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Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Effect Of Acute Interpersonal Racial Discrimination On Smoking Motivation And Behavior Among Black Smokers, Patricia F. Calixte-Civil Jan 2020

The Effect Of Acute Interpersonal Racial Discrimination On Smoking Motivation And Behavior Among Black Smokers, Patricia F. Calixte-Civil

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In comparison to White smokers, Black smokers are more likely to report both discrimination and less success in smoking cessation. No previous study has tested the causal relationship between actual experienced racial discrimination and smoking variables associated with cessation. The goal of this study was to test the casual influence of interpersonal racial discrimination on smoking motivation (i.e., the urge to smoke cigarettes, cessation self-efficacy, and smoking behavior) using a controlled experimental design. We used a virtual ball-playing game to create a laboratory model of racial discrimination. A 2x2 between-subjects factorial design (inclusion/exclusion vs. ingroup/outgroup) was used ...


Affect And Craving: Examining The Differential Influences Of Positive And Negative Affect On Inclinations To Approach And Avoid Alcohol Use, Jacob A. Levine Jan 2020

Affect And Craving: Examining The Differential Influences Of Positive And Negative Affect On Inclinations To Approach And Avoid Alcohol Use, Jacob A. Levine

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Most research examining the role of affect in the etiology of alcohol craving has been limited to associations between negative affect and the desire to consume alcohol. This narrow focus has not only ignored the potential influence of positive affect on the desire to use alcohol, but has led to a failure to consider both desires to avoid using alcohol and motivational conflicts often thought to be present in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Additionally, research investigating the influence of affect on attentional bias in favor of alcohol cues in individuals who have an AUD has been limited. Using 60 individuals ...


Perfectionism, Negative Life Events, And Cognitive Appraisal: A Contextual Model Of Perfectionism’S Maladaptive Nature, Ansley M. Bender Jan 2020

Perfectionism, Negative Life Events, And Cognitive Appraisal: A Contextual Model Of Perfectionism’S Maladaptive Nature, Ansley M. Bender

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Perfectionism is highly (Grzegorek, Slaney, Franze, & Rice, 2004; Rice, Ashby, & Gilman, 2011) and increasingly (Curran & Hill, 2017) prevalent. Alarmingly, perfectionism is associated with various concerning correlates and outcomes, including suicide ideation and attempts (e.g. Smith, Sherry, et al., 2018). Whereas it is clear that perfectionism presents as a vulnerability for suicide, very little is known about when its maladaptive features may be particularly activated or by what pathway such a relationship exists. A preliminary, but underdeveloped, area of research suggests a role for negative life events in potentiating the effects of perfectionism, operating under the assumption that such events may approximate the aversive experience of failure (e.g. Dean, Range, & Goggin, 1996). However, this assumption reveals an essential component — that of appraisal — which has been neglected in extant investigations of perfectionism’s contextual effects. Given that appraisals may be more amenable to change than the occurrence of negative life events or the relatively stable trait of perfectionism, it is important to determine the extent to which appraisals may explain the effects of perfectionism, negative life events, and their interaction. The present study tested a model by which perfectionism would increasingly relate to demoralization in the context of negative life events through a pathway of appraising these events as personal failures. This model was partially supported; perfectionism predicted demoralization, but this relationship was not influenced by negative life events. Supplemental analyses indicated support for the mediating role of specific appraisal components. Clinical implications and deirections for future research are reviewed.


Emotional Intelligence Competencies For Success In Early Hospitality Careers, Erich Steinbock Jan 2020

Emotional Intelligence Competencies For Success In Early Hospitality Careers, Erich Steinbock

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to define specific emotional intelligence competencies that relate to career success during early hospitality career stages. Convenience sampling with 662 online surveys resulted in 383 valid responses from participants who worked in three different supervisory positions at seven hotels in the USA and Caribbean islands. The data were collected using a web-based survey tool that measured the levels of eight emotional intelligence competencies as independent variables and four success factors as the dependent variables. Descriptive statistics, one-way between-subjects ANOVAs, t-tests, and multiple regressions with moderating variables defined the resulting models.

The findings of ...


Walking Each Other Home: Sensemaking Of Illness Identity In An Online Metastatic Cancer Community, Ariane B. Anderson Dec 2019

Walking Each Other Home: Sensemaking Of Illness Identity In An Online Metastatic Cancer Community, Ariane B. Anderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly, online settings serve as primary social contexts for patient interaction, playing a crucial role in ways participants access medical information and turn to each other for support. Stage IV (metastatic) cancer patients like myself know what it is like to be overwhelmed by the complex array of medical tests, treatments, and information we are expected to assimilate. My late stage disease status necessitates I routinely grapple with not merely the kinds of support I think I need or how those needs will be met, but also what meanings I assign to my experiences. Consequently, as a member of The ...


Closing America’S Retirement Savings Gap: Nudging Small Business Owners To Adopt Workplace Retirement Plans, Peter W. Kirtland Nov 2019

Closing America’S Retirement Savings Gap: Nudging Small Business Owners To Adopt Workplace Retirement Plans, Peter W. Kirtland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Small businesses, with 50 or fewer employees, rarely offer workplace retirement plans. The lack of effective retirement plan options leads to employee stress, financial strain, and social instabilities. The purpose of this research is to study why small business owners make poor decisions about workplace retirement plans. The study evaluates the information supply chain and determines that financial advisors are a critical information delivery mechanism. However, they do not take the time to discuss the various retirement plan options available with the small business owners which leads to lack of plan adoption.

Elaborated Action Design Research (eADR) research methods are ...


Promoting Healthy Sleep Practices Among Parents Of Young Children: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial, Kristin Lynn Edwards Nov 2019

Promoting Healthy Sleep Practices Among Parents Of Young Children: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial, Kristin Lynn Edwards

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the most significant and underrecognized public health concerns in young children is related to the consequences of inadequate sleep. Inadequate sleep may result in problems related to behavioral regulation, executive functioning, and academic performance. ‘Sleep hygiene’, a term that describes consistent daytime and nighttime practices that promote healthy sleep, has been found to significantly increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality in the pediatric population. Researchers have found that many parents have a poor understanding of sleep hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine if an educational intervention increased parental knowledge and practices of sleep hygiene ...


Disciplinary D/Discourses: Navigating And Negotiating Disciplinary Paradigms, Michael R. P. Bailey Nov 2019

Disciplinary D/Discourses: Navigating And Negotiating Disciplinary Paradigms, Michael R. P. Bailey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past twenty-five years, in the United States, zero-tolerance policies that were initially implemented to deter gun violence and drugs in schools have expanded to include a wide range of discretionary offenses such as disrespect and defiance. As a result, many students have been denied access to educational opportunities, been excluded from their peers, and had their lives irrevocably changed due to systemic sanctioning of exclusionary practices. Educators, who are caught between competing societal demands, job expectations, and ethical beliefs about their profession are tasked with balancing the instructional and interactional components of their work in an attempt to ...


Educators' Perceptions Of Students' Academic And Social Growth In A Collegiate High School Program., John Matthew Legg Nov 2019

Educators' Perceptions Of Students' Academic And Social Growth In A Collegiate High School Program., John Matthew Legg

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to examine educators’ perceptions of high school students’ academic and social growth in a collegiate college program. Collegiate high school programs afford opportunities to minorities and the economically disadvantaged, as well as first-generation college students (Aviles-Reyes, 2007). This research used a qualitative case study framework to collect information about educators’ perceptions of the academic and social integration of students in a collegiate college program. Data were collected in phases—educator focus group interviews and individual interviews—and subsequently coded and reviewed using thematic comparative analysis. The guiding question was as follows: What are educators ...


Health-Promoting Behaviors And Subjective Well-Being Among High School Students, Nicholas David W. Smith Nov 2019

Health-Promoting Behaviors And Subjective Well-Being Among High School Students, Nicholas David W. Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In positive psychology, a greater emphasis is placed on the presence of indicators of both physical and mental health. This study examined the relationship between 12 health-promoting behaviors and subjective well-being (SWB; e.g., happiness) in a sample of 450 high school aged youth from five high schools in two states. Participants reported on their dietary habits, physical activity, abstinence from tobacco products, abstinence from alcohol, and sleep hygiene (i.e., 8 unique components) as well as a multidimensional assessment of SWB (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect). It was hypothesized that increased engagement in each of ...


Reducing Underrepresentation: Promising Practices In Florida, Catherine A. Mullins Nov 2019

Reducing Underrepresentation: Promising Practices In Florida, Catherine A. Mullins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I examined representation rates of gifted students from diverse backgrounds in Florida county school districts. Florida state legislation governing gifted student education allows for alternative identification methods to be used for students from underrepresented groups if plans for such identification are approved by the Florida Department of Education; however, this option, informally referred to as “Plan B” after subsection B of the legislation governing gifted services, is not a requirement that districts must follow. Consequently, there are large differences in the ways districts identify underrepresented students for gifted services. State legislation identifies underrepresented populations as students with ...


Measurement Of Changes In Forest Fragmentation Caused By Road Construction Between 2000 And 2014 Using Gis In St. Johns County, Florida, Ahmet Karatas Nov 2019

Measurement Of Changes In Forest Fragmentation Caused By Road Construction Between 2000 And 2014 Using Gis In St. Johns County, Florida, Ahmet Karatas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forests play a crucial role in maintaining the natural balance. They have essential features and structures used in the protection of flora and fauna. Human activities such as road construction disrupt ecosystems and negatively impact natural habitats. Roads cause forest fragmentation, and as a result of this, fragmentation has various negative effects on the natural habitat. These effects lead to loss of biological diversity, road mortality, habitat loss, fragmentation, and air pollution. The major goal of this study was to analyze changes in forest area, forest fragmentation, and forest road impacts using GIS for St. Johns County, Florida, between the ...


Assessing The Effects Of Observational Conditioning And Response-Contingent Pairing On Increasing Vocalizations In Children With Asd, Sydni Chance Nov 2019

Assessing The Effects Of Observational Conditioning And Response-Contingent Pairing On Increasing Vocalizations In Children With Asd, Sydni Chance

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display impairments in communication. More specifically, children with ASD may have difficulty developing language skills, for e.g., delay in verbal behavior, limited echoic skills, and/or lack of functional communication. A common way to combat this deficit is by increasing vocalizations in these children. Previous research has used various procedures to attempt to condition vocalizations as reinforcers, such as stimulus-stimulus pairing, response-contingent pairing (RCP), and operant discrimination training. Another procedure for conditioning stimuli is observational conditioning (OC), which is a type of observational learning. However, OC has not been assessed as ...


The Hostile Media Effect And Its Potential Consequences: Examining The Influence Of Presumed Influence Of International Media Coverage, Zhennan Liu Nov 2019

The Hostile Media Effect And Its Potential Consequences: Examining The Influence Of Presumed Influence Of International Media Coverage, Zhennan Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore American and Chinese's perception towards foreign media's coverage about their own country, as well as the main influencing factors and its consequences of this phenomenon. We designed an online survey based on the existing literature on hostile media perception. The sample included 301 American participants and 300 Chinese participants (N=601).

The current study used paired sample T test, Pearson correlation coefficient and SEM model test. Three important results were found. First, hostile media perception is widespread. In the study, both American and Chinese participants were biased to varying degrees ...


Job Crafting And Individual Management Of Work-Family Balance Across Family Stages, Victor S. Mancini Oct 2019

Job Crafting And Individual Management Of Work-Family Balance Across Family Stages, Victor S. Mancini

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Past research often viewed work-family balance as static and has rarely explored how perceptions may differ across stages of life. This study adopted a family life course developmental theoretical framework to test for mean differences in work-family balance across unique family stage groups. Results indicated that mean work-family balance varied across groups, but not according to the specific patterns that were predicted. In addition, this study proposed that job crafting was a cognitive-behavioral strategy that individuals can use to alter their own levels of work-family balance. Correlational, time-lagged, and change-to-change effects provide initial support for the relationship between job crafting ...


Life As A Reluctant Immigrant: An Autoethnographic Inquiry, Dionel Cotanda Oct 2019

Life As A Reluctant Immigrant: An Autoethnographic Inquiry, Dionel Cotanda

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I draw on memories inspired and heightened by compassionate interviews in order to produce a unifying narrative of interactions with family and friends prior to and following my exile from Cuba in 1960. I use autoethnography and narrative inquiry to understand how I made the decision to leave Cuba and the life I have lived in exile for almost sixty years. My dissertation focuses on what it means to live as a reluctant immigrant and how historically constituted power relations define the identity of many Cuban exiles. I discuss and contrast the politics of passion and the ...


A Research On Esports Users’ Motives And Satisfaction In China The Case Of League Of Legends, Qianyin Sun Oct 2019

A Research On Esports Users’ Motives And Satisfaction In China The Case Of League Of Legends, Qianyin Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research mainly explores the motives and satisfaction of Chinese eSports users. Due to the changing role of eSports in China this year, the attitude of Chinese society towards eSports has changed from depreciation to praise, and the identity of belonging sense of game players has become one of the motives for them to continue playing League of Legends (LOL). In addition, as a milestone in eSports field, the playability of LOL itself and its pastime and social functions as a mass media will affect the motives and satisfaction of players. This survey used online survey to investigate the satisfaction ...


Exploring The Equity Performance Of Bike-Sharing Systems With Disaggregated Data: A Story Of Southern Tampa, Zhiwei Chen Oct 2019

Exploring The Equity Performance Of Bike-Sharing Systems With Disaggregated Data: A Story Of Southern Tampa, Zhiwei Chen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The rising adoption of bike-sharing systems brings significant benefits to individuals and society as a whole. However, whether these benefits are distributed throughout society in a fair manner is still an open question. This study presents a methodological framework for assessing the equity performance of bike-sharing systems, with Coast Bike Share system in southern Tampa as a case study. The framework integrates three different datasets: bike-sharing infrastructure, individual travel itineraries and individual sociodemographic attribute data. With these datasets, we model individual accessibility to activity locations using bike-sharing as the mode of transportation by analyzing the “walking-cycling-walking” process of a bike-sharing ...


The Research On The Determinants Of Users' Willingness To Pay For Chinese Paid Sports Model Based On Use And Gratification Theory, Jing Li Oct 2019

The Research On The Determinants Of Users' Willingness To Pay For Chinese Paid Sports Model Based On Use And Gratification Theory, Jing Li

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study adopted use and gratification theory as a theoretical guide to explores the impact of individual needs, product variables, and copyright consciousness on audience’s willingness to pay in paid sports media in China. The most important part of this study was tested whether product variables act as a mediating factor and whether copyright consciousness plays as a moderating factor to influence the relationship between individual needs and willingness to pay. This quantitative study collects the data from a sample of 679 (valid N=568) Chinese adults who have some exposure or understanding of the paid sports model in ...


An Analysis Of The Language And The Relationship Of The President Of The Usa Related Twitter Accounts Toward The National Media, Sait Serif Turhan Oct 2019

An Analysis Of The Language And The Relationship Of The President Of The Usa Related Twitter Accounts Toward The National Media, Sait Serif Turhan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on the language tone of the United State of America’s presidentrelated Twitter accounts and the ways of the interaction with the national media with their tweets. The literature provides how politicians utilize and for what purposes they use Twitter. Framing theory was applied to conceptualize the manner of conveying messages and impressions of politicians toward the national media. Content analysis was utilized to analyze 902 mediarelated tweets to find out the ways of the interactions and language tone and the level of emotions in tweets of US president-related Twitter accounts with the national media during the ...


2018 China-United States Trade War: Framing Analysis Of Online News Coverage In The United States And China As Portrayed By The New York Times And The People’S Daily, Jiangling Huang Oct 2019

2018 China-United States Trade War: Framing Analysis Of Online News Coverage In The United States And China As Portrayed By The New York Times And The People’S Daily, Jiangling Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Grounded in framing theory, this thesis explores a differential study by content analysis. The 2018 China-United States trade dispute is a major event that was officially launched by the United States and attracted worldwide attention. The ongoing trade disputes have had a huge impact on the economies of the two countries and the world economy, and a large number of news media have reported and commented on the incident. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences between news reports in the two countries depicted in the New York Times and the People’s Daily. The sample comes ...


Probabilistic Modeling Of Democracy, Corruption, Hemophilia A And Prediabetes Data, A. K. M. Raquibul Bashar Sep 2019

Probabilistic Modeling Of Democracy, Corruption, Hemophilia A And Prediabetes Data, A. K. M. Raquibul Bashar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Parametric analysis of any real-world data is the most powerful tool to characterize the probabilistic behavior in social, economic, medical, epidemiological, and other areas of study. In the present study, we identify the theoretical Probability Distribution Function(PDF) for Democracy Index Scores (DIS) from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) database and estimate the maximum likelihood estimates of the theoretical PDFS. We also identify the individual PDFs for each of the clusters, Full Democracy, Flawed Democracy, Hybrid Regime, and Authoritarian Regime defined by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).

A statistical model is a convenient instrument to predict the future value of ...


Making A Case For Equity Planning In Transportation Development: Identifying Indicators And Building A Framework For Hillsborough County, Fl, Dayna J. Lazarus Jul 2019

Making A Case For Equity Planning In Transportation Development: Identifying Indicators And Building A Framework For Hillsborough County, Fl, Dayna J. Lazarus

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The idea that planners should work toward an equitable society has been part of the profession since the 1960s, largely based on the work of planning theorists like Paul Davidoff, Sherry Arnstein and Norman Krumholz. Transportation planning, however, has been slower than other sectors of the profession, such as housing, to embrace equity planning concepts. That has begun to change as concerns about income inequality, environmental justice and climate change have become more salient. This thesis makes the case that in order to improve social equity outcomes, transportation planners must make social equity an explicit goal and add social equity ...


Character Strengths Of Ninth Grade Students In Accelerated Curricula: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Hannah L. Gilfix Jul 2019

Character Strengths Of Ninth Grade Students In Accelerated Curricula: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Hannah L. Gilfix

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Students in accelerated curricula tend to have greater stress when compared to students in general education (Suldo, Shaunessy, & Hardesty, 2008). It is important for stakeholders to be able to help these students reach their goals and attain happiness. One potential method to help these students is to attend to their character strengths. People who effectively utilize their character strengths have achieved numerous positive outcomes including greater levels of well-being, self-esteem, and positive affect (Proctor, Malby, & Linley, 2011; Quinlan, Swain, Cameron, & Vella-Brodrick, 2014; Wood, Linley, Maltby, Kashan, & Hurling, 2011). Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on students’ strengths, and there is no research looking specifically at the strengths of students in accelerated curricula. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining the character strengths of students in accelerated curricula. Participants included 253 ninth-grade students in accelerated curricula, specifically enrolled in Advanced Placement (AP) classes or a pre-International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma program. A mixed-method design was utilized. For the quantitative ...


Assessing The Effectiveness Of Antecedent And Consequent Interventions To Enhance Sports Performance, Merritt Schenk Jul 2019

Assessing The Effectiveness Of Antecedent And Consequent Interventions To Enhance Sports Performance, Merritt Schenk

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sports research in behavior analysis is becoming increasingly popular. As the proliferation of research continues, multiple interventions have been shown to help enhance sports-related performance. However, different intervention components are rarely if ever used alone, which has created a limitation with the current body of research. To begin to address this limitation, this study had three experiments to evaluate some different components of video recording procedures and behavioral skills training (BST) to facilitate performance enhancement. Experiment 1 separated video modeling and video feedback to see which component best improved pitching form in Little League baseball players. Experiment 2 evaluated video ...


Ethnic Identity As A Protective Factor In Early Adolescent Youth Depression: An Investigation Of Differences By Race And Gender, Leah Bonilla Jul 2019

Ethnic Identity As A Protective Factor In Early Adolescent Youth Depression: An Investigation Of Differences By Race And Gender, Leah Bonilla

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent mental illness is a major concern in the Unites States. The adolescent stage is a critical developmental period of physical and mental changes, thus it is important to understand protective factors associated with positive wellbeing. The current study aimed to explore: (a) the associations among race, gender, ethnic identity, and depressive symptoms among eighth grade adolescents, (b) to what extent are there differences in degree of depressive symptoms among youth based on race and gender, and (c) to what extent a strong sense of ethnic identity serves as a protective factor against the development of depression among youth with ...


Validating The Construct Of Resiliency In The Health Literacy And Resiliency Scale (Hlrs-Y) With The Child And Youth Resiliency Measure (Cyrm-28), Mercedes N. Cambric Jul 2019

Validating The Construct Of Resiliency In The Health Literacy And Resiliency Scale (Hlrs-Y) With The Child And Youth Resiliency Measure (Cyrm-28), Mercedes N. Cambric

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chronic health conditions in youth have increased over the last several decades. It is estimated that within the United States there are between 15% to 18% of youth who are living with a chronic health condition (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). The CDC defines a chronic health condition as an illness that lasts for three months or longer that can be managed, but not cured (CDC, 2010). Although there is some research on youth living with chronic illnesses, there are minimal studies that assess the constructs of health literacy, resiliency, and support/advocacy within this population. The ...


For The Common Defense: The Evolution Of National Security Strategy-Making Institutions & Impact On American Grand Strategy, Nathan D. Barrick Jul 2019

For The Common Defense: The Evolution Of National Security Strategy-Making Institutions & Impact On American Grand Strategy, Nathan D. Barrick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation applies a Neoclassical Realism model to examine how the evolution of United States (U.S.) national security strategy-making institutions has resulted in a path dependent accrual of autonomy and increasing influence over the formulation of American grand strategy. Once U.S. national security strategy-making institutions were created, their existence inexorably led to increasing autonomy, the creation of new strategy-making institutions, and subtle influence in shaping American grand strategy by preferential focus on a militarized foreign policy. Additionally, the more autonomous these strategy-making institutions have become, the further they have strayed from the Constitutional mandate to create a government ...


Bystander Intervention, Victimization, And Routine Activities Theory: An Examination Of Feminist Routine Activities Theory In Cyber Space, Jennifer A. Leili Jul 2019

Bystander Intervention, Victimization, And Routine Activities Theory: An Examination Of Feminist Routine Activities Theory In Cyber Space, Jennifer A. Leili

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Routine Activities Theory (RAT) is one of the most widely used theories to explain victimization. It has been applied to a wide range of criminal victimizations, such as property crimes (Miethe, Stafford, & Long, 1987) and urban murder (Messner & Tardiff, 1985). While traditional RAT has been used to explain violence against women, the feminist perspective of RAT developed by Schwartz and Pitts (1995) provides a better explanation by incorporating cultural factors that shape the conditions that give rise to offending. The current study draws on feminist RAT in order to explore three different types of victimization involving women: stalking, dating violence ...


Examining The Effect Of Context On Responses To Social Interaction, Renee R. Hangartner Jul 2019

Examining The Effect Of Context On Responses To Social Interaction, Renee R. Hangartner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The ambiguous nature of social interactions between coeds may lead to under reporting of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment has been studied using mostly cross-sectional methods for over 30 years. However, despite decades of research, prevalence rates of sexual harassment have been found to vary considerably across and within studies. This inconsistency in findings makes drawing conclusions about the prevalence of sexual harassment challenging. Thus, the focus of the field should shift to identifying what behaviors are perceived to be sexual harassment and how that perception may vary by context. To reduce the ambiguity surrounding the labeling of an interaction as ...