnacional / "I Thank You For Not Feeling Alone": The Evangelical Church In The Transnational Space, L. Elizabeth Jowers Oct 2018

“Yo Agradezco Por No Sentirme Solo”: La Iglesia Evangélica En El Espacio Transnacional / "I Thank You For Not Feeling Alone": The Evangelical Church In The Transnational Space, L. Elizabeth Jowers

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Del 86% de argentinos que fueron criados en una familia católica, el 15% ahora no se autodenomina católico. Este trabajo se enfoca en dos flujos demográficos en la Argentina. Uno es la diversificación del campo religioso, en particular la influencia creciente con respecto a la iglesia cristiana evangélica. El segundo flujo es la inmigración, en particular la inmigración de los países limítrofes de la Argentina. Estos dos flujos demográficos están vinculados a los temas globales del desarrollo económico y la difusión acelerada de las ideas y creencias en el siglo XXI. Estas dos tendencias se ven claramente en el distrito ...


Stagnant Corruption In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Then, Now, And What Is To Come, Megan Uren Oct 2018

Stagnant Corruption In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Then, Now, And What Is To Come, Megan Uren

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bosnia-Herzegovina, a country recently torn apart by ethnic violence in the 1990s, remains standing yet has struggled for the past two decades to materialize dynamic reform from political corruption and has failed to progress to a more stabilized society. Matters of ethnic divisions, political corruption, and economic underdevelopment all contribute to a deadlocked society vulnerable to further destabilization. The Dayton Peace Agreement produced an environment fit to maintain political corruption with elite entrenchment and governmental deadlock that continues to freeze the county in 1995 and inhibits true ethnic reconciliation. Economic insecurity and high unemployment rates add to grievances in a ...


Spirituality And Conservation In Tujiin Nars, Lisa Torstenson Oct 2018

Spirituality And Conservation In Tujiin Nars, Lisa Torstenson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

For centuries, Mongolians have relied heavily on the land for their survival. In Selenge aimag, the surrounding Tujiin Nars forest is an integral part of their lives. An area with many uses, it was once so heavily deforested that the majority of the area lost its ecological function. Now, these impacts are being reversed by dedicated government workers, community groups, and regular citizens. The people of this area believe that they are intimately connected with the forest, and that spirits reside within the trees and the land itself. As such, they stake importance in treating the land with respect. This ...


Poem As Space For Artistic Contestation: Finding Multiple Voices Of Female Writers Through Artistic Vocabularies, Edil Hassan Oct 2018

Poem As Space For Artistic Contestation: Finding Multiple Voices Of Female Writers Through Artistic Vocabularies, Edil Hassan

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project is a creative piece that consists of ten poems and a critical analysis of artistic vocabularies utilized by women writers: Aicha Bassry, Furugh Farrukhzad, and Fatima Mernissi. I argue that their speaking together, especially through multiple voices, is a political act that can be privileged above normative discussions of art currently. This comes from the common worlds they build in their poetic and scholarly work, which despite differences in voice and vocabulary, centralize women. I define artistic vocabulary in this project as the transformation that takes place when image is translated into word. I explore this idea of ...


Think Outside: Exploring The Influence Of Nature On The Individual And Of The Individual On Society, Brielle Wells Oct 2018

Think Outside: Exploring The Influence Of Nature On The Individual And Of The Individual On Society, Brielle Wells

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This video project has an overarching goal to question the influence the natural environment has on the development of individual people and society as a whole. It begins by looking into the important role played by creativity in societal and economic development. From here a brief background is given on the requirements of maintaining and producing a creative environment. The piece alludes to the possibility that a relationship with nature has a deeper meaning than just being conducive to creativity. It also shows the effects pollution has had on the work of local artists and briefly the challenges faced by ...


Sufis In A 'Foreign' Zawiya: Moroccan Perceptions Of The Tijani Pilgrimage To Fes, Joel Green Oct 2018

Sufis In A 'Foreign' Zawiya: Moroccan Perceptions Of The Tijani Pilgrimage To Fes, Joel Green

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this ISP is to investigate Moroccan perceptions of sub-Saharan members of the Tijaniyya during the completion of their religious pilgrimage to Fes. The relationship between Moroccans andTijani pilgrims is particularly complex as it occurs at an intersection of various identities, most prominently including race, religion, class and nationality. This project focuses on Moroccans who work in the area surrounding the shrine of Ahmed al-Tijani and either market their business towards Tijani pilgrims or frequently serve Tijani pilgrims as customers. In the course of interviews with five Moroccans, three major themes emerged: 1. Condemnation of Tijani religious practice ...


He Effects Of Climate Change On Native Icelandic Plants: A Morphometric Analysis, Maia Jones Oct 2018

He Effects Of Climate Change On Native Icelandic Plants: A Morphometric Analysis, Maia Jones

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study seeks to evaluate the morphology of three native Icelandic plant species, Alchemilla alpina, Arabidopsis petraea, and Silene uniflora, in order to determine if changing climatic conditions have had an effect on Icelandic vegetation during the twentieth century. I measured herbarium specimens collected during a time period before 1950, and during the period from the late 1960s to the present. Using traditional morphometrics methods, I searched for changes in morphological traits such as plant height, leaf length to width ratio, and leaf size, then performed two-tailed t-tests to analyze the results of the analyses. I found significant changes in ...