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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Behavioral And Electrophysiological Effects Of Discrimination And Inhibition Training On Visual Selective Attention: An Erp And Time-Frequency Analysis, Arooj Abid Jan 2018

The Behavioral And Electrophysiological Effects Of Discrimination And Inhibition Training On Visual Selective Attention: An Erp And Time-Frequency Analysis, Arooj Abid

Dissertations and Theses

Enhancement of task relevant information and the suppression of task irrelevant information are the two co-occurring mechanisms of selective attention. Studies have shown that ERP components (specifically N2, P3, and RP) and the alpha band (8-14 Hz) rhythm correspond to neural mechanisms and processes of visual selective attention, especially conflict resolution. Tested by a modified version of the visual flanker task, a conflict task employing inhibitory control, two groups of healthy adults were exposed to three weeks of cognitive training; either discrimination training (trained to discriminate target orientation) or inhibition training (trained to ignore interfering distractors) to investigate whether training ...


A Girl Power Study: Looking And Listening To The Role Of Emotions And Relationality In Developing Critical Consciousness, Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman Jun 2014

A Girl Power Study: Looking And Listening To The Role Of Emotions And Relationality In Developing Critical Consciousness, Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman

Dissertations and Theses

The concept of critical consciousness centers on the capacity for involvement in social change efforts. Its development has been the aim of many recent social movements (e.g., the consciousness raising groups of the women's movement). In this work, critical consciousness is defined as the highest level of socio-political-cultural (SPC) consciousness development. SPC consciousness is characterized by the linking of the personal and the political so that structures and discourses of oppression are not only understood but also lead to critical action and transforming relations of domination. Additionally, critical consciousness includes the ability to tolerate ambivalence and conflict as ...


Pathology And Motivation In Players Of Grand Theft Auto Iv, Christopher M. Via Apr 2014

Pathology And Motivation In Players Of Grand Theft Auto Iv, Christopher M. Via

Dissertations and Theses

Intrinsically motivated behavior is defined as a behavior that is performed for pure enjoyment (Ryan, Rigby & Przybylski, 2006). Video game playing is a form of intrinsically motivated behavior (Frederick & Ryan, 1995). Popular media commonly claims the act of playing video games leads individuals to behave in deviant and antisocial ways outside the confines of the gaming environment (Grossman & Christensen, 2008). Psychopathy is a primary feature of Antisocial Personality Disorder, according to the American Psychiatric Association (2013), and psychopathic criminals commit the greatest variety of crimes and more crimes of any type than the average criminal (Lynam, Whiteside & Jones, 1999,). The ...


Attachment And Adolescent Offending: An Examination Of The Links Between Sexually Abusive Behavior And The Level Of Attachment To Parents And Peers, Lee Anna Knox Mar 2014

Attachment And Adolescent Offending: An Examination Of The Links Between Sexually Abusive Behavior And The Level Of Attachment To Parents And Peers, Lee Anna Knox

Dissertations and Theses

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a public health problem with consequences affecting all levels of the ecological model. In recent years it has been recognized that up to 40% of reported sexual offenses occur at the hands of adolescent offenders (Burton, 2000), who are defined as children aged 12-18 years. In recent years, research has suggested that attachment deficits contribute to sexual offending behavior in adolescence. The current study augments the sparse research with adolescent offenders and by exploring of the participant's perceived attachment to important others (mother/mother figures, father/father figures, and peers/friends). Participants ...


Investigation Of Videogame Flow: Effects Of Expertise And Challenge, Jolie G. Gascon Jul 2013

Investigation Of Videogame Flow: Effects Of Expertise And Challenge, Jolie G. Gascon

Dissertations and Theses

The number of participants in this expertise and videogame flow test totaled 80 from multiple target locations. Participants engaged in various levels of the videogame SuperMario Bros. Twenty experts and twenty novices experienced the easier level of World 1-2 while the other twenty experts and novices were exposed to the more difficult level World 6-1. After gameplay, participants completed a modified survey measuring flow. This survey, along with overall percentage game score, was analyzed. A significant interaction was found between game level (challenge level) and skill levels in perceived immersion, with significant main effects for expertise in perceived skill, for ...


Time Perception During Retrospective And Prospective Paradigms With A Distraction, Kristi L. Lontz Jul 2013

Time Perception During Retrospective And Prospective Paradigms With A Distraction, Kristi L. Lontz

Dissertations and Theses

Time duration estimates can play an intricate part of one's daily life. This study examined the time duration judgments in two paradigms, when participants were aware they were being timed (prospective) and when they were unaware they were being timed (retrospective). Furthermore, this study investigated the effect of an external stimulus, when an auditory stimulus was used, to determine the effect, if any, between both of these paradigms. To ensure the participants were engaged in a task, a simulation was used that required several tasks to be completed. To ensure the participants were engaged in the simulation, the performance ...


The Effects Of Sensor Performance As Modeled By Signal Detection Theory On The Performance Of Reinforcement Learning In A Target Acquisition Task, Nate Quirion Jul 2013

The Effects Of Sensor Performance As Modeled By Signal Detection Theory On The Performance Of Reinforcement Learning In A Target Acquisition Task, Nate Quirion

Dissertations and Theses

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) today are fulfilling more roles than ever before. There is a general push to have these systems feature more advanced autonomous capabilities in the near future. To achieve autonomous behavior requires some unique approaches to control and decision making. More advanced versions of these approaches are able to adapt their own behavior and examine their past experiences to increase their future mission performance. To achieve adaptive behavior and decision making capabilities this study used Reinforcement Learning algorithms. In this research the effects of sensor performance, as modeled through Signal Detection Theory (SDT), on the ability of ...


The Effects Of Acute Psychosocial Stress On Cognitive Performance, Anne I.S. Gray Jul 2013

The Effects Of Acute Psychosocial Stress On Cognitive Performance, Anne I.S. Gray

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute psychosocial stress on cognitive performance. Psychosocial stress evolves from the perceived presence of a social evaluative threat and results in the activation of the home hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. As part of this reaction the stress hormone cortisol is secreted into the blood stream, ultimately crossing the blood-brain barrier, where it can have profound effects on various aspects of cognition. A review of the literature reveals that that attention, working memory, spatial judgment and cognitive processing efficiency are particularly susceptible to stress induced changes in performance level. A test battery ...


A Naturalistic Study Of Long-Term Working Memory Capacity For Meaningful Visual And Auditory Stimuli, Joseph M. Jaworski Apr 2013

A Naturalistic Study Of Long-Term Working Memory Capacity For Meaningful Visual And Auditory Stimuli, Joseph M. Jaworski

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to explore long-term working memory in experts in an information-rich, dynamic domain. Of particular interest were strategies experts use to enhance long-term working memory capacity when working with verbal versus aural information. Three air traffic control instructors participated in four complex air traffic control scenarios, two radar scenarios in which information was presented visually and two non-radar scenarios in which information presentation was purely aural. Participants recalled traffic situation information at two points during and at the end of each scenario. Recall data for each scenario type were assessed in terms of evidence about ...


Spatial Cognition Differences Between Men And Women In Spatial Cue Environments During Flight Simulation, Heidi Crystal Kim Apr 2013

Spatial Cognition Differences Between Men And Women In Spatial Cue Environments During Flight Simulation, Heidi Crystal Kim

Dissertations and Theses

Ground reference maneuvers are an important component of pilot training. In order to perform these maneuvers, pilots rely on cues from the environment to determine where their aircraft is in relation to objects on the ground. This process requires a high degree of spatial cognition, which refers to the cognitive processes used to orient oneself in space. Two factors that can influence spatial cognition in the context of aviation ground reference maneuvers are the availability of spatial cues and the biological sex of the pilot. Research suggests spatial cues aid in the identification of potentially dangerous objects. In the context ...


Pre-Exposure Training As A Means To Reduce Vection Induced Symptoms Of Motion Sickness, Nicholas James Stapleton Mar 2013

Pre-Exposure Training As A Means To Reduce Vection Induced Symptoms Of Motion Sickness, Nicholas James Stapleton

Dissertations and Theses

The focus of this study was designed to empirically examine the effect of inducing mild motion sickness as an ameliorative to a more severe motion sickness exposure. Twenty-seven participants were selected for this study based upon their susceptibility to motion sickness, that is, only people who were determined to be motion susceptible were tested. All participants were exposed to a motion sickness-inducing environment. Eighteen participants were trained to adapt to motion sickness by exposure to a milder motion sickness-inducing environment, ending either 6 hours or 24 hours prior to the more severe motion test environment.

Participants during the pre-exposure experimental ...


Effects Of Oxygen Deprivation On Pilot Performance And Cognitive Processing Skills: A Pilot Study, David Francis Shideler Aug 2012

Effects Of Oxygen Deprivation On Pilot Performance And Cognitive Processing Skills: A Pilot Study, David Francis Shideler

Dissertations and Theses

According to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations, pilots flying above 14,000 ft. are required to use supplemental oxygen. The purpose of this study was to examine how oxygen deprivation below 14,000 ft. affects pilot performance using the Frasca Mentor Advanced Aviation Training Device (AATD), and cognitive processing skills using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM(TM)) cognitive test. The study was conducted in a Normobaric High Altitude Laboratory at simulated altitudes of 5,000 ft. and 14,000 ft. In this pilot study, only five participants were tested; non-significant results of the analysis were anticipated; however, as oxygen ...


Exploration Of Sensemaking In The Education Of Novices To The Complex Cognitive Work Domain Of Air Traffic Control, Travis J. Wiltshire Jul 2012

Exploration Of Sensemaking In The Education Of Novices To The Complex Cognitive Work Domain Of Air Traffic Control, Travis J. Wiltshire

Dissertations and Theses

Many current complex business and industry jobs consist primarily of cognitive work; however, current approaches to training may be inadequate for this type of work (Hoffman, Feltovich, Fiore, Klein, & Ziebell, 2009). To try and improve training and education for cognitive work, Klein and Baxter (2006) have proposed cognitive transformation theory (CTT), a learning theory that claims that sensemaking activities are essential for acquiring expertise that is adaptive and thus well suited for cognitive work domains. In the present research, cognitive task analysis methods were used to identify and assess sensemaking support in the instruction and learning of complex concepts by two experienced air traffic control professors and seven of their students. The goal of this research was to compare instructional strategies used in an academic setting with the predictions of CTT to gain insight into strategies for the application of CTT. Cognitive task analysis methods employed included course observation, artifact examination, and knowledge elicitation sessions with two professors and seven of their students. Knowledge elicitation transcriptions were coded using categories derived from CTT and the data/frame theory of sensemaking (e.g. Klein, Moon, & Hoffman, 2006; Sieck, Klein, Peluso, Smith, & Harris-Thompson, 2007) to assess theoretical and applied implications for learning and instruction in a complex domain. Findings are represented by synthesizing theory driven predictions with grounded training strategies and technologies. In addition, recommendations are advanced for applying CTT to training and educational systems in order to provide sensemaking support during early phases of learning from which expertise may be developed.


The Effects Of Expertise And Information Location On Change Blindness Detection Within An Aviation Domain, Dinorah Zárate Jul 2012

The Effects Of Expertise And Information Location On Change Blindness Detection Within An Aviation Domain, Dinorah Zárate

Dissertations and Theses

Change blindness is a phenomenon where the viewer fails to detect change in an object or scene during a visual disturbance. During a flight, a pilot samples multiple displays for information about the task at hand. It is imperative that the changes in the displays are being correctly viewed by pilots to ensure a safe flight. However, it is unknown how much change blindness affects pilots or if pilot expertise plays a role in change detection.

A change blindness experiment was performed with twenty four participants divided into two groups based on expertise. Expert pilots were defined as instructor pilots ...


Naturalistic Study Examining The Data/Frame Model Of Sensemaking By Assessing Experts In Complex, Time-Pressured Aviation Domains, Katherine P. Kaste Apr 2012

Naturalistic Study Examining The Data/Frame Model Of Sensemaking By Assessing Experts In Complex, Time-Pressured Aviation Domains, Katherine P. Kaste

Dissertations and Theses

Research on expert chess players, radiologists and landmine detection personnel suggests a use of cognitive frameworks, alternatively referred to as schemas, templates, scripts, frames and models, to effectively perceive, interpret, understand, recall, and anticipate information. These experts may use cognitive frameworks to capture past experience in ways that support rapid pattern recognition, adaptive responses and proactivity. The proposed research approach assumes that experienced pilots will similarly rely on cognitive frameworks to handle information and make sense of complex, fast-moving situations experienced in their information-dense environments. Predictions from Klein et al.'s (2006) Data/Frame Model of Sensemaking were used to ...


Quality And Quantity Of Sleep Study And Its Relationship To The Performance Of Lpga Tour Players, Maria Elena Lopez Apr 2012

Quality And Quantity Of Sleep Study And Its Relationship To The Performance Of Lpga Tour Players, Maria Elena Lopez

Dissertations and Theses

The relationship between sleep efficiency and elite level athletic performance that has a definitive and individual measure of performance (like golf, track, & swimming) has never been systematically studied. The extreme and rigorous travel schedules of professional golfers prevent consistent and necessary sleep schedules. The Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) permitted Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) to ask for volunteers at two tournaments during October of 2010 to complete subjective sleep fatigue logs. Analysis of the sleep fatigue logs revealed a relationship between sleep quality and performance (golf score). Subsequent relationships were also found between subjective fatigue and sleep quality, and subjective fatigue and performance. These results could have important implications for athletes and others who require consistently skilled performance in the course of their duties; particularly for those individuals that are subjected to extreme travel schedules, extended work shifts or extreme work environments.


Assessing Color Discrimination, Joshua R. Maxwell Apr 2012

Assessing Color Discrimination, Joshua R. Maxwell

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate human color vision discriminability within individuals that have color normal vision and those that have color deficient vision. Combinations of 15 colors were used from a list of colors recommended for computer displays in Air Traffic Control settings, a population with some mildly color vision deficient individuals. After a match to sample test was designed to assess the limits of human color vision discrimination based on color saturation and hue, standard color diagnostic tests were used to categorize college students as having normal or deficient color vision. The results argue that color ...


The Effects Of Different Optokinetic Drum Rotation Speeds On Motion Sickness Symptoms, Cognitive Performance And Sleep Amount, Wilfredo Rodríguez-Jiménez Apr 2012

The Effects Of Different Optokinetic Drum Rotation Speeds On Motion Sickness Symptoms, Cognitive Performance And Sleep Amount, Wilfredo Rodríguez-Jiménez

Dissertations and Theses

Symptoms of motion sickness can be disruptive to human performance. If vection-induced motion sickness symptoms, sleep amount disruptions, and worsening of cognitive performance can be measured and characterized, there are practical implications for equipment design, especially for virtual reality devices and simulators. The researcher conducted three studies. The first study examined the effects of different rotation speeds (0 RPM, 5 RPM, and 10 RPM) of the optokinetic drum on motion sickness symptoms. Motion sickness symptoms were measured using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Before exposure to the optokinetic drum, participants were not significantly different from one another in terms of ...


The Effects Of Caffeine And Expectancy On Short Term Memory, Sara O'Brien Oct 2011

The Effects Of Caffeine And Expectancy On Short Term Memory, Sara O'Brien

Dissertations and Theses

Although caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, research on the effects of caffeine on mental performance tasks (especially short term memory tasks) is inconclusive. One possible explanation for this limited understanding is the lack of studies accounting for participant expectancy surrounding caffeine. This study examined the effects of caffeine dosage (0mg, 200mg, and 400mg) and expectancy related to past caffeine use (positive, negative) on short term memory span task. A two-way Analysis of Variance showed that the two independent variables (caffeine dose and expectancy), did not significantly influence the short term memory span score. However, the ...


The Effects Of Eye Gaze Based Control On Operator Performance In Monitoring Multiple Displays, Allison Popola Jul 2011

The Effects Of Eye Gaze Based Control On Operator Performance In Monitoring Multiple Displays, Allison Popola

Dissertations and Theses

This study investigated the utility and efficacy of using eye tracking technology as a method for selecting control of a camera within a multiple display configuration. A task analysis with a Keystroke-Level-Model (KLM) was conducted to acquire an estimated time for switching between cameras. KLM estimates suggest that response times are faster using an eye tracker than manual control -indicating a time savings. To confirm these estimates, and test other hypotheses a 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was used to examine the effects of Control (Using an eye tracker, or manual) under different Task Loads (Low, High). Dependent variables included ...


Pilot Perception Of Light Emitting Diodes Versus Incandescent Elevated Runway Guard Lights, Hilary Stevens Oct 2010

Pilot Perception Of Light Emitting Diodes Versus Incandescent Elevated Runway Guard Lights, Hilary Stevens

Dissertations and Theses

Pilots must understand and be aware of the purpose of each airport sign, light and marking, for there are numerous. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is planning on replacing the current incandescent lighting with far more economical LED airport lighting. In preparation for this change, two experiments were conducted for this thesis. Experiment 1 attempted to determine what pilots know about the meaning of the signs, markings and lights on the taxiways and runways through a questionnaire that was developed with the FAA. Experiment 2 evaluated pilot perception of LED lighting compared to current incandescent elevated runway guard lights.

The ...


A Correlational Study Of Cognitive Style Measured By The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator And The Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test, Leith Wood Muessle Jan 1989

A Correlational Study Of Cognitive Style Measured By The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator And The Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test, Leith Wood Muessle

Dissertations and Theses

A review of the literature suggests a coincidence of personality characteristics among the cognitive styles defined by Field Dependence-Independence and the Myers-Briggs type preferences. This thesis proposed these independent measures of cognitive style tap common cognitive processes and hypothesized the Myers-Briggs dimensions of Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Sensing-Intuition (SN), and Judgement-Perception (JP) would correlate positively and Thinking-Feeling (TF) would correlate negatively with the dimension Field Dependence-Independence (FD-FI) as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT). The relationships of gender, age, and intelligence to the prediction of field-dependence-independence were also tested.


Cultural Characteristics Of Learning And Perceptual Skills Of Southeast Alaskan Native 5-Year-Olds, Thomas J. Turkon Jan 1985

Cultural Characteristics Of Learning And Perceptual Skills Of Southeast Alaskan Native 5-Year-Olds, Thomas J. Turkon

Dissertations and Theses

This study examined the use of cognitive skills by 5-year-old Alaskan Native children on a standardized testing instrument. The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI) were administered to 23 boys and 17 girls of predominantly Tlingit, Tsimshean, and Haida ancestry. A standardized parent interview was used to collect bio-demographic data. Mean scores for the sample displayed significant differences between the Performance and Verbal scales, with the strongest performance in the Spatial subtests, and lowest in the Sequential subtests. Scores were significantly associated with variables representing culture-specific self identity and behavior, but were most strongly associated with family size ...


Normative Data On The Auditory Memory Performance Of Three- And Four-Year Old Children As Measured By The Auditory Memory Test Package (Amtp), Patricia R. Davis Jan 1984

Normative Data On The Auditory Memory Performance Of Three- And Four-Year Old Children As Measured By The Auditory Memory Test Package (Amtp), Patricia R. Davis

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this study was to collect normative data on the auditory memory performance of three- and four-year old children as measured by the Auditory Memory Test Package (AMTP). Specifically, this investigation sought to answer one question: is the AMTP sensitive to age differences when administered to young children ages 3.0-4.11?


A Comparison Of Measures Of Emotions From Written Reports Of Dreams And Waking Experiences, Edward D. Conklin Jan 1984

A Comparison Of Measures Of Emotions From Written Reports Of Dreams And Waking Experiences, Edward D. Conklin

Dissertations and Theses

Various researchers have noted that emotions expressed in dream reports are infrequent and, more often, unpleasant. These observations are ambiguous for several reasons: (1) Empirical opinions differ markedly with regard to the structure of mentation across the continuum of waking and sleeping experience. (2) While the waking state is usually assumed as an implicit baseline, few studies have quantitatively compared waking and dream emotions. (3) Dream researchers have not thought about the basic nature of emotions or certain constraints which sleep physiology might impose upon emotions. In light of these assertions and considerations, an intrasubject comparison of emotions in reports ...


A Study Of Factors Affecting Cognitive Style In Mexican-American Children, Anne Kelter Gehrig Jan 1982

A Study Of Factors Affecting Cognitive Style In Mexican-American Children, Anne Kelter Gehrig

Dissertations and Theses

In recent years cognitive style has become the focus of much educational research. Many educators believe that instructional effectiveness can be maximized by utilizing the student's preferred cognitive style as a springboard for introducing new concepts as well as by restructuring educational practices so that the child learns to deal effectively with diverse cognitive styles. Early research on cognitive style focused solely on behavioral indicators. Today many researchers acknowledge that, in order to understand cognitive style, one must examine brain processing, as different styles of thinking result from the manner in which each hemisphere of the brain processes information ...


Affective Perspective-Taking And Sympathy In Young Children, Mary Driver Leinbach Jan 1981

Affective Perspective-Taking And Sympathy In Young Children, Mary Driver Leinbach

Dissertations and Theses

The present study focused upon both behavioral and cognitive aspects of sympathetic responses in preschool children. Subjects, 36 boys and girls aged 33-75 months, were seen at their regular day care center. An attempt was made to promote comforting behavior through the use of a peer model both alone and accompanied by an adult's inductive statement regarding the consequences of a sympathetic response; a six year-old girl served as the sympathetic model and as an apparently injured victim in need of comforting. In addition, age- and sex-related relationships for the measures of social cognition, affective perspective-taking and knowledge of ...


Work Personality As A Factor In Evaluating The Work Potential Of The Mentally Retarded, Janet L. Scally Jan 1981

Work Personality As A Factor In Evaluating The Work Potential Of The Mentally Retarded, Janet L. Scally

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis focused on the development of a Work Personality Scale and the systematic study of how this aspect of the mentally retarded person is related to his or her intelligence and dexterity skill level.


Recall And Recognition Memory Under Varying Conditions Of Hypnotically Suggested Amnesia, Christopher R. Meagher Jan 1980

Recall And Recognition Memory Under Varying Conditions Of Hypnotically Suggested Amnesia, Christopher R. Meagher

Dissertations and Theses

Posthypnotic amnesia has been systematically investigated in the past and subsequently alluded to as either role enacted behavior or evidence for an altered state of consciousness. Recall and recognition have been tested during posthypnotic amnesia and as in normal memory functioning, recognition performance has been found to be usually superior to recall performance. In order to gain further understanding of the circumstances which facilitate amnesic behavior, an experiment was carried out which was designed to vary the usual manner in which recall and recognition memory are observed during posthypnotic amnesia.


Comparison Of Two Receptive Language Tests (Ppvt And Tacl) Used With The Developmentally Delayed, Paul H. Lamb Jan 1980

Comparison Of Two Receptive Language Tests (Ppvt And Tacl) Used With The Developmentally Delayed, Paul H. Lamb

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the results as recorded in mental ages of the PPVT and TACL when used with developmentally delayed children. One aspect was to observe how well the mean mental age from each test would compare with the mean mental age obtained from psychometric testing (WISC-R or SB-LM results). Another aspect was to determine how well the data from the PPVT and from the TACL would correlate with the psychometric testing results.