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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

An Examination Of Non-Waged Labor And Local Food Movement Growth In The Southern Appalachians, Amy Kathryn Marion Jul 2019

An Examination Of Non-Waged Labor And Local Food Movement Growth In The Southern Appalachians, Amy Kathryn Marion

Dissertations and Theses

Farmers have traditionally depended on their families or paid employees to cover their extensive labor needs. Today, non-waged labor models are gaining popularity, especially among small, ecologically-oriented farms. Apprenticeships and internships can be a primary form of training for a population of new and beginning farmers, many of whom are entering the field without farming backgrounds. However, many question the sustainability and justness of these arrangements. As a new phenomenon, very little research examines the relationship between non-waged labor models like agricultural apprenticeships and alternative food movements. In this exploratory study, I surveyed nearly 250 farmers growing for local markets ...


Making Imaginaries: Identity, Value, And Place In The Maker Movement In Detroit And Portland, Stephen Joseph Marotta Jun 2019

Making Imaginaries: Identity, Value, And Place In The Maker Movement In Detroit And Portland, Stephen Joseph Marotta

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation explores the maker economy and culture in Detroit, MI and Portland, OR and queries the "Made in Place" branding strategy that relies so heavily on a shared imagination of cities, identities, and values. Bridging the gap between urban economic development, political economy, and affect theory, this dissertation is centrally concerned with how imagination works as a commons and how such "imaginaries" shape each city's milieu of small, entrepreneurial, artisanal producers ("makers"). The constituent elements of "Made in" branding " made" and "place" suggest common understandings of each; this sense of coherence is critical for how value is added ...


Can Churches Change A Neighborhood? A Census Tract, Multilevel Analysis Of Churches And Neighborhood Change, David E. Kresta May 2019

Can Churches Change A Neighborhood? A Census Tract, Multilevel Analysis Of Churches And Neighborhood Change, David E. Kresta

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines the role of local churches in neighborhood change, analyzing the relationship between Christian churches and changes in household median incomes from 1990 to 2010 in the census tract in which each church is located. Based on a nationally representative sample of churches from 2006 and 2012, the study uses hierarchical linear modeling and statistical matching techniques to analyze how key church characteristics such as social service involvement, social capital generation, residential patterns of attendees, and demographic composition are related to changes in neighborhoods. Two primary research questions were addressed: 1) How have patterns of church location changed ...


The Influence Of Shared Mobility And Transportation Policies On Vehicle Ownership: Analysis Of Multifamily Residents In Portland, Oregon, Edgar Bertini Ruas Mar 2019

The Influence Of Shared Mobility And Transportation Policies On Vehicle Ownership: Analysis Of Multifamily Residents In Portland, Oregon, Edgar Bertini Ruas

Dissertations and Theses

Since the beginning of the 21st Century, the world has seen the rapid development of the so-called "sharing economy" or collaborative consumption (Botsman, 2010). One of the first areas affected by the shared economy is vehicle ownership. With the emergence of several new providers of mobility services, such as Uber and car2go, there has been the promise of changes to the traditional way of owning and using a vehicle (Wong, Hensher, & Mulley, 2017). One potential consequence of shared mobility services is the reduction in vehicle ownership. At the same time, cities are trying to anticipate these changes by reducing the ...


Scientists, Uncertainty And Nature, An Analysis Of The Development, Implementation And Unintended Consequences Of The Northwest Forest Plan, Gilbert David Miller Feb 2019

Scientists, Uncertainty And Nature, An Analysis Of The Development, Implementation And Unintended Consequences Of The Northwest Forest Plan, Gilbert David Miller

Dissertations and Theses

The conflict in the Pacific Northwest between competing visions of how federal forests should be managed resulted in a political stalemate in the early 1990s. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was initiated to resolve the demands for maintaining ecosystem processes and biological diversity with the social and economic needs for timber harvest. The foundation for the plan rested with the development of ecosystem management. The intent of this research is to explore the events which led up to the adoption of the NWFP, how it was implemented by the US Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management and the subsequent ...


The Role Of The Academic Analyst In Shared Governance, Rebecca Ann Mathern Nov 2018

The Role Of The Academic Analyst In Shared Governance, Rebecca Ann Mathern

Dissertations and Theses

This research explores the roles of academic professionals in higher education, specific to how they engage in decision-making processes. Academic professionals provide important functions in higher education work but there is little in the literature about these actors and their contributions to leadership and governance. A literature review triangulated role theory, organization theory, and the shared-governance field of study to bring together actors within higher education and compare their involvement based on the shared-governance model in operation at different institutions. The researcher introduced the hypothesis that when registrars are not involved in curriculum management, there may be negative effects on ...


Identifying Criteria To Predict Army Rifle Marksmanship Proficiency, Katlin Makina Anglin Sep 2018

Identifying Criteria To Predict Army Rifle Marksmanship Proficiency, Katlin Makina Anglin

Dissertations and Theses

The United States Army requires each Soldier to develop marksmanship proficiency in an effort to achieve combat readiness. Soldiers currently develop marksmanship proficiency through Basic Rifle Marksmanship (BRM) training, but significant skill deficiencies are apparent at the end of training. These skill deficiencies remain throughout training because instructors rarely assess Soldiers objectively before the final qualification, reducing the opportunity for instructors to diagnose skill deficiencies until it is too late. Therefore, the goal of the current research is to identify individual differences and sensor-based performance measures for inclusion in a formative assessment during BRM training. The results of the current ...


Environmental Justice In Natural Disaster Mitigation Policy And Planning: A Case Study Of Flood Risk Management In Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon, Seong Yun Cho Jul 2018

Environmental Justice In Natural Disaster Mitigation Policy And Planning: A Case Study Of Flood Risk Management In Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon, Seong Yun Cho

Dissertations and Theses

This study aims to explore the possibility of environmental justice as social consensus and an institutional framework to reduce socioeconomic differences in natural disaster vulnerability through a case study of flood risk management in Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon. First, by analyzing institutions, policies, and currently ongoing flood mitigation projects, this study investigates how federal and local governments are addressing and responding to current flood problems. Second, through flood expert surveys and GIS spatial analysis, this study examines various factors that contribute to communities' susceptibility to flood risks, and whether there exist spatial differences between physically and socioeconomically vulnerable communities within ...


Between A Rock And A Hot Place: Economic Development And Climate Change Adaptation In Vietnam, Khanh Katherine Pham Jul 2018

Between A Rock And A Hot Place: Economic Development And Climate Change Adaptation In Vietnam, Khanh Katherine Pham

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis explores 1) the ways that three Vietnamese infrastructure development projects undermine their cities' climate change adaptation goals and 2) the political and economic forces driving these developments. In-depth interviews highlight four main perspectives of planners and decision makers, which explain why these infrastructure projects often undermine cities' climate resilience goals. I describe how the mainstream climate change adaptation planning approach, with its emphasis on participatory planning, good governance and green growth, implicitly reinforces the neoliberal growth model, even as it seeks to ameliorate the inequality and ecological destruction that such a growth model creates. My research reveals how ...


Utilitarian Skateboarding: Insight Into An Emergent Mode Of Mobility, Michael Joseph Harpool Jul 2018

Utilitarian Skateboarding: Insight Into An Emergent Mode Of Mobility, Michael Joseph Harpool

Dissertations and Theses

In recent years research and planning efforts to enhance the conditions and opportunities for active transportation modes have increased significantly; however, these efforts have primarily focused on pedestrians and bicyclists. Skateboarding and other alternative modes of mobility remain an untapped potential for healthy and sustainable travel. This research addresses numerous knowledge gaps in the literature on utilitarian skateboarding under the larger umbrella of active transportation. Analysis of online survey results and semi-structured interviews with skateboarders in Portland, OR provides insight into the motivations and barriers of traveling by skateboard and the demographics and perceptions of skateboard commuters. Like bicyclists and ...


Building Climate Empire: Power, Authority, And Knowledge Within Pacific Islands Climate Change Diplomacy And Governance Networks, Ashlie Denée Denton Jun 2018

Building Climate Empire: Power, Authority, And Knowledge Within Pacific Islands Climate Change Diplomacy And Governance Networks, Ashlie Denée Denton

Dissertations and Theses

Transnational networks are growing in prevalence and importance as states, nongovernmental, and intergovernmental organizations seek to meet climate change goals; yet, the organizations in these networks struggle between the global, technical and local, contextual sources of power, authority, and knowledge used to influence decision-making and governance. This dissertation analyzes these contestations in Pacific Islands climate change diplomacy and governance efforts by asking: i) What do power relations look like among the Pacific Islands' networked organizations? ii) To what authority do organizations appeal to access sources of power? iii) What sources of knowledge are produced and reproduced by these organizations? and ...


The Dynamic Returns Of Descriptive Representation: A Study Of Race, Politics And Policy In Urban Governments, Stephanie Taylor Hawke Jun 2018

The Dynamic Returns Of Descriptive Representation: A Study Of Race, Politics And Policy In Urban Governments, Stephanie Taylor Hawke

Dissertations and Theses

In 2015, 78% of Detroit's city council was African American--the highest percentage in the country. For decades, there had been an assumption in the academic and activist fields that a legislative body with such a high percentage of minority presence would produce incredible policy gains for that group (i.e. African American Detroiters). Instead, the council passed no Black racial policy. In a city where there were ostensibly no barriers for passing racial policy -- there were no subsequent policy gains. Though running contrary to existing scholarship, Detroit is not an anomaly; it is an indicator of the larger trend ...


Rates Of Developmental And Behavioral Screening Of Young Children: Implications For Health Care Policy And Practice, Shirley Berger May 2018

Rates Of Developmental And Behavioral Screening Of Young Children: Implications For Health Care Policy And Practice, Shirley Berger

Dissertations and Theses

Background: The skills and capacities developed during early childhood are the foundation for a child’s future academic functioning, economic productivity, and lifelong health and mental health. When young children have developmental delays or disabilities, early identification and intervention lead to better outcomes; however, only a minority are identified before school entry. Primary care is an important setting for identification of developmental and behavioral conditions as most young children attend well-child visits regularly and parents expect developmental guidance from pediatricians. Two key pediatric preventive services are recommended: developmental monitoring/surveillance at every well-child visit and developmental screening at 9 months ...


India's Economic Growth: Role Of Political Performance And Gender Wage Gap, Rajeev Indira Nagaraju May 2018

India's Economic Growth: Role Of Political Performance And Gender Wage Gap, Rajeev Indira Nagaraju

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation will explore how gender wage gap and political capacity represented by relative political extraction affect change in economic growth rate of a country. The main argument of the study is that gender wage gap is affecting the labor market by discouraging productive female labor force from entering the labor market. This in turn affects the efficiency and productivity of the labor market reflected in negative economic growth or economic growth potential being compromised. Here the case of Indian economy is examined. The important policy implication of this study is that it could account for the wage differential between ...


Urban Geocomputation: Two Studies On Urban Form And Its Role In Altering Climate, Jackson Lee Voelkel Mar 2018

Urban Geocomputation: Two Studies On Urban Form And Its Role In Altering Climate, Jackson Lee Voelkel

Dissertations and Theses

Our climate and our cities are changing. Though their changes are not completely dependent upon one another, there is still a coupling effect between them. This study assesses the role of urban form as it pertains to elements of climate change. It is comprised of two essays intended for publication. The first of these essays addresses the feedbacks between urban form, energy consumption, and rising global temperatures. The second essay looks at one particular factor of urban form--tree type--as it pertains to air pollution and urban heat island mitigation. Both papers use the analytical approaches necessary to answer the questions ...


The Impact Of The Refugee Crisis On The European Union, Andreea Elena Galan Mar 2018

The Impact Of The Refugee Crisis On The European Union, Andreea Elena Galan

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to focus on the impact of the influx of refugees on the European Union taking into consideration the challenges, threats and opportunities that arise from this persistent crisis. The examination of the above-mentioned issue presents and analyzed pertinent findings derived from the relevant literature in the field, ranging from diverse case studies, public statistics, data of European Union institutions as well as NGO's, associations and other entities that have addressed issues of human rights and refugee integration in European Union countries. The thesis discloses how this complex matter, referred to as the "current ...


The Antecedents Of Local Government Service Delivery Under Crisis Conditions: The Case Of Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, Sirisak Laochankham Mar 2018

The Antecedents Of Local Government Service Delivery Under Crisis Conditions: The Case Of Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, Sirisak Laochankham

Dissertations and Theses

The aim of this research is to understand local service delivery in Thailand's post-2006 national political crisis. The researcher collected qualitative data in four municipalities in Khon Kaen Province. The analytical framework covered five moderating variables: political institutions, civic engagement, political leadership, governance, and political economy. The results were mixed. Local service delivery suffered from weakening electoral mechanisms, suspended local autonomy, weakened civic participation and policy networks, insecure local administrators, worsened central-local trust, and the detrimental effect on local economies. However, there were opportunities for improved, or maintained, local service delivery through the lessening of administrative procedures, a fast-track ...


Recent Advances In Activity-Based Travel Demand Models For Greater Flexibility, Kihong Kim Feb 2018

Recent Advances In Activity-Based Travel Demand Models For Greater Flexibility, Kihong Kim

Dissertations and Theses

Most existing activity-based travel demand models are implemented in a tour-based microsimulation framework. Due to the significant computational and data storage benefits, the demand microsimulation allows a greater amount of flexibility in terms of demographic market segmentation, temporal scale, and spatial resolution, and thus the models can represent a wider range of travel behavior aspects associated with various policies and scenarios. This dissertation proposes three innovative methodologies, one for each of the three key dimensions, to fulfill the greater level of details toward a more mature state of activity-based travel demand models.


Modeling The Co-Production Of Public Sector Innovation: Strategic Dimensions Of Organizational Innovation Within The Public Maritime Ports Of The Pacific Northwest, Christopher R. Davis Jan 2018

Modeling The Co-Production Of Public Sector Innovation: Strategic Dimensions Of Organizational Innovation Within The Public Maritime Ports Of The Pacific Northwest, Christopher R. Davis

Dissertations and Theses

Innovation is vital to employing resources in times when the complexity and the demand for public goods and services strain organizational capacities. While innovation in the private sector is the subject of intense academic interest, the study of this phenomenon in the public sector pales in comparison. This is troubling because innovation is an important tool for overcoming resource limitations that plague the public sector. This dissertation's unique contribution to the field is the creation and empirical validation of a model that explains and predicts the co-production of public sector innovation. The model explains the causal mechanism of innovation ...


Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: Seeking A Peaceful Solution, Aaron Marcus Homer Jan 2018

Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: Seeking A Peaceful Solution, Aaron Marcus Homer

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of those dispute settlement mechanisms that are capable of resolving the Guyana-Venezuela border dispute. This thesis will analyze those legal principles and/or techniques of the International Court of Justice, mediation and the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which are indispensable for dispute resolution. I argue that a resolution is significant for the stability of the international community.

Guyana and Venezuela possess economic and political interests in the disputed Essequibo region. Venezuela’s predilection for bilateral negotiations contradicts Guyana’s request for a judicial solution. These extreme positions are ...


An Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Post 9/11 Security Policy In Countering Violent Extremism And Reducing Acts Of International Terrorism, Omaima Khan Jan 2018

An Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Post 9/11 Security Policy In Countering Violent Extremism And Reducing Acts Of International Terrorism, Omaima Khan

Dissertations and Theses

Terrorism is a phenomenon that baffles even the most experienced of researchers within academia. Understanding what constitutes terrorism is important to the field of international relations because combatting terrorist violence yields no straightforward method of prevention and protection. This paper examines four measures of counterterrorism taken by the U.S. government after the September 11th attacks. The methods included in this study and the framework in which they are congruent with are: The War on Terror as a defense strategy, torture and “enhanced interrogation techniques” as a deterrence method, targeted drone attacks in Pakistan and Afghanistan as a compellence ...


Responsible Pet Ownership: Dog Parks And Demographic Change In Portland, Oregon, Matthew Harris Dec 2017

Responsible Pet Ownership: Dog Parks And Demographic Change In Portland, Oregon, Matthew Harris

Dissertations and Theses

Dog parks are the fastest growing type of park in U.S. cities; however, their increasing popularity has been met with increasing criticism of pets in public space. Dogs have shown to be a deep source of neighborhood conflict, and the provision of dog parks, or off-leash areas, is a seemingly intractable controversy for city officials. In 2003, Portland, Oregon established a network of 33 off-leash areas which remains the second largest both in count and per capita in the country. The purpose of my research is to understand the public debate over off leash dogs during the establishment of ...


Exploring The Determinants Of Vulnerable Road Users' Crash Severity In State Roads, Àlvaro Alfonso Caviedes Cómbita Dec 2017

Exploring The Determinants Of Vulnerable Road Users' Crash Severity In State Roads, Àlvaro Alfonso Caviedes Cómbita

Dissertations and Theses

Pedestrians and bicyclists are the most vulnerable road users and suffer the most severe consequences when crashes take place. An extensive literature is available for crash severity in terms of driver safety, but fewer studies have explored non-motorized users' crash severity. Furthermore, most research efforts have examined pedestrian and bicyclist crash severity in urban areas. This study focuses on state roads (mostly outside major urban areas) and aims to identify contributing risk factors of fatal and severe crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists in state roads. Two ordinal regression models were developed (one for pedestrian and the other for bicyclist crashes ...


Utilizing High-Resolution Archived Transit Data To Study Before-And-After Travel-Speed And Travel-Time Conditions, Travis Bradley Glick Dec 2017

Utilizing High-Resolution Archived Transit Data To Study Before-And-After Travel-Speed And Travel-Time Conditions, Travis Bradley Glick

Dissertations and Theses

Travel times, operating speeds, and service reliability influence costs and service attractiveness. This paper outlines an approach to quantify how these metrics change after a modification of roadway design or transit routes using archived transit data. The Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet), Portland's public transportation provider, archives automatic vehicle location (AVL) data for all buses as part of their bus dispatch system (BDS). This research combines three types of AVL data (stop event, stop disturbance, and high-resolution) to create a detailed account of transit behavior; this probe data gives insights into the behavior of transit as well ...


Assessing The Impact Of Land Use And Travel On Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Portland, Oregon, Zakari Mumuni Nov 2017

Assessing The Impact Of Land Use And Travel On Carbon Dioxide Emissions In Portland, Oregon, Zakari Mumuni

Dissertations and Theses

The negative consequences of sprawling metropolitan regions have attracted attention in both academia and in practice regarding how to better design settlements and alter travel behavior in a quest to curtail vehicle emissions. Studies that have attempted to understand the nexus between land use, travel and vehicle emissions have not been able to address the issue of self-selection in a satisfactory manner. Self-selection occurs when households choose their residential location based, in part, on expected travel behavior. This non-random experience makes the use of traditional regression frameworks that strongly rely on random sampling, unsuitable. This replication study's purpose was ...


Nonprofit Hospital Community Benefit Requirements: An Exploration Of National Health Policy Models, Justin P. Swearingen Sep 2017

Nonprofit Hospital Community Benefit Requirements: An Exploration Of National Health Policy Models, Justin P. Swearingen

Dissertations and Theses

Introduction: Nonprofit hospital organizations are public charities with complete tax immunity. Such exemptions are worth $24.6 billion and impact the health of hundreds of millions of people, yet what these charities must do to meet the current “community benefit standard” to maintain their tax-exempt status remains a policy debate. To help inform policymaking, an evaluation of four national requirement models was performed: Tax Value Requirement (at least the value of the tax exemptions must be spent on community benefit), Grassley Requirement (at least 5% of revenue must be spent on community benefit), Expense Requirement (at least 3% of expenses ...


Identifying Clusters Of Non-Farm Activity Within Exclusive Farm Use Zones In The Northern Willamette Valley, Nicholas Chun Sep 2017

Identifying Clusters Of Non-Farm Activity Within Exclusive Farm Use Zones In The Northern Willamette Valley, Nicholas Chun

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis provides an extensive look at where permitted non-farm uses and dwellings have clustered within Exclusive Farm Use (EFU) zones in the Northern Willamette Valley in Oregon. There is a looming concern that non-farm related uses and dwellings, or non-farm development, are conflicting with agricultural preservation strategies. Specifically, non-farm developments can potentially undermine the critical mass of farmland needed to keep the agricultural economy sustainable, but until now, studies have lacked spatially precise data to systematically track these phenomena. This thesis offers methodological contributions towards analyzing these operations and presents a broad account of what has been occurring in ...


The Function Of Religion In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Stephanie Claire Mitchell Sep 2017

The Function Of Religion In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Stephanie Claire Mitchell

Dissertations and Theses

The role of religion in politics has been rising to the forefront of history in the Middle East for a number of decades and more so since 9/11, raising significant questions as to whether religion functions as a catalyst for conflict or peace. This thesis focuses specifically on the role of religion in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the manner in which actors incorporate religion into their national politics. In doing so, the inquiry focuses on the proponents of religion on both the Jewish and the Palestinian sides in addressing a) territorial rights, b) interpretations in the use of deadly ...


"Are We Building Biking Solidarity": Gendered, Racial, And Spatial Barriers To Bicycling In Portland, Oregon, Kyla Jean Tompkins Aug 2017

"Are We Building Biking Solidarity": Gendered, Racial, And Spatial Barriers To Bicycling In Portland, Oregon, Kyla Jean Tompkins

Dissertations and Theses

Although Portland, Oregon is widely regarded as a "bike friendly" city, its bike equity remains in question. This thesis explores the barriers to biking that women and people of color face in Portland. This research uses feminist geography scholarship to understand how cycling spaces are unequal for marginalized cyclists. Using data from 28 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with infrequent and marginalized cyclists, I found that gender and race inequalities shape their barriers to biking. A hegemonic white, elite, and masculine bike culture controls the domination of cycling spaces. Women's gendered spatial inequalities are shaped by their childrearing demands, geography of ...


Holocaust, Memory, Second-Generation, And Conflict Resolution, Leslie O'Donoghue Aug 2017

Holocaust, Memory, Second-Generation, And Conflict Resolution, Leslie O'Donoghue

Dissertations and Theses

Ten Jewish second-generation men and women from metro Portland, Oregon were interviewed regarding growing up in the aftermath of the Holocaust. The American-born participants ranged in age from fifty-one to sixty-four years of age at the time of the interviews. Though the parents were deceased at the time of this study the working definition of a Holocaust survivor parent included those individuals who had been refugees or interned in a ghetto, labor camp, concentration camp, or extermination camp as a direct result of the Nazi Regime in Europe from 1933 to 1945.

A descriptive phenomenological approach was utilized. Eight open-ended ...